官方APP下载:钱柜娱乐qg999全能特训(微信小程序版,支持苹果手机、安卓手机)
创办于2003年
UNSV记不住?那就记中文谐音“忧安思危”吧!
UNSV钱柜娱乐qg999学习频道 - Slow and steady wins the race!
报名“钱柜娱乐qg999口语慢成班”,三年拿下钱柜娱乐qg999口语!
手机微信学钱柜娱乐qg999
打开手机微信,扫描以下二维码,即可通过我们的微信小程序学钱柜娱乐qg999。
钱柜娱乐qg999全能特训(微信小程序)
UNSV钱柜娱乐qg999学习频道淘宝网店
淘宝网店购买咨询
客服短信:18913948480
客服邮箱:web@unsv.com
标准VIP会员
全站资料无限下载、手机APP免费使用。
¥598元/12个月
钱柜娱乐qg999口语慢成班
承诺3年拿下口语!

#93: Lincoln Takes Presidency of a Nation in Crisis

阅读次数:

VIP会员专享下载:(非VIP会员无权下载!如果想下载,但还不是VIP会员,请点此订购
下载方式:使用鼠标右键(注意是鼠标右键!)点击下面的MP3音频/MP4视频链接,然后选择“另存为…”。
MP3节目录音(英文版) MP3节目录音(英文版)  MP3节目录音(中文版) MP3节目录音(中文版)  PDF节目文稿 PDF节目文稿 
文章正文
同步字幕

Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.

Abraham Lincoln won the presidential election in November of eighteen sixty. When he took office several months later, he faced the most serious crisis in American history. The southern states had finally acted on their earlier threats. They had begun to leave the Union over the issue of slavery.

亚伯拉罕.林肯1860年11月当选美国总统。他宣誓就职时,面临着美国历史上最严峻的危机。因为南方各州终于就奴隶制存废问题开始将退出联邦的威胁付诸行动了。

This week in our series, Harry Monroe and Kay Gallant talk about this critical time in American history.

Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln

VOICE ONE:

The southern states did not want Abraham Lincoln to win the election of eighteen sixty. Lincoln was a Republican. And the Republican Party opposed slavery. Lincoln never said he wanted to end slavery in the South. He did not believe anyone had the right to do so. Yet he did not want to see slavery spread to other parts of the United States.

南方各州不希望林肯当选。他是共和党人,而共和党反对蓄奴。林肯从没说过要结束南方的奴隶制。他觉得什么人都没有权利这样做;但同时,他也不希望看到奴隶制度的进一步扩张。

Lincoln told southerners: "You think slavery is right and should be extended, while we think it is wrong and should be limited. That, I suppose, is the trouble. It surely is the only important difference between us."

林肯告诉南方人说,“你们认为奴隶制是正确的,应该推广;我们认为奴隶制是错误的,应该限制。这就是问题所在,是我们之间唯一的严重分歧。”

VOICE TWO:

Pro-slavery extremists felt this difference was enough. And they were sure Lincoln and his Republicans would soon win control of Congress and the Supreme Court. Before long, they thought, the Constitution would be changed. Slavery would become illegal everywhere.

在主张蓄奴的极端主义者看来,这一点就足够了。他们相信,林肯和他所在的共和党用不了多久就会赢得国会和联邦最高法院的控制权。接下来,他们就会修改宪法,全面禁止奴隶制度。

Even if this did not happen, southerners were worried. Unless slavery could spread, they said, the slave population in the South would become too large. In time, blacks and whites would battle for control. One or the other would be destroyed.

就算这种情况不发生,南方人还是忧心忡忡。他们指出,除非将奴隶制对外推广,否则的话,南方奴隶的人数迟早会过剩,让黑人和白人为控制权发生冲突,其中一方终将被消灭。

So even before the presidential election, southerners began discussing what they would do if Abraham Lincoln won.

因此,总统选举前,南方人就开始考虑如果林肯当选、他们应当采取的对策了。

VOICE ONE:

Early in October, the governor of South Carolina, William Gist, wrote letters to the governors of other southern states. He said they should agree on what action to take if Lincoln became president.

十月初,南卡罗来纳州州长威廉.吉斯特写信给南方各州。信中说,大家应该共商大计,考虑林肯一旦当选,他们应该采取的行动。

William Gist
William Gist

Gist said South Carolina would call a state convention as soon as the election results were made official. If any state decided to leave the Union, he said, South Carolina would follow. If no other state decided to leave, then South Carolina would secede by itself.

吉斯特说,大选结果一宣布,南卡罗来纳州就要召集特别大会。吉斯特还说,如果有其它什么州宣布退出联邦,南卡罗来纳州一定紧随其后。如果其它州都决定留在联邦里,南卡罗来纳州就单枪匹马,自己行动。

Governor Gist received mixed answers.

