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#99: The North Loses the First Major Battle of the War

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Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English.

The battle between the North and the South spread in the summer of eighteen sixty-one. Union soldiers fought pro-southern rioters in the streets of Baltimore and Saint Louis. A Confederate supporter shot and killed a young officer from the North. Untrained soldiers from both sides fought in the mountains of western Virginia.

1861年夏天,南北战争的战火继续蔓延。联邦士兵跟同情南方的暴动份子在巴尔的摩和圣路易斯街头发生冲突,一名南方支持者开枪打死了一名年轻的北方军官。双方未经训练的士兵还在西维吉尼亚山区交火。

So far, though, the fighting had not claimed many lives. But very soon, the battle would become fierce.

战争初期双方伤亡都不多,但没过多久,战争就进入了白热化。

This week in our series, Frank Oliver and Jack Weitzel continue the story of the American Civil War.

General Winfield Scott
General Winfield Scott

VOICE ONE:

The old general who commanded the Union forces, Winfield Scott, did not want to rush his men into battle.

联邦部队总指挥斯科特老将军不想操之过急。

Scott believed it would be a long war. He planned to spend the first year of it getting ready to fight. He had an army of thousands of men, and it would get much larger in coming months. But this army was not trained. His soldiers were civilians who knew nothing about fighting a war. General Scott needed time to make soldiers of these men.

斯科特相信,这将是一场持久战,他想用第一年为战斗做准备。他手下起初只有几千人,但在接下来的几个月里会大大增加。不过,这支部队没有受过训练,战士都是平民,对打仗一无所知。斯科特将军需要时间把他们变成真正的士兵。

He also needed time to organize a supply system to get to his forces the guns, bullets, food, and clothing they would need. Without supplies, his army could not fight very long.

他还需要时间建立补给系统,为部队输送必要的枪支、弹药、食品和衣物。如果没有补给,他的部队就支撑不了多久。

VOICE TWO:

There were many in the North, however, who thought Scott was too careful. It was true, they said, that Union forces were untrained. But so were those of the South. And the Confederacy's supply problems were even greater than those of the Union. The South had much less industry and fewer railroads. It could not produce as much military equipment, and it could not transport supplies as easily as the North could.

然而,北方很多人觉得斯科特将军过于谨慎。他们承认,北方部队确实没有受过训练,但是南方部队也是一样,而且南方邦联的供给困难比北方更大。南方的工业和铁路比北方少得多,不能像北方一样,生产这么多军需装备,供给运输也不如北方便利。

In the early months of the war, Jefferson Davis, the Confederate president, did not even have guns enough for the men in his army.

战争打响后的头几个月,南方邦联总统戴维斯甚至没有足够的枪支来武装自己的部队。

Those who demanded immediate action expected a short war. They said Scott should take the army and march to Richmond. They were sure that if Union forces seized the Confederate capital, the southern rebellion would end.

要求斯科特迅速行动的人觉得,这场战争一定会速战速决。他们觉得斯科特应该率军南下,直捣里士满。他们坚信,南方邦联首府一旦被联邦部队占领,暴乱就算是平定了。

Northern newspapers took up the cry, "On to Richmond!" Political leaders began pressing for a quick northern victory. Public pressure forced the army to act.

北方报纸提出“进军里士满”的口号,政治领袖也施加压力,要求速战速决,公众压力迫使部队采取行动。

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

General Irvin McDowell
General Irvin McDowell

For more than a month, General Irvin McDowell had been building a Union army in northern Virginia, just across the Potomac River from Washington. He had more than thirty thousand men at bases in Arlington and Alexandria. Late in June, McDowell received orders: "March against the Confederate Army of General Pierre Beauregard."

一个多月来,欧文·麦克道威将军一直在维吉尼亚北部组建一支联邦部队,隔着一条波托马克河,对岸就是华盛顿。他在阿灵顿和亚历山德里亚市的军事基地一共有三万多人。麦克道威6月下旬接到命令,“向南方邦联博雷加德将军的部队进发。”

Beauregard had twenty thousand soldiers at Manassas Junction, a railroad village in Virginia less than fifty kilometers from Washington. McDowell planned to move on Manassas Junction July ninth, but was delayed for more than a week.

南方邦联博雷加德将军率领的两万人部队驻扎在一个叫马纳萨斯汇合点的铁路线上的村落,距离首都华盛顿不到50公里。麦克道威将军本打算7月9号进攻,但是耽误了一个多星期。

He planned the attack carefully. McDowell was worried that another large Confederate force west of Manassas Junction might join Beauregard's army.

麦克道威策划这次攻击十分谨慎,他担心马纳萨斯汇合点以西的另外一大批南方邦联人马会跟博雷加德的部队汇合。

This force, led by General Joe Johnston, was in the Shenandoah Valley near Harpers Ferry, Virginia. Across from Harpers Ferry, in Maryland, was a Union army almost twice the size of Johnston's. It was ordered to put pressure on Johnston's force to prevent it from helping Beauregard.

