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#96: Lincoln's Policy on South Is Soon Tested

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Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.

On a cold and cloudy day in March of eighteen sixty-one, Abraham Lincoln became the sixteenth president of the United States. In his inaugural speech, the new president announced the policy that he would follow toward the southern states that had left the Union.

1861年3月一个寒气逼人、阴云密布的日子,亚伯拉罕·林肯成为美国第十六任总统。林肯在就职讲话中宣布了他对脱离联邦的南方各州的政策。

Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln

Lincoln said no state had a legal right to secede -- the Union could not be broken. He said he would enforce federal laws in every state. And he promised not to surrender any federal property in the states that seceded. Lincoln said if force was necessary to protect the Union, then force would be used. His policy was soon tested.

林肯说,任何州都无权合法脱离联邦,联邦是不可分裂的。林肯保证,要在所有州执行联邦法律,绝不放弃脱离联邦的各州境内的联邦财产。林肯表示,在必要情况下,不惜动武保卫联邦。林肯的这一政策马上受到了检验。

This week in our series, Jack Weitzel and Jack Moyles discuss the dispute over the federal base that was being built at Fort Sumter.

VOICE ONE:

On his second day as president, Lincoln received some bad news from Fort Sumter at Charleston, South Carolina. Major Robert Anderson, the commander of the small United States force at Sumter, wrote that his food supplies were low. At most, said Anderson, there was enough food for forty days. Unless he and his men received more supplies, they would have to leave the fort.

宣誓就职后的第二天,林肯就得到了有关南卡罗来纳州查尔斯顿的萨姆特军事城堡的坏消息。萨姆特堡里当时驻扎了一小批联邦部队。联邦部队指挥官安德森少校来信说,城堡给养日渐短缺,最多只够四十天。除非得到补充,否则只好弃堡而去。

Fort Sumter before the first shot
Fort Sumter before the first shot

Lincoln wanted to keep Fort Sumter. It was one of the few United States forts in the south still held by federal forces. And he had promised not to give up any federal property in the states that seceded.

萨姆特堡是南方仍旧处于联邦控制下为数不多的城堡之一,林肯不愿放弃。而且,林肯在宣誓就职时刚刚保证过,绝不放弃脱离联邦各州境内的联邦财产。

VOICE TWO:

But getting food to Fort Sumter would be a very difficult job. The fort was built on an island in Charleston Harbor. It was surrounded by southern artillery. Southern gunboats guarded the port.

然而,向萨姆特堡运送补给非常困难。萨姆特堡位于查尔斯顿港的一个岛上,四周都是南方炮火。

To get supplies to Anderson and his men, a ship would have to fight its way to Sumter. Such a battle was sure to begin a bitter civil war. There also was the danger that fighting would cause slave states still in the Union to secede and join the southern Confederacy.

查尔斯顿港还有南方炮舰守卫。要想给安德森少校和他的部下送去补给,只能靠武力硬闯,势必会点燃一场激烈的内战。另外,开战还可能迫使仍然留在联邦里的南方奴隶州退出联邦,加入南方邦联。

VOICE ONE:

The Army chief, General [Winfield] Scott, warned Lincoln that it was too late to get supplies to Fort Sumter. He said southern defenses around the fort were so strong that a major military effort would be necessary. He said it would take months to prepare the warships and soldiers for such an effort. Major Anderson and his men at Sumter, he said, could not wait that long.

联邦部队总指挥斯科特将军警告林肯说,想为萨姆特堡提供补给,如今已经为时过晚,查尔斯顿港周围的南方防御力量过于强大,要想冲破封锁,就要展开重大攻势,需要几个月的时间备战。斯科特说,萨姆特堡里的人熬不了这么久。

There was another plan, however, that might work. It was proposed to Lincoln by Captain Gustavus Fox of the Navy Department.

海军部的福克斯上尉提出了一项变通方案。

Captain Fox said soldiers and supplies could be sent down to Charleston in ships. Outside the entrance to the harbor, on a dark night, they could be put into small boats and pulled by tugs to the fort. Fox said a few warships could be sent to prevent southern gunboats from interfering.

他说,可以用船把援兵和补给运到查尔斯顿港。在一个月黑风高的晚上,在查尔斯顿港外围,让援兵和补给改乘小船,靠近萨姆特堡,并派几艘战舰保护,防止南方炮舰出面干涉。

VOICE TWO:

Lincoln liked this plan. He asked his cabinet for advice. If it were possible to send supplies to Sumter, he asked, would it be wise to do so?

林肯很喜欢这项计划,征求内阁意见,问他们,如果有办法向萨姆特堡运送补给,这样做是否明智。

Postmaster General [Montgomery] Blair was the only member of the cabinet to answer 'yes'. Treasury Secretary [Salmon] Chase was for the plan only if Lincoln was sure it would not mean war. Secretary of State [William] Seward and the others opposed it. They said it would be better to withdraw Major Anderson and his men. They felt that now was not the time to start a civil war.

