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#83: The Struggle Over Slavery in the Kansas Territory

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Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.

The most difficult national problem facing the administration of President Franklin Pierce was the situation in Kansas. The territory struggled with the issue of slavery.

奴隶制的存废是美国历史上第14位总统富兰克林·皮尔斯政府面临的最棘手的问题。

Franklin Pierce
Franklin Pierce

Pro-slavery settlers elected a representative to Congress. Then they won a majority of seats in the territorial legislature. An investigation found that people from the neighboring state of Missouri had voted in the elections illegally. Yet the results were accepted.

堪萨斯地区主张蓄奴的定居者成功地将自己的代表送进了国会,在堪萨斯地区议会里也占据了多数席位。虽然后来经调查发现,堪萨斯边上的密苏里州居民跨过边界,非法投票,但是选举结果并没有因此作废。

The new Kansas lawmakers did not like the territorial governor. They demanded that President Pierce dismiss him. Pierce agreed.

堪萨斯州议会议员对堪萨斯总督不满,要求皮尔斯总统换人,皮尔斯同意了。

This week on our series, Ray Freeman and Steve Ember continue the story of the presidency of Franklin Pierce. And they talk about the presidential election of eighteen fifty-six.

VOICE ONE:

Anti-slavery settlers in Kansas felt they could not get fair treatment from either the president or the new governor. So they took an extreme step. They formed their own government in opposition to the elected government of the territory.

堪萨斯地区主张废奴的人觉得,皮尔斯总统和新总督都不会一碗水端平,因此决定采取极端行动,成立了自己的政府,跟法定政府对着干。

Their political group was known as the Free State Party. Party members wrote their own constitution and chose their own governor.

他们的政治团体取名“自由州党”,自由州党的成员制定了自己的宪法,并推举出自己的总督。

VOICE TWO:

Territory of Kansas
Territory of Kansas

President Pierce said the actions of the Free State Party seemed revolutionary. He warned against violence. He said if party members attacked any officials or property of the territory or the federal government, party leaders should be charged with treason.

皮尔斯总统说,自由州党的行动类似反叛,并警告说,如果自由州党人对当地政府或是联邦政府的官员或财产发动袭击的话,该党领袖就会以叛国罪受到起诉。

The president gave the pro-slavery governor of Kansas control of troops at two army bases in the territory. Many people feared that the governor would use the troops to arrest the leaders of the Free State government.

皮尔斯总统还授权堪萨斯主张蓄奴的总督,可以调遣当地两个驻地的兵力。很多人担心,堪萨斯总督会武力逮捕自由州党的政府领导人。

VOICE ONE:

Fighting between the two sides almost began when a Free State man was killed by a pro-slavery man. Free State settlers gathered in the town of Lawrence and organized a defense force. At the same time, hundreds of pro-slavery men crossed the border from Missouri. They planned to go to Lawrence and burn it to the ground.

后来,一个自由州党人被蓄奴主义者打死,差点儿引发双方的冲突。自由州党人在劳伦斯镇集结,组织起了防御部队。与此同时,数百名蓄奴主义者从密苏里州进入堪萨斯,打算杀到劳伦斯镇,一把火将那里夷为平地。

The pro-slavery governor and the Free State governor agreed to hold an emergency meeting. They negotiated a settlement, and the men on both sides went home. The truce did not last long.

主张蓄奴的总督和自由州总督同意召开紧急会议,经过协商,终于达成协议,双方人马才纷纷散去,但是停火没能持续多久。

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

John Brown
John Brown

In the weeks that followed, a number of attempts were made to stop or arrest the leaders of the Free State government. Pro-slavery officials urged private citizens to help. Once again, hundreds of men -- including many from Missouri -- gathered in Kansas. Once again, their target was the town of Lawrence. This time, however, there was no truce.

事后几个星期,自由州政府官员多次被拦截,并险些被逮捕。主张蓄奴的官员号召民众行动起来,包括密苏里州的数百人再次赶往堪萨斯,袭击目标再次指向劳伦斯镇。暴力冲突终于爆发了。

The pro-slavery mob attacked and burned several buildings. A number of people were killed. The violence might have ended quickly. But one of the men defending the town believed that the battle against the forces of slavery must continue. And he believed that God had chosen him to lead it. The man was John Brown.

