官方APP下载:钱柜娱乐qg999全能特训(微信小程序版,支持苹果手机、安卓手机)
创办于2003年
UNSV记不住?那就记中文谐音“忧安思危”吧!
UNSV钱柜娱乐qg999学习频道 - Slow and steady wins the race!
报名“钱柜娱乐qg999口语慢成班”,三年拿下钱柜娱乐qg999口语!
手机微信学钱柜娱乐qg999
打开手机微信,扫描以下二维码,即可通过我们的微信小程序学钱柜娱乐qg999。
钱柜娱乐qg999全能特训(微信小程序)
UNSV钱柜娱乐qg999学习频道淘宝网店
淘宝网店购买咨询
客服短信:18913948480
客服邮箱:web@unsv.com
标准VIP会员
全站资料无限下载、手机APP免费使用。
¥598元/12个月
钱柜娱乐qg999口语慢成班
承诺3年拿下口语!

#98: The Civil War's First Days

阅读次数:

VIP会员专享下载:(非VIP会员无权下载!如果想下载,但还不是VIP会员,请点此订购
下载方式:使用鼠标右键(注意是鼠标右键!)点击下面的MP3音频/MP4视频链接,然后选择“另存为…”。
MP3节目录音(英文版) MP3节目录音(英文版)  MP3节目录音(中文版) MP3节目录音(中文版)  PDF节目文稿 PDF节目文稿 
文章正文
同步字幕

ANNOUNCER:

Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.

Years of disagreement between the North and the South finally burst into civil war in April of eighteen sixty-one. Seven states in the South had withdrawn from the Union. Soldiers of the new Confederate States of America shelled the Union base at Fort Sumter, built on an island in Charleston Harbor in South Carolina. They captured Fort Sumter after two days.

美国南北间多年的分歧,终于导致1861年4月18号内战爆发。南方七个州脱离联邦,成立南方邦联。邦联士兵对南卡罗来纳州查尔斯顿港的联邦城堡萨姆特堡发起炮击,两天后占领了城堡。

President Abraham Lincoln asked the states of the Union for seventy-five thousand soldiers to help end the southern rebellion. Northern states quickly sent forces to Washington. But border states -- those between the North and the South -- refused to send any. Some prepared to leave the Union and join the Confederacy.

林肯总统要求各州组建一支七万五千人的部队,镇压南方叛乱。北方各州积极响应,迅速向华盛顿派兵,但是南北交界地带的各州拒绝出兵,有些州还准备脱离联邦,加入南方邦联。

This week in our series, Steve Ember and Shirley Griffith describe the first days of the American Civil War.

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

Lieutenant Robert E. Lee
Lieutenant Robert E. Lee

The first state to secede after the start of the Civil War was Virginia. It was an important state because of its location. It was just across the Potomac River from Washington.

美国南北战争打响后,第一个脱离联邦的是维吉尼亚州,维吉尼亚州地处战略要地,位于首都华盛顿对岸,中间只隔着一条波托马克河。

Virginia's decision to secede cost the Union a military commander of great ability. He was Robert E. Lee. Lee was a Virginian and had served in the United States army for more than thirty years. Lincoln asked him to be head of the army when General Winfield Scott retired.

维吉尼亚州脱离联邦还让联邦损失了一名重要将领。他就是罗伯特·李。李将军是维吉尼亚人,在美国陆军服役三十多年。美军最高指挥官斯科特将军退休后,林肯请罗伯特·李接任。

Lee said he could not accept the job. He said he opposed secession and loved the Union. But, he said, he could not make war on his home state. Lee resigned from the army. He did not really want to fight at all. But soon after his resignation, he agreed to command the forces of Virginia.

罗伯特·李拒绝接受。他表示,他热爱联邦,反对维吉尼亚脱离联邦,但是他不能与自己的州为敌。罗伯特·李辞去陆军职务,不想卷入战争。可是辞职没多久,他就同意领导维吉尼亚部队。

VOICE TWO:

Virginia's forces moved quickly after the state seceded. A group of one thousand soldiers went to Harpers Ferry, Virginia, where the Union army had a gun factory and arsenal. It was the same town where abolitionist John Brown had tried to start a slave rebellion a few years before.

脱离联邦后,维吉尼亚的武装力量迅速行动,一支一千人的部队赶往维吉尼亚的哈珀斯费里镇。联邦部队在哈珀斯费里镇有一个军工厂和一个弹药库,废奴主义者约翰·布朗几年前曾试图在那里发动一场奴隶起义,最后以失败告终。

The United States force at Harpers Ferry was small. The soldiers could not defend the town against the Virginians, so they left. Before marching away, the soldiers set fire to the gun factory and arsenal.

联邦政府在哈珀斯费里只有为数不多的驻军,根本不是维吉尼亚部队的对手,只好撤退。撤退前,联邦部队的士兵放火焚烧军工厂和弹药库。

The fire did not destroy all the equipment at the gun factory. When the Virginians captured the town, they sent the equipment south, where it was used to make guns for Confederate soldiers.

