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#92: Hopes, Fears and the Election of 1860

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Welcome to the MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.

Eighteen sixty was a year of mixed feelings of hope and fear. Americans had hope for the future, because they would be electing a new president. But they had fear that even a new president could not hold the nation together. The states of the South were very close to leaving the Union over the issue of slavery.

1860年是美国的总统大选年。美国人既满怀希望,又忐忑不安:一方面希望新总统能给国家带来新气象;另一方面又担心,新总统恐怕也很难力挽狂澜,维系国家的统一,因为南方各州为了奴隶制的问题已经走到了分裂的边缘。

This week in our series, Tony Riggs and Frank Oliver talk about the candidates and the issues in the election of eighteen sixty.

VOICE ONE:

After four years as president, James Buchanan decided not to run again. Buchanan was a Democrat. His party, like the nation, was split over slavery. Southern Democrats wanted the party to support slavery. Northern Democrats refused.

当时的总统布坎南决定不参选连任。布坎南是民主党人,他所在的民主党跟整个国家一样,也因为奴隶制的分歧分为两派,南方民主党人支持蓄奴,北方民主党人反对蓄奴。

The opposition Republican Party expected to gain votes from dissatisfied Democrats. Republicans had become stronger since the last presidential election in eighteen fifty-six. They felt their candidate would win in eighteen sixty.

共和党人坐收渔利,希望能借此网罗到一些对民主党失去信心的选民。1856年总统大选后的四年里,共和党的势力不断壮大。他们觉得,1860年总统大选共和党候选人势在必得。

Stephen Douglas
Stephen Douglas

VOICE TWO:

The Democratic nominating convention opened in April in Charleston, South Carolina. Senator Stephen Douglas of Illinois was the leading candidate. He had the support of a majority of convention delegates. But he did not have the two-thirds majority needed to win the nomination.

1860年四月,民主党全国代表大会在南卡罗来纳州的查尔斯顿召开。伊利诺伊州联邦参议员史蒂文•道格拉斯是与会多数代表支持的人选,但是没有得到提名所需要的三分之二多数票。

Many Southern Democrats did not like Stephen Douglas. Some did not trust him. Others did not accept his policies on slavery. Douglas did not oppose slavery or the spread of slavery. However, he said no federal law could make slavery legal in a territory where the people did not want it. This was his policy of "popular sovereignty."

南方很多民主党人不喜欢道格拉斯,其中一些人不信任他,另外一些人无法认同他在奴隶制度问题上的政策。道格拉斯不反对蓄奴,也不反对奴隶制度的推广,但是他曾表示,联邦法律不能将奴隶制度强加于不愿意接受奴隶制度的地区。这就是他所谓的“人民主权论”。

VOICE ONE:

The Southern Democrats who opposed Stephen Douglas were led by William Yancey of Alabama. Yancey wanted to get a pro-slavery statement into the party's platform. He was sure Douglas would not accept the nomination based on such a platform.

反对道格拉斯的南方民主党人以阿拉巴马州的威廉•扬西为首。扬西想在民主党竞选纲领里加入支持蓄奴的内容,他知道,一旦写上了这样的话,道格拉斯一定不会接受党内提名。

If Yancey failed to get the statement he wanted, he would take Southern Democrats out of the convention. And out of the party.

如果不成功,扬西就准备带领南方民主党人退出代表大会,甚至退出民主党。

The committee on resolutions considered three platforms. One platform declared that the people of a territory had the right to decide if slavery would be legal or illegal. The second declared that the Supreme Court had that right. And the third declared that no one did -- that slavery was legal everywhere.

大会议案小组委员会考虑了三份竞选纲领的提案。第一份提案称,当地居民有权决定奴隶制度的存废;第二份提案称,奴隶制存废的决定权在联邦最高法院手里;第三份提案称,奴隶制度在任何地方都是合法的,谁也无权予以否定。

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

William Yancey
William Yancey

William Yancey spoke to the convention in support of the pro-slavery platform. He said pro-slavery Democrats did not want to destroy the union. But he said someone had to make clear to anti-slavery Democrats that the union would be dissolved if the constitutional rights of slave owners were not honored.

威廉•扬西在代表大会上发表讲话,力挺支持蓄奴的竞选纲领。他说,支持蓄奴的民主党人不想看见国家分裂,但是必须有人明确地告诉反对蓄奴的民主党人,如果奴隶主根据宪法所享有的权利得不到保障的话,那么国家就会走向分裂。

Yancey spoke of the danger of a great slave rebellion. He described it as a sleeping volcano that threatened the lives, property, and honor of the people of the South. He said the actions of the North might cause that volcano to explode.