这股部队由乔·约翰逊将军率领,驻扎在哈珀斯费里镇附近的雪兰多山谷。哈珀斯费里对面的马里兰州驻扎着一支联邦部队,人力几乎两倍于约翰逊的部下。这支部队得到命令,对约翰逊施加压力,防止他们出兵帮助博雷加德将军。

VOICE TWO:

Rose O'Neal Greenhow and her daughter Rose
Rose O'Neal Greenhow and her daughter Rose

General Beauregard received early warning from Confederate spies that McDowell would attack. Much of his information came from a woman, Missus Rose O'Neal Greenhow. Missus Greenhow, a widow, was an important woman in Washington. She knew almost all the top government officials. And she had friends in almost every department of the government.

与此同时,博雷加德将军也从邦联间谍那里得到了麦克道威准备进攻的消息。消息来源是一个叫罗斯·奥尼尔·格林豪的女人。格林豪是个寡妇,在华盛顿是一位重要人物,所有政府高层官员她几乎都认识,在所有政府部门都有朋友。

The beautiful Missus Greenhow also had some very special friends. One was Senator Henry Wilson of Massachusetts. He was chairman of the Senate Committee on Military Affairs. Another special friend was Thomas Jordan, a Confederate colonel in Beauregard's army.

美貌动人的罗斯·格林豪还有一些很特殊的朋友,其中一个是麻萨诸塞州参议员、参议院军事事务委员会主席亨利·威尔逊;另外一个是博雷加德手下的邦联上校托马斯·乔丹。

VOICE ONE:

Jordan asked Missus Greenhow, soon after the war started, to be a spy for the South. She agreed and sent much valuable information about Union military plans.

战争打响后不久,乔丹让格林豪给南方当间谍。格林豪同意了,先后向南方传递了很多有关北方军事动向的宝贵情报。

Early in July, she sent word to Beauregard that he would be attacked soon. She also sent a map used by the Senate Military Affairs Committee showing how the Union army would reach Manassas Junction.

格林豪7月初传递消息给博雷加德将军,警告他不久将遭到袭击。她同时把参议院军事事务委员会使用的地图也交给了博雷加德,上面标注了联邦部队袭击马纳萨斯汇合处的路线。

Then, on the morning of July sixteenth, Missus Greenhow wrote a nine-word message. She gave it to a man to carry to Beauregard. The Confederate general received it that evening. It said: "Order given for McDowell to march upon Manassas tonight."

7月16号早上,格林豪让人快马加鞭把一封情报送给博雷加德,上面只有9个字,意思是“麦克道威已经得到命令,今晚进军马纳萨斯。”博雷加德晚上收到了情报。

VOICE TWO:

Beauregard sent a telegram to Richmond. He told the Confederate government that McDowell was on the way. He asked that Johnston's ten thousand-man force in the Shenandoah Valley join him for battle. He was told to expect Johnston's help.

博雷加德马上给里士满的邦联政府发电报,说麦克道威的部队已经出发,要求乔·约翰逊驻扎在雪兰多山谷的1万兵力增援,得到的回答是,约翰逊的援兵马上就到。

But Johnston's army was threatened by a large Union force that entered Virginia from Maryland. Led by General Robert Patterson, the Union troops moved toward the smaller Confederate force. They were not really interested in fighting Johnston. But they did want to prevent him from reaching Beauregard.

然而,乔·约翰逊的部队遭到了从北面马里兰州进入维吉尼亚的大批联邦部队的钳制。这批部队由罗伯特·帕特森将军率领,向约翰逊手下的邦联部队进逼。他们并不真想跟约翰逊交火,只是希望阻止约翰逊率部增援博雷加德。

Johnston knew he could not defeat Patterson. So he decided to trick him. While most of his army withdrew and prepared to join Beauregard, Johnston sent a small force to attack Patterson's army. Patterson believed Johnston was attacking with all his troops. He stopped moving forward and prepared to defend against what seemed to be a strong Confederate attack.

约翰逊知道打不过帕特森,所以耍了个花招。他让大部分兵力前去支援博雷加德,同时派一小股人马袭击帕特森的部队。帕特森以为约翰逊的全部兵力都在这里,所以安营扎寨,准备迎接邦联部队的袭击。

By the time the trick was discovered, Johnston and most of his troops were at Manassas.

真相大白时,约翰逊已经率领自己的大股部队抵达马纳萨斯了。

VOICE ONE:

General McDowell's huge Union army left Arlington on the afternoon of July sixteenth. It was a hot day, and the road was dusty. The march was not well organized, and the men traveled slowly. They stopped at every stream to drink and wash the dust from their faces. Some of the soldiers left the road to pick fruits and berries from bushes along the way.