大火没有烧毁军工厂的所有设备。维吉尼亚部队夺取哈珀斯费里镇后,把缴获的设备向南运,用来为南方邦联士兵生产枪支。

VOICE ONE:

Virginia's forces also moved against the United States' biggest navy base, which was at Norfolk, Virginia. Once again, the Union force withdrew. Before leaving, it burned every building and sank every ship.

维吉尼亚部队还对位于维吉尼亚诺福克的美国最大海军基地发动进攻。诺福克的联邦部队后撤,但是撤退前烧毁了所有建筑,炸毁了所有船只。

President Lincoln was becoming increasingly worried about Virginia's military moves. He was afraid Confederate forces in Virginia might try to capture Washington in the first days of the war. After all, the Confederate secretary of war had declared that the Confederate flag would fly over the Capitol building before the first of May.

维吉尼亚武装力量的行动让林肯越来越担心。林肯害怕南方邦联部队会立即对首都华盛顿展开攻势。毕竟,邦联政府战争部长曾宣称,要在5月1号前把邦联旗帜插在国会大厦上。

Washington was not strongly defended. It did not have enough soldiers to stop any real attempt by Confederate forces to seize the city. It was extremely important to get more soldiers to Washington as quickly as possible.

华盛顿防守薄弱,没有足够的兵力抵御邦联部队的进攻,所以需要尽快增援。

VOICE TWO:

Thousands of men were on their way to Washington. But they could not get there quickly.

数以千计的增援部队正在途中,但不能立即抵达。

Troop trains had to pass through the state of Maryland to get to Washington from the North. Many people in the state supported the Confederacy. The governor, however, did not. He refused to call a meeting of the state legislature. He was afraid it might vote to secede. He wanted to keep Maryland neutral.

从北面来的运兵的火车途径马里兰州。马里兰州很多人支持南方邦联,但是马里兰州州长反对分裂。他拒绝召集州议会的特别会议,担心州议会投票脱离联邦。他希望马里兰州保持中立。

The first troop train from the North passed through Baltimore, Maryland, without incident. The second train was not so lucky.

运兵的第一列火车经过马里兰州巴尔的摩,没有遇到任何麻烦,但是第二列火车就没有这么幸运了。

A mob blocked the rail line and threw stones at the train. Shots were fired. Four soldiers and twelve civilians were killed.

一群暴民拦截列车,向列车扔石头,最后双方开火,四名士兵和十二名平民丧生。

State and city officials met to discuss the trouble. They agreed that there would be even more violence in the future. So they ordered railroad bridges outside Baltimore destroyed. No more trains from the North could reach Washington that way.

州政府和市政府官员开会讨论,一致认为今后会发生更多暴力事件,下令摧毁马里兰州巴尔的摩市外面的铁路大桥,让北方来的运兵列车无法穿过巴尔的摩前往华盛顿。

VOICE ONE:

Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln

President Lincoln told the officials of the great need to get more soldiers to the capital. He agreed that they did not have to pass through Baltimore. But he wanted them to be able to land safely at Annapolis, a city on the Chesapeake Bay.

林肯总统告诉这些官员,华盛顿急需增援。虽然林肯同意,援兵不一定非要经过巴尔的摩,但是他希望援兵能在切萨皮克湾沿岸的安纳波利斯市安全登陆。

Landing at Annapolis would be easy. Getting to the capital would not. Supporters of the Confederacy had damaged trains, rail lines and bridges between the two cities. The first soldiers to land at Annapolis had to repair everything as they moved ahead.

然而,在安纳波利斯安全登陆容易,从安纳波利斯到华盛顿去就没有那么简单了。南方邦联的支持者们破坏了从安纳波利斯通往华盛顿的列车、铁轨和桥梁,到达安纳波利斯的第一批士兵必须先修复必要的交通线路。

Still, with all these difficulties, ten-thousand troops made it to Washington in the first few weeks of the Civil War. The city and government were safe.

尽管阻力重重,但是南北战争打响后的几个星期里,还是有一万人的部队抵达华盛顿,保证了华盛顿市和联邦政府的安全。

VOICE TWO:

President Lincoln worried about the presence of Confederate supporters in Maryland. He knew they would continue to be a threat to the movement of Union troops and supplies.

马里兰州南方邦联支持者的存在让林肯深感不安,因为他知道,这些人会继续对联邦部队的调动和供给的运输构成威胁。

Lincoln wanted to restrict the activities of the Confederate supporters. So he took an extremely unusual step for an American president. He put much of Maryland under military rule. He gave military officers the power to arrest civilians believed to be hostile to the Union. And he gave them the power to hold these suspects without trial.

林肯希望限制南方邦联支持者的活动,决定采取极不寻常的行动,对马里兰州的大部分地区实行军事管制。林肯授权军队指挥官,可以逮捕任何他们认为对联邦怀有敌意的平民,而且可以不经审判予以关押。

This order suspended two of the basic rights under the Constitution. One was the right to go free until officially charged. And the other was the right to a speedy trial.