扬西还谈到了一场大规模奴隶起义的危险,说这就好象是一座沉睡中的火山,威胁着南方人的生命、财产和荣誉。他说,北方人的行动可能会导致火山的爆发。

Another convention delegate answered Yancey's speech. He said Northern Democrats were tired of defending the interests of the South. "Now," he said, "Yancey tells us we must agree that slavery is right. He orders us to hide our faces and eat dirt. Gentlemen of the South," he said, "you mistake us. We will not do it!"

大会的另一个代表对扬西的发言发起反击。他说,北方民主党人不愿意继续保护南方的利益了。他还说,“如今,扬西告诫我们,要承认奴隶制是对的,命令我们昧着良心做事。南方的先生们,你们错了,我们是不会唯命是从的。”

VOICE ONE:

In this atmosphere of tension, it was clear that a pro-slavery platform would not be approved. The Alabama delegation announced that, therefore, it must withdraw. The delegations from the other six states of the Deep South -- Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas -- did the same.

在这种紧张气氛中,支持蓄奴的竞选纲领显然是不会被接受的。阿拉巴马代表团因此宣布,只好退会。美国最南部的另外六个州,阿肯色州、佛罗里达州、乔治亚州、路易斯安娜州、密西西比州和德克萨斯州也纷纷退出了大会。

Those fifty men organized their own convention. They approved a pro-slavery platform, but did not nominate anyone for president. They agreed to meet again a few weeks later in Richmond, Virginia.

退出大会的五十个人自己召开会议,批准了支持蓄奴的竞选纲领,但没有提名总统候选人,决定几周后在维吉尼亚州的里士满继续开会。

The Northern Democrats postponed their nomination, too. They agreed to meet again in Baltimore, Maryland.

与此同时,北方民主党人也推迟了候选人的提名,并决定不久后在马里兰州的巴尔地摩再议。

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

William Seward
William Seward

The Republican Party held its presidential nominating convention in Chicago, Illinois. There was no question who was the leading candidate. He was the best-known Republican in the country at that time: Senator William Seward of New York.

共和党人在伊利诺伊州的芝加哥市召开全国代表大会,推举总统候选人。当时美国最有声望的共和党人是纽约州参议员威廉•苏厄德。苏厄德得到了与会代表的普遍支持。

The Republican platform seemed to contain something for everyone.

共和党竞选纲领也符合很多人的利益。

For those opposed to slavery, the platform rejected the idea that slave owners had a constitutional right to take slaves into new territories. For foreign-born Americans, it supported their right to full citizenship. For manufacturers, it proposed a new tax on imports to protect American industry. And for those in the northwest, it called for free land for settlers, and federal aid to build roads and canals.

针对反蓄奴的选民,共和党的竞选纲领不承认奴隶主按照宪法有权将奴隶带到新增领土里去。针对在外国出生的美国人,共和党的竞选纲领主张让他们享有所有公民权。针对制造商,共和党的竞选纲领建议增设新的进口税,保护美国工业。针对美国西北部的居民,共和党的竞选纲领提倡把土地免费拨发给定居者,由联邦政府提供补贴,用来修筑道路和运河。

Delegates approved the platform with loud cheers. They would return the next day to nominate their candidate for president.

与会代表在欢呼声中批准了竞选纲领,准备次日推举总统候选人。

VOICE ONE:

William Seward was sure he would win the nomination. If not on the first vote, he thought, then on the second. But there was some opposition to Seward. And his campaign organization failed to see its strength.

Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln

The candidate of the opposition was Abraham Lincoln.

威廉•苏厄德的唯一对手是亚伯拉罕•林肯。

The Republican convention voted three times. Lincoln gained support on each ballot. But neither he nor Seward received enough votes for the nomination. Then, before a fourth vote could be taken, a delegate from Ohio asked to speak. The big room became silent. "Mister chairman," he said, "I rise to announce the change of four votes of Ohio to Mister Lincoln."

共和党全国代表大会一共投票三次,林肯得到的票数越来越多,但是他和苏厄德俩人都无法得到提名必需的多数票。第四次投票前,俄亥俄州的一个代表要求发言。大厅里鸦雀无声。这名代表说,“主席先生,我宣布,俄亥俄州的四张选票改投给林肯。”

That was enough to give Abraham Lincoln the Republican nomination for president.

这四票扭转乾坤,使林肯成为了共和党候选人。

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

One month later, the Democrats re-opened their nominating convention. Most of the Southern Democrats who walked out of the first meeting came back. Many of their seats at the convention had been given to new delegates. So a new dispute arose over which delegates had the right to be there.