主张蓄奴的暴民对几处建筑发动袭击,还放火焚烧,造成几人丧生。冲突本来可以很快终止,但是保卫劳伦斯镇的人里有一位老兄,觉得跟蓄奴势力的斗争必须要继续下去,他相信,上帝选择由他来领导这场战斗,此人就是约翰·布朗。

VOICE ONE:

John Brown heard that five Free State men had died in the attack on Lawrence. So he said five pro-slavery men must die in return. He led a group that seized and killed five people. The civil disorder in Kansas continued. Settlers were forced off their land. Houses were burned. More people were killed. The territory became known as "Bleeding Kansas."

约翰·布朗听说,劳伦斯镇受到袭击时,有五个自由州党人被打死,因此宣称,要拿五个蓄奴主义者偿命。他率领一群人,杀死了五个人,使堪萨斯地区的暴力冲突愈演愈烈。定居者被迫外出避难。房屋被焚毁,死亡人数不断增加,当地得名“流血的堪萨斯”。

VOICE TWO:

It was clear that there were deep differences between the northern and southern American states. The differences involved their economies, their systems of labor, and their way of life.

美国南、北双方在经济模式、劳动力分配和生活方式上都存在严重分歧。

The civil disorder caused by these differences was the chief issue in the presidential election of eighteen fifty-six. Three political parties offered candidates: the Democrats, the Republicans and the Know-Nothings.

这些分歧引起的社会动荡是1856年总统选举的主要议题。参加1856年总统大选的有三个政党:民主党、共和党,还有一个就是所谓的“一无所知党”。

The Whig Party did not offer a candidate. The party had gone out of existence by then. Its members had split over the question of slavery in the western territories. The split could not be healed. Most southern Whigs joined the Democratic Party. Most northern Whigs joined the Know-Nothing Party.

辉格党当时已经不复存在,自然没有推举候选人。辉格党人围绕西部新增土地上奴隶存废的问题发生分裂,因为无法调解而宣告解散,大多数南方的辉格党人加入了民主党,大多数北方辉格党人加入了“一无所知党”。

VOICE ONE:

The Know-Nothing Party began as a secret anti-immigrant organization. It feared that too many people from other countries were coming to live in the United States.

一无所知党成立之初是一个秘密的反移民团体。他们不希望看到太多的人移民美国。

Members did not want to admit that they belonged to the group. When asked, they said, "I know nothing." And that is how the organization got its name.

一无所知党成员不愿对外承认自己是该党成员,有人问到这个问题时,他们都说,“我一无所知”,该党因此而得名。

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

The Democratic Party was led by President Franklin Pierce. Pierce wanted to run for re-election. Many northern Democrats, however, objected to his support of the pro-slavery legislature in Kansas. Other Democrats did not think he was the strongest candidate. As a result, Pierce faced competition for the party's nomination.

当时的美国总统皮尔斯本人是民主党人。皮尔斯希望参选连任,但是北方很多民主党人对皮尔斯支持堪萨斯倾向蓄奴的议会感到不满。另外一些民主党人则觉得他软弱无力。因此,皮尔斯在党内提名的过程中遇到了挑战。

One opponent was Senator Stephen Douglas of Illinois. Douglas had great political ability. He also had many political enemies. He was the man most responsible for gaining congressional approval of the bill that opened Kansas to slavery.

对手之一是伊利诺伊州参议员史蒂文·道格拉斯。道格拉斯政治能力很强,但是树了很多政敌。国会批准堪萨斯地区允许奴隶的存在,在很大程度上要归功于道格拉斯。

VOICE ONE:

James Buchanan
James Buchanan

Pierce's other opponent for the Democratic nomination was James Buchanan of Pennsylvania. Buchanan was a northerner who would probably leave the South alone.

皮尔斯的另一位对手是宾夕法尼亚州的詹姆斯·布坎南。布坎南是一个不干涉南方事务的北方人。

"I am not friendly to the idea of slavery," he said. "but the rights of the South -- under our constitution -- should have as much protection as the rights of any other part of our Union. "

他曾表示,“我不赞成奴隶制,但根据宪法,南方权利受到的保护应该跟其它地区一样多。”

VOICE TWO:

The Democratic Party met in the city of Cincinnati, Ohio. It was the first time a national political convention was held that far west.

民主党在俄亥俄州的辛辛那提市召开代表大会,这是美国政党第一次选择在偏远的西部地区开会。

Candidates needed two-thirds of the votes to win the nomination. After several days of voting, no candidate had received enough. So, in an effort to unite the party, Stephen Douglas offered to withdraw. James Buchanan got his votes and the nomination.

参选人需要得到与会代表三分之二多数的支持才能赢得提名。几天的投票都没能产生提名人选。为了民主党的党内团结,道格拉斯宣布退出,布坎南这才赢得了提名需要的多数票。

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

The Republican Party was a new political party. Its members opposed slavery for either moral or economic reasons.