结果只有邮政总局局长布莱尔表示支持。财政部长蔡斯表示,除非林肯保证这样做不会引发战争,他才愿意支持。国务卿西沃德和其他内阁成员一律反对。他们认为,现在不是打响内战的时候,最好还是下令安德森少校和他的部下撤出萨姆特堡。

This opposition in the cabinet caused Lincoln to postpone action on the Fox plan. But he sent two men separately to Charleston to get him information on the situation there. One was Captain Fox. The other was a close friend, Ward Lamon.

面对内阁的反对,林肯决定推迟执行。他分别派了两个人到查尔斯顿探听情况,一个是福克斯上尉,另外一个是林肯的好朋友沃德·拉蒙。

VOICE ONE:

Union Major Robert Anderson
Union Major Robert Anderson

In Charleston, Fox met with Governor [Francis] Pickens. He explained that he wished to talk with Major Anderson, not to give him orders, but to find out what the situation really was. Governor Pickens agreed. A Confederate boat carried Fox to Sumter. Anderson told Fox that the last of the food would be gone on April fifteenth.

福克斯在查尔斯顿会见了南卡罗来纳州州长平肯斯。福克斯解释说,他想见一下安德森少校,不是向他传达命令,而是希望了解情况。平肯斯州长同意,用船送福克斯前往萨姆特堡。安德森少校告诉福克斯说,给养只能坚持到4月15号。

Ward Lamon went to Charleston after Fox returned to Washington. He, too, met with Governor Pickens and Major Anderson. The South Carolina Governor asked Lamon to give Lincoln this message:

福克斯返回华盛顿后,林肯的好友沃德·拉蒙又前往查尔斯顿,见到了平肯斯州长和安德森少校。平肯斯州长让拉蒙转告林肯:

"Nothing can prevent war except a decision by the President of the United States to accept the secession of the South. If an attempt is made to put more men in Fort Sumter, a war cry will be sounded from every hilltop and valley in the South."

“除非美国总统决定接受南方退出联邦的现实,否则任何事情都无法阻止战争爆发。如果试图向萨姆特堡增派兵力,战争的号角会响彻南方的高山峡谷。”

Lamon reported to Lincoln that the arrival of even a boat load of food at Sumter would lead to fighting.

拉蒙向林肯汇报说,哪怕只是一小船军粮,都势必引发内战。

VOICE TWO:

At the end of March, Lincoln held another cabinet meeting and again asked what should be done about Fort Sumter. Should an attempt be made to get supplies to Major Anderson? This time, three members of the cabinet voted 'yes' and three voted 'no'.

林肯3月底再次召集内阁会议,问大家怎么办,要不要增派援兵,运送给养。结果内阁里三个人支持,三个人反对。

When the meeting ended, Lincoln wrote an order for the Secretary of War. He told him to prepare to move men and supplies by sea to Fort Sumter. He said they should be ready to sail as early as April sixth -- only one week away.

会议结束后,林肯命令战争部长准备通过海路向萨姆特堡运送人员和物资,一个星期后的4月6号出发。

VOICE ONE:

On April fourth, Lincoln called Captain Fox to the White House. He told him that the government was ready to take supplies to Fort Sumter. He said Fox would lead the attempt.

4月4号这天,林肯把福克斯上尉叫到白宫,告诉他决定向萨姆特堡运送给养,由他带队。

Lincoln showed Fox a message he was sending to Governor Pickens in South Carolina. It read: "This is to inform you that an attempt will be made to supply Fort Sumter with food only. If this attempt is not opposed, no effort will be made to throw in men, arms or ammunition."

林肯还给福克斯看了他写给南卡罗来纳州州长平肯斯的信。信里说,“现在通知你,我们将向萨姆特堡运送给养,而且只有粮食。如果不遭到阻拦,我们不会再增运兵力、武器或是弹药。”

Governor Pickens received the message on April Eight. He immediately sent it by telegraph to Confederate President Jefferson Davis at Montgomery, Alabama.

平肯斯州长4月8号收到了林肯的信,马上打电报给位于阿拉巴马州的南方邦联总统杰斐逊·戴维斯。

Davis called a meeting of his cabinet to discuss what should be done. He asked if Fort Sumter should be seized before supplies could arrive.

戴维斯立即召集内阁会议,谈论对策,决定是否要在给养到达前夺取萨姆特堡。

VOICE TWO:

Robert Toombs
Robert Toombs

Former United States Senator Robert Toombs of Georgia was the Confederate secretary of state. He told Davis, "Firing upon that fort will begin a civil war greater than any the world has ever seen. I cannot advise you."

南方邦联国务卿是前乔治亚州的联邦参议员罗伯特·图姆斯。他告诉戴维斯说,“向萨姆特堡开火会引发一场前所未有的内战,我不主张你这样做。”

Later in the meeting, Toombs urged Davis not to attack the fort.

图姆斯敦促戴维斯不要进攻萨姆特堡。

"Mr. President," he said, "at this time it is suicide -- murder -- and will lose us every friend in the North. You will strike a hornets' nest which extends from mountains to oceans. Millions now quiet will swarm out and sting us to death. It is not necessary. It puts us in the wrong. It will kill us!"