联邦部队指挥官麦克道威7月16号下午率兵从阿灵顿出发,天气炎热,路上尘土飞扬,部队缺乏秩序,行军速度缓慢,沿途每逢遇到小溪,大家就停下来洗脸,还有人擅自离开部队,采摘路边的水果。

To some of those who watched this army pass, the lines of soldiers in bright clothes looked like a long circus parade.

在局外人看来,这群穿着红红绿绿的士兵,看上去就像巡游途中的马戏团。

Most of these men had not been soldiers long. Their bodies were soft, and they tired quickly. It took them four days to travel the forty-five kilometers to Centreville, the final town before Bull Run. The battle would start the next morning -- Sunday, July twenty-first.

这些士兵大多数人都是入伍不久,身体素质差,动不动就疲惫不堪。他们整整花了4天的时间,才走完45公里的路程,到了布尔溪之前的最后一个小镇圣特威尔。次日,7月21号星期天的早上,战斗打响了。

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

The road from Washington was crowded early Sunday morning with horses and wagons bringing people to watch the great battle.

从华盛顿通往布尔溪的路星期天早上十分拥挤,很多人骑着马或是赶着马车来观看战斗。

Hundreds of men and women watched the fight from a hill near Centreville. Below them was Bull Run. But the battleground was covered so thickly with trees that the crowds saw little of the fighting. They could, however, see the smoke of battle. And they could hear the sounds of shots and exploding shells.

数百人在圣特威尔附近的一座小山上观战。他们脚下就是布尔溪。然而,战场上到处都是树,几乎看不到战斗场景,但是可以看到战场上的炮火,听到子弹和炮弹的声音。

From time to time, Union officers would ride up the hill to report what a great victory their troops were winning.

联邦指挥官也会时不时上山来报告他们的战果。

VOICE ONE:

A newspaper drawing of the battle
A newspaper drawing of the battle

In the first few hours of the battle, Union forces were winning. McDowell had moved most of his men to the left side of Beauregard's army. They attacked with artillery and pushed the Confederate forces back. It seemed that the Confederate defense would break. Some of the southern soldiers began to run. But others stood and fought.

战斗打响后的头几个小时,北方部队一直占优势。麦克道威率领大部分人从左翼包抄博雷加德的部队,依靠炮火支持,迫使南方邦联部队后撤,南方邦联防线似乎马上就要一泻千里,一些南方士兵开始各自逃命,但是也有人坚守阵地。

One Confederate officer, trying to prevent his troops from moving back, pointed to a group led by General T. J. Jackson of Virginia. "Look!" He shouted. "There is Jackson, standing like a stone wall! Fight like the Virginians!"

南方邦联的一个指挥官为了防止部下后撤,指着一群由杰克逊将军率领的部队大声喊道,“看!杰克逊将军站在那里,象一堵石墙,像维吉尼亚人一样奋力作战。”

The Confederate troops refused to break.

邦联部队拒绝撤退。

The fighting was fierce. The air was full of flying bullets. A newsman wrote that the whole valley was boiling with dust and smoke. A Confederate soldier told his friend, "Them Yankees are just marching up and being shot to hell."

双方战斗越来越激烈,子弹象雨点般穿梭。当时有记者描述说,“整个山谷里乌烟瘴气。”南方邦联的一个战士告诉自己的朋友说,“那些北方佬向前推进,我们就用子弹送他们进地狱。”

Neither side would give up. Then, a large group of Johnston's troops arrived by train and joined in the fight. Suddenly, Union soldiers stopped fighting and began pulling back. General McDowell and his officers tried to stop the retreat, but failed. Their men wanted no more fighting.

就在交战双方僵持不下之际,约翰逊率领大批援兵乘火车抵达,加入战斗。突然间,联邦士兵停止抵抗,开始后撤。麦克道威将军和他手下的指挥官试图阻止部队的退却,但是没有成功。他们的部下不想再打了。

VOICE TWO:

The fleeing Union soldiers threw down their guns and equipment, thinking only of escape. Many did not stop until they reached Washington.

溃败的北方士兵扔掉枪支和装备,一心只想逃命,有些人一口气跑回华盛顿。

It was a bitter defeat. But it made the North recognize the need for a real army -- one trained and equipped for war. President Abraham Lincoln gave the job of building such an army to General George McClellan.

北方打了个惨痛的大败仗。不过,这也让他们意识到,北方需要一支真正的部队,一支训练有素、装备精良的部队。美国总统林肯把这项任务交给了乔治·麦克莱伦将军。

(MUSIC)

ANNOUNCER:

Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Frank Oliver and Jack Weitzel. Our series can be found online with transcripts, podcasts and historical images at www.unsv.com. You can also follow our programs at twitter.com/voalearnenglish. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

___

This is program #99 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

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