南方各州在回信中表达了各自的立场。

Two states -- Alabama and Mississippi -- said they would not secede alone. But they said they would join others that made this decision. Two more states -- Louisiana and Georgia -- said they would not secede unless the north acted against them. And one state -- North Carolina -- said it had not yet decided what to do.

阿拉巴马州和密西西比州表示,他们不会单独退出联邦,但是愿意跟在其它州后面。路易斯安那州和乔治亚州说,除非北方对南方采取行动,否则他们不会退出联邦。北卡罗来纳州表示,还没有决定要怎样做。

No southern governor, except William Gist of South Carolina, seemed willing to lead the South out of the Union.

除了南卡罗来纳州州长吉斯特以外,似乎没有人愿意带领头退出联邦。

VOICE TWO:

Abraham Lincoln was elected president on November sixth, eighteen sixty. South Carolina exploded with excitement at the news. To many of the people there, Lincoln's victory was a signal that ended the state's ties to the Union. To them, it was the beginning of southern independence.

1860年11月6号,亚伯拉罕.林肯当选总统。消息传来,南卡罗来纳州群情激昂。对于很多人来说,林肯的胜利就意味着南卡罗来纳州跟美国联邦的一刀两断,标志着南方独立的开始。

Both United States Senators from South Carolina resigned. So did a federal judge and the collector of federal taxes. United States flags were lowered. State flags were raised in their place.

来自南卡罗来纳州的两位联邦参议员、一名联邦大法官和一位联邦税务官员先后宣布辞职。美国国旗换成了南卡罗来纳州的州旗。

The state legislature agreed to open a convention on December seventeenth. The convention would make the final decision on leaving the Union. Several other southern states did the same.

州议会决定12月17号召开特别大会,就退出联邦一事做最后决定,南方其它几个州也采取了类似行动。

VOICE ONE:

This idea of leaving the Union -- secession -- split North and South just as much as slavery. Southerners claimed they had the right to secede peacefully. Northerners disagreed. They said secession was treason. They said it would lead to civil war.

退出联邦的问题,跟奴隶存废的问题一样,是南北双方意见分歧的焦点。南方人声称,自己有权和平退出联邦,但是北方人并不认同,他们觉得这是叛国,会引发内战。

In the months before Lincoln's inauguration, President James Buchanan tried to deal with the situation. First he proposed a convention of all the states. The purpose of the convention would be to work out differences between North and South. The southern members of Buchanan's cabinet rejected this idea.

林肯宣誓就职前的几个月里,总统布坎南试图化解争端。首先,布坎南建议召开一次全国性的特别大会,让南、北双方协商解决争端,结果遭到了内阁里南方人的反对。

The second proposal was a strong policy statement on secession. The statement would include an opinion by the attorney general. It said the government could use force, if necessary, to keep states in the Union. The southern cabinet members rejected this idea, too.

布坎南又提出第二项方案,就是发表包括司法部长意见书的强硬的政策声明,明确表示,为保全联邦的完整,政府不惜动用武力。这项方案同样遭到了内阁里南方人的拒绝。

VOICE TWO:

President Buchanan had to settle for a moderate policy statement on secession. It said the president could send troops into a state to help federal marshals enforce the rulings of federal courts. But if federal judges resigned, there would be no federal court rulings to enforce. Therefore, to send troops to a state where federal officers had resigned -- such as South Carolina -- would be an act of war against the state. And only Congress had the constitutional power to declare war.

布坎南只好同意缓和声明的口气,只强调说,总统有权派兵进驻某个州,协助联邦警力执行联邦法院的裁决。然而,如果联邦法官辞职,没有联邦法院的裁决,就谈不上执行和不执行的问题了。因此,向南卡罗来纳州这种联邦官员已经辞职的州派兵,无异于对这个州发动战争。按照美国宪法的规定,只有国会才有权宣战。

Buchanan accepted this statement. He was only too happy to let Congress decide what to do.

布坎南接受了声明的措辞,他巴不得让国会来处理这个棘手的问题。

VOICE ONE:

South Carolina's congressional delegation, drawn by Winslow Homer in the Harper's Weekly of December 22, 1860
South Carolina's congressional delegation, drawn by Winslow Homer in the Harper's Weekly of December 22, 1860

There was little chance that Congress could do anything. Congressmen from both North and South already had made decisions that could not, and would not, be changed easily.

国会也束手无策。南卡罗来纳和北卡罗来纳州的国会议员都已经做出了难以改变的决定。

Most of the congressmen from states in the deep south supported secession. They did not want to remain in the Union. Many congressmen from states in the North had been elected because they promised to keep slavery from spreading to the western territories. They did not plan to break their promises.