图姆斯说:“总统先生,眼下发动袭击无异于自杀、谋杀,会让我们失去北方的所有朋友。你会捅破一个从高山延伸到海洋的大马蜂窝,数百万沉寂的马蜂会蜂拥而来,把我们叮死。这完全没有必要,会陷我们于不义,置我们于死地”。

VOICE ONE :

On April tenth, Jefferson Davis sent his decision to the Confederate commander at Charleston, General Pierre Beauregard. He told Beauregard to demand the surrender of Fort Sumter. If Major Anderson refused, then the general was to destroy the fort.

4月10号,戴维斯向驻守查尔斯顿的南部邦联指挥官包瑞德将军下达命令,要求萨姆特堡驻军投降,如果安德森少校拒绝投降,就把城堡毁掉。

The surrender demand was carried to Sumter the next day by a group of Confederate officers. They said Anderson and his men must leave the fort. But they could take with them their weapons and property. And they were offered transportation to any United States port they named.

第二天,几位南方邦联指挥官前往萨姆特堡,要求安德森投降。他们表示,安德森必需率领部下离开城堡,但是可以带走武器和财物,他们可以提供交通工具,把安德森的人送到任何一个美国联邦港口去。

VOICE TWO:

Anderson rejected the demand. As he walked with the Confederate officers back to their boat, he asked if General Beauregard would open fire on Sumter immediately. No, they said, he would be told later when the shooting would start. Anderson then told the southerners, "If you do not shell us to pieces, hunger will force us out in a few days."

安德森拒绝投降。他送邦联指挥官回到船上,问包瑞德将军是否会立即对萨姆特堡开火,得到的回答是,不会立即动手,动手前会通知他。安德森告诉他们,“如果你们不把我们炸成碎片,几天以后,饥饿也会迫使我们撤走。”

General Beauregard informed the Confederate government in Montgomery that Anderson refused to surrender. He also reported the major's statement that Sumter had only enough food for a few more days.

包瑞德将军向阿拉巴马的南方邦联政府汇报,说安德鲁少校拒绝投降,并表示,萨姆特堡的给养只能坚持几天了。

VOICE ONE:

New orders were sent to Beauregard. Jefferson Davis said there was no need to attack the fort if hunger would soon force the United States soldiers to leave. But he said Anderson must say exactly when he and his men would leave. And he said Anderson must promise not to fire on Confederate forces. If Anderson agreed to this, then Confederate guns would remain silent.

得到这一消息后,南方邦联总统戴维斯向包瑞德将军下达了新的指令。戴维斯说,既然饥饿会让联邦部队退出萨姆特堡,那就无需发动进攻了,但是安德森一定要具体说明,他的人什么时候离开,而且必须保证不会对邦联部队开火。如果安德森接受上述条件的话,南方邦联的大炮就可以保持安静。

This offer was carried to Fort Sumter a few minutes before midnight, April eleventh.

4月11号午夜前的几分钟,安德森接到了南方邦联提出的条件。

Anderson discussed the offer with his officers and then wrote his answer. He would leave the fort on April fifteenth if the Confederates made no hostile act against Fort Sumter or against the United States flag. He would not leave, however, if before then he received new orders or supplies.

他跟部下讨论后回信说,如果邦联部队不对萨姆特堡或是美国国旗发起敌对行动,他4月15号会退出城堡。不过,如果4月15号以前接到新命令或是得到补给,那他会留下来。

VOICE TWO:

Confederate General Pierre Beauregard
Confederate General Pierre Beauregard

This did not satisfy the three Confederate officers who brought Beauregard's message. They handed Anderson a short note. It said: "We have the honor to inform you that General Beauregard will open fire on Fort Sumter in one hour -- at twenty minutes after four on the morning of April twelfth, eighteen sixty-one."

替包瑞德传递信息的三位邦联指挥官很不满意。他们简短地回复了安德森,信里说,“我们荣幸地通知你,包瑞德将军一小时后会对萨姆特堡开火,也就是1861年4月12号凌晨4点20分。”

The major shook hands with Beauregard's representatives, and they left the fort. Anderson and his officers woke their men and told them to prepare for battle.

安德森跟包瑞德的三位代表握手后,三位代表坐船离开。安德森和部下叫醒城堡里的所有驻军,告诉他们准备战斗。

At Fort Johnson, across the harbor, Confederate gunners also were getting ready. These men would fire the first shot at Sumter. That explosion would signal the other guns surrounding the fort to open fire.

与此同时,港口对面的邦联炮舰也做好了准备。他们的炮声就是开战的信号,港口周围的其它炮舰会一起投入战斗。

(MUSIC)

ANNOUNCER:

Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Jack Weitzel and Jack Moyles. You can find transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our programs, along with historical images, at www.unsv.com. And you can follow us at twitter.com/voalearnenglish. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

___

This is program #96 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

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