这一总统令暂停了宪法里规定的两项最基本的权利,一项是被正式起诉前保持人身自由的权利,另一项是尽速接受审判的权利。

The chief justice of the United States wrote a letter to President Lincoln. He said the Constitution did not give the president the power to suspend the rights of citizens. Lincoln disagreed. He felt the situation facing the Union permitted him to take such strong measures. If he had not acted, he believed, Maryland would have seceded.

联邦法院首席大法官写信给林肯说,宪法里没有规定总统有权暂停公民权,但是林肯表示异议,他认为,联邦面临的严峻局面允许他采取强有力举措,否则的话,马里兰州一定会脱离联邦。

VOICE ONE:

Maryland did not withdraw. But North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas did. There were now eleven states in the Confederacy. There could be two more. No one knew how long Kentucky and Missouri would remain in the Union. Both supported the southern rebels.

马里兰州倒是没有脱离联邦,但是北卡罗来纳州、田纳西州和阿肯色州纷纷退出,使南方邦联扩大到十一个州,此外,肯塔基州和密苏里州都支持南方,没人知道它们在联邦里还会待多久。

President Lincoln treated Kentucky carefully. He did not want the state to secede. Nor did he want it to remain neutral. Kentucky reached from the mountains of Virginia to the Mississippi River. As a neutral state, Kentucky could block northern troops from much of the South. Lincoln wanted it firmly on the side of the Union.

林肯对肯塔基十分重视,不希望肯塔基脱离联邦,也不希望肯塔基保持中立,肯塔基从维吉尼亚山区一直延伸到密西西比河。肯塔基如果保持中立的话,会阻止北方部队深入南方大部分地区。林肯希望肯塔基州能坚定地站在联邦一边。

The president did not use force in Kentucky, as he had done in Maryland. Instead, he sent people to Kentucky to organize support for the Union. Newspapers were urged to publish pro-union statements. Home guard forces were formed. They received their weapons and supplies from Lincoln's administration.

林肯没有像对马里兰州一样,对肯塔基州实行军事管制,而是派人到肯塔基去,争取对联邦的支持。林肯派去的特使说服报纸发表支持联邦的声明,组织民防部队,由联邦政府提供武器和供给。

Lincoln hoped that, in time, these efforts would win Kentucky's support for his war effort.

林肯希望能借此争取到肯塔基州的支持。

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

In Missouri, the governor tried hard to take the state out of the Union. He called a convention to decide the question. A majority of the delegates refused to vote for secession.

与此同时,密苏里州州长极力主张脱离联邦。他召集特别大会,投票表决,但是大多数与会代表都反对脱离联邦。

The governor organized state soldiers. The Lincoln administration organized home guard forces. The two sides clashed several times. Some civilians were killed.

密苏里州州长组织了州内部队,林肯政府组建了民防部队,双方几次发生冲突,一些平民被打死。

The United States army finally seized government buildings in the state capital. They forced state officials, including the governor, to flee. Missouri would remain in the Union.

联邦部队最终夺取了密苏里州首府的政府大楼,包括州长在内的官员被迫逃走。密苏里州因此留在了联邦里。

VOICE ONE:

The capital of the Confederate states of America was located far south in Montgomery, Alabama. Within the first few weeks of the Civil War, the Confederate Congress voted to move the capital farther north to Richmond, Virginia. They believed Virginia would be an important battlefield in the war. They were right.

当时,南方邦联首都位于阿拉巴马的蒙哥马利市,南北战争打响几周内,邦联议会投票决定将首都北迁,移到维吉尼亚的里士满,因为他们相信,维吉尼亚将成为南北战争的重要战场,结果证明,他们的判断是正确的。

Two days before Confederate President Jefferson Davis left for Richmond, Union troops invaded Virginia. They left Washington, crossed the Potomac River, and seized the towns of Arlington and Alexandria.

No shots were fired. Confederate forces withdrew as Union troops moved forward. Within a month, thousands more Union soldiers were in Virginia. They were to prepare for a major battle at a place called Manassas Junction, or Bull Run.

就在邦联总统戴维斯起身前往里士满的两天前,联邦部队进入维吉尼亚,他们从华盛顿横跨波托马克河,没开一枪,就占领了阿灵顿市和亚历山德里亚市。南方邦联部队后撤,随后不到一个月里,又有数千名联邦士兵进入维吉尼亚。维吉尼亚的马纳萨斯将有一场重大战役,又称布尔溪战役。

That will be our story next week.

(MUSIC)

ANNOUNCER:

Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Steve Ember and Shirley Griffith. Transcripts, MP3s and podcasts are online, along with historical images, at www.unsv.com. You can also follow our programs at twitter.com/voalearnenglish. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

网友的学习评论(0条):
版权所有©2003-2015 南京通享科技有限公司,保留所有权利。未经书面许可,严禁转载本站内容,违者追究法律责任。 中国互联网经营ICP证:苏B2-20120186
广播台