民主党人一个月后重开代表大会,提名总统候选人。第一次大会退出会议的大部分南方民主党人都回来参加会议,但他们的席位却有了新的代表。谁才是合法代表?大会为此再次发生争执。

A compromise plan split the seats between old and new delegates. But most of the Southerners rejected it. One by one, a majority of each Southern delegation walked out. The remaining Democrats then voted for a candidate. They chose Stephen Douglas.

有人提出妥协计划,把席位在新、旧代表间进行分配,但是大多数南方人拒绝接受。最后,大多数南方代表都退出了会议,剩下的代表投票推举史蒂文•道格拉斯为民主党的总统候选人。

Southern Democrats nominated their own candidate, John Breckinridge of Kentucky. And a group called the Constitutional Union Party nominated John Bell.

南方民主党人不甘示弱,提名了自己的候选人,肯塔基州的约翰•布雷肯里奇。除此之外,还有一个叫宪法联合党的团体提名约翰•贝尔。

VOICE ONE:

John Breckinridge
John Breckinridge

The election campaign opened in the summer of eighteen sixty. Lincoln was not well-known. So the Republican Party published many books and pamphlets about him. They told the story of a poor farm boy who educated himself and, through hard work and honesty, had become a candidate for president.

1860年,大选拉开了战幕。林肯的知名度不高,共和党人因此发表了很多介绍林肯的书籍和宣传材料,讲述了一个穷苦的农民孩子,刻苦诚实、自学成才,最终成为总统候选人的故事。

Lincoln's supporters organized a loud and colorful campaign, complete with marching bands and signs. Lincoln himself was silent. He said, "It has been my decision since becoming a candidate to make no speeches. I am here only to see you and to let you see me. "

林肯的支持者把他的竞选活动办得生龙活虎,还外加游行乐队和各种标语。林肯本人则始终保持沉默。他说,“我从成为总统候选人的那一刻起就已经决定,不发表讲话。我来这里只是为了跟大家见面,也是为了让大家认识我。”

In fact, it was Lincoln's assistants who had advised him to say nothing. They believed he had said enough in the past to make clear his position on the important issues.

事实上,建议林肯不公开讲话的是他的顾问们。他们相信,在各种重要议题上,该说的,林肯过去都已经说过了。

VOICE TWO:

Stephen Douglas, on the other hand, campaigned very hard. His health was poor. And he had trouble getting money. But that did not stop him from speaking in almost every state.

与此同时,民主党候选人史蒂文•道格拉斯则全力以赴,投入选战。他身体不好,又缺少竞选经费,但他克服重重困难,几乎在美国所有州都发表过竞选讲话。

Within a few weeks, however, Douglas recognized that he had no real hope of winning. His position on slavery had cost him all support in the South.

短短几个星期内,道格拉斯就意识到,他完全没有获胜的希望。他在奴隶制存废问题上的立场,让他失去了南方的所有选票。

Douglas believed that, of the other candidates, Abraham Lincoln had the best chance of winning the presidential election. He also believed pro-slavery extremists would use Lincoln's election as an excuse to take Southern states out of the union. So he turned his efforts to a campaign for the union itself.

道格拉斯相信,在所有候选人当中,林肯当选的可能性最大。他同时相信,支持蓄奴的极端主义者会把林肯当选做为借口,退出联邦,因此,道格拉斯改变了自己的方向,为联邦统一而努力。

He said, "The election of a man to the presidency by the American people, under the Constitution, is no reason for any attempt to dissolve this glorious nation."

他说:“美国人民根据宪法选举一个人当总统,不应该成为分裂这个美丽国家的理由。”

VOICE ONE:

Election day was November sixth. The popular vote was close between Lincoln and Douglas. But the electoral vote was not. Lincoln received one hundred eighty. Breckinridge received seventy-two. Bell received thirty-nine. And Douglas received just twelve.

1860年11月6号是投票日。虽然林肯和道格拉斯俩人得到的总票数很接近,但是如果按照选举人票计算的话,林肯得到180票、布雷肯里奇72票、贝尔39票、道格拉斯只有12票。

Abraham Lincoln would be the new president of the United States. He would enter office facing the most serious crisis in American history. For, before his inauguration, southern states finally acted on their threats. They began to leave the union.

亚伯拉罕•林肯当选美国的下一届总统。迎接他的,是美国历史上最严重的危机。林肯宣誓就职前,南方各州就开始纷纷采取行动,宣布退出联邦。

That will be our story next week.

(MUSIC)

ANNOUNCER:

Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Tony Riggs and Frank Oliver. Transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our programs are online, along with historical images, at www.unsv.com. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION - an American history series in VOA Special English.

___

This is program #92 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

网友的学习评论(1条):
作者:perfect100
the campaign is estremly strongly about the election of president in 1860,finally Licon won .
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