共和党是一个新成立的政党,该党成员出于道义或是经济上的原因,反对奴隶制度。

Many Republicans were Abolitionists. They wanted to ban slavery everywhere in the United States. The majority of Republicans, however, were not Abolitionists. They had no interest in ending slave labor in the South. They simply did not want slavery to spread to other areas.

不少共和党人都是废奴主义者,希望在美国彻底取缔奴隶制度。然而,大多数共和党人并不是废奴主义者。他们对结束南方的奴隶制不感兴趣,唯一关心的是不想看到奴隶制度蔓延到其它地区。

The Republican Party held its presidential nominating convention in Philadelphia. For months, party members had spoken of just one man. He was John Fremont. Fremont had explored the American west. He had been a senator from California. He was young and exciting. Republicans thought he was the right man to lead their young and exciting party.

共和党在费城召开总统候选人提名大会。几个月来,共和党人谈论的只有一个人,他就是约翰·弗蒙特,弗蒙特是西部探险家,当过加州参议员,年轻而充满活力。共和党人觉得,他是领导一个年轻而充满活力的共和党的最佳人选。

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

The Know-Nothing Party had a divided nominating convention. Northern and southern members agreed on policies that denounced immigrants. But they split on the issue of slavery. Northern members opposed it. Southern members supported it.

一无所知党在提名大会上出现了意见分歧。南部和北部地区成员都支持反移民政策,但是在奴隶制问题上无法达成共识。北方人反对蓄奴,南方人支持蓄奴。

Delegates to the convention chose a candidate who seemed to support the party's policies. Yet he was not even a member of the party. He was a Whig, former president Millard Fillmore.

与会代表最后选择了一个并非一无所知党成员的总统候选人。他就是辉格党人、前总统菲尔莫尔。

Northern members refused to support Fillmore. They broke away from the Know-Nothing Party and supported the Republican candidate, John Fremont.

北方成员拒绝支持菲尔莫尔,宣布退出一无所知党,转而支持共和党候选人约翰·弗蒙特。

VOICE ONE:

John C. Fremont
John C. Fremont

Fremont could not expect to win any votes in the slave states of the South. He would have to get all of his support in the North. He would have to win the votes of the big states, including Pennsylvania. And Pennsylvania was the home of the Democratic candidate, James Buchanan.

弗蒙特不能指望南方奴隶州的选票,因此必须得到北方所有人的支持。他要胜选,就一定要拿下包括宾夕法尼亚在内的大州,而宾夕法尼亚州恰恰是民主党候选人布坎南的家乡。

Buchanan had said that the constitutional rights of the southern states should be protected. So he could expect to win some votes there. When all the votes were counted, Buchanan was elected. Now he would have to deal with the problems that presidents before him had not been able to solve.

布坎南曾经说过,南方各州的宪法权利应该受到保护,因此赢得了一些南方的支持。布坎南当选后,要面对他的前任们没有解决的难题。

VOICE TWO:

James Buchanan was sixty-five years old. He had served in the House of Representatives and in the Senate. He had served as secretary of state and as ambassador. He was a good diplomat. But he was not considered a strong political leader.

布坎南当时65岁,曾担任过国会参、众两院议员,还担任过国务卿和驻外大使。他是一位很优秀的外交官,但不是一位强有力的政治领袖。

Buchanan usually supported the southern position in the dispute about slavery. He said the North should stop interfering with the South. He even said the South had good reason to leave the Union, if northern Abolitionists continued their anti-slavery campaign.

在奴隶问题的争执中,布坎南往往站在南方一边。他表示,北方不应该干涉南方事务,他甚至说过,如果北方废奴主义者继续推动废奴运动,南方就有理由退出联邦。

As president, Buchanan believed he could solve the slavery question by keeping the Abolitionists quiet. He wanted a cabinet that shared and supported this idea.

身为总统,布坎南觉得,只要让废奴主义者闭嘴,就能解决奴隶的问题。他希望组建一个跟自己看法一致的内阁。

We will tell about James Buchanan's administration in our next program.

(MUSIC)

ANNOUNCER:

Our program was written by Christine Johnson. The narrators were Ray Freeman and Steve Ember. Transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our programs can be found along with historical images at www.unsv.com. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

___

This is program #83 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

网友的学习评论(1条):
作者:Alumni
now this is the days of James Buchanan's, another new president. the issue of the slavery is contuining and it would be kind of moderated by Buchanan. but he had foretold that the south would have left the union sooner or later.
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