来自美国大南方的多数国会议员都不想留在联邦里,主张退出联邦。与此同时,北方的很多议员都是因为保证不让奴隶制向西部蔓延才当选的,他们也不愿意出尔反尔。

A few lawmakers hoped President Buchanan, in his yearly message to Congress, might propose a compromise.

一些议员希望布坎南在向国会发表的年度讲话中,能够提出妥协方案。

VOICE TWO:

Buchanan began by denouncing northern Abolitionists. He said they were responsible for the present problem. Their interference, he said, had created a great fear of slave rebellions in the South.

布坎南在国会讲话中首先炮轰北方的废奴主义者,说他们要为眼前的危机负责,是他们的干涉,引起了大家对南方奴隶起义的担心。

Then Buchanan called on the South to accept the election of Abraham Lincoln. He said the election of a citizen to the office of president should not be a reason for dissolving the Union. Buchanan declared that the constitution gave no state the right to leave. But, he admitted, if a state did secede, there was little the federal government could do.

接下来,布坎南又要求南方人接受林肯当选总统的现实。布坎南说,任何一个美国公民按照选举程序当选美国总统,都不应该成为联邦解体的起因。布坎南宣称,根据宪法,任何州都无权退出联邦,但他同时承认,如果哪个州执意退出,联邦政府也无技可施。

"The fact is," Buchanan said, "that our Union rests upon public opinion. It can never be held together by the blood of its citizens in civil war. If it cannot live in the hearts of its people, then it must one day die."

布坎南说,“归根结底,我们的联邦是以民意为基础的,绝不能靠内战的鲜血来维系,如果联邦不能活在人民心中,就终将灭亡。”

James Buchanan
James Buchanan

VOICE ONE:

Buchanan proposed to Congress that it offer a constitutional amendment on the question of slavery.

布坎南建议国会就奴隶制问题提出一项宪法修正案。

He said the amendment should recognize the right to own slaves as property in states where slavery was permitted. It should protect this right in all territories until the territories became states. And it should end all state laws that interfered with the return of escaped slaves to their owners.

他说,修正案应该承认蓄奴州奴隶主对奴隶的所有权,在新增领土成为正式的州以前,这种权利也应该受到保护。修正案还要取消各州干涉将逃跑奴隶送还奴隶主的立法。

No one liked President Buchanan's message to Congress. Northerners did not like his declaration of federal weakness in the face of secession. Southerners did not like his declaration that secession was unconstitutional.

没有人支持布坎南的讲话。北方人不喜欢他面对国家分裂所表现出来的联邦政府的无能为力。与此同时,退出联邦违宪的说法又让南方人难以接受。

The message did nothing to change the situation. Soon after it was read to Congress, South Carolina opened its secession convention.

布坎南的讲话没有收到任何效果。没过多久,南卡罗来纳州就召开了退出联邦的特别大会。

VOICE TWO:

The Charleston Mercury announces the secession of South Carolina
The Charleston Mercury announces the secession of South Carolina

Delegates to the convention would make the final decision if South Carolina would remain in the Union or secede. There was little question how they would vote.

大会代表投票决定去留,结果其实早就板上钉钉了。

A committee wrote a secession resolution. The resolution said simply that the people of South Carolina were ending the agreement of seventeen eighty-eight in which the state had approved the Constitution of the United States. It said the Union existing between South Carolina and the United States of America was being dissolved.

大会的一个委员会负责撰写退出联邦的决议案。决议案简单明了地宣布,南卡罗来纳州人民决定终止1788年接受美国宪法的契约,南卡罗来纳州跟联邦之间的关系正式结束。

The committee offered the resolution to the convention on December twentieth, eighteen sixty. There was no debate. The delegates voted immediately. No one voted against it.

特别委员会1860年12月20号向大会提交了这份决议案,大会代表没有举行任何辩论,立即投票表决,结果一致通过。

VOICE ONE:

South Carolina had seceded. But what must it do now. There was the problem of property in South Carolina owned by the federal government. The convention continued to meet to work out details of South Carolina's new position in the world.

南卡罗来纳州虽然退出了联邦,但是当地属于联邦政府的财产要如何处理,南卡罗来纳州如今又是一个什么样的身份?

That will be our story next week.

(MUSIC)

ANNOUNCER:

Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Harry Monroe and Kay Gallant. Transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our programs can be found, along with historical images, at www.unsv.com. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

___

This is program #93 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

网友的学习评论(1条):
作者:Alumni
the secession had had an earlier foundation in southern states. but the presidential election of Abraham Lincoln made it get to its climax. it proved Lincon's immanse power which the southern satates had already felt.
版权所有©2003-2015 南京通享科技有限公司,保留所有权利。未经书面许可,严禁转载本站内容,违者追究法律责任。 中国互联网经营ICP证:苏B2-20120186
广播台