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#50: James Monroe Easily Wins Election in 1816

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Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.

President James Madison retired after two four-year terms. His Republican Party chose another Virginian, James Monroe, as its next presidential candidate.

詹姆斯.麦迪逊总统连任两届后,宣布让贤。他所在的共和党提名另外一位维吉尼亚人詹姆斯.门罗为下届总统候选人。

James Monroe
James Monroe

The opposition Federalist Party had almost disappeared by the time of the election in eighteen sixteen. The party did not even meet to choose a presidential candidate. But three states -- Connecticut, Delaware and Massachusetts -- promised to vote for a Federalist, Rufus King.

1816年大选时,反对党联邦党已经几乎不存在了。联邦党人甚至没有开会推举总统候选人。不过,康涅狄克、德拉瓦和麻萨诸塞三个州保证要投票支持联邦党人鲁弗斯.金。

Now, this week in our series, Tony Riggs and Larry West continue the story.

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE: James Monroe easily won the election. He would serve two terms. Monroe was sworn-in as president in February eighteen-seventeen.

门罗轻松获胜,1817年2月宣誓就职,后来又当选连任,先后任期一共八年。

A few months later, he began a long trip to thirteen states. Everywhere he stopped, the people welcomed him warmly. Even in New England the crowds were large.

门罗就职几个月后,就踏上征程,走访美国的13个州,所到之处,都受到热烈欢迎,就连新英格兰地区也出现了庞大的欢迎人群。

The president returned to Washington after three and a half months. He was tired. But he was pleased with the way the people of the United States had accepted him.

门罗三个半月后返回华盛顿,虽然筋疲力尽,但是民众的态度让他深感欣慰。

VOICE TWO:

Not everyone was happy that Monroe had been elected. After all, he was the fourth American president from Virginia. The situation caused hard feelings among political leaders in other states, especially the states of New England.

然而,门罗的当选并没有让所有人欢欣鼓舞。毕竟,他已经是来自维吉尼亚州的第四位总统了。这种情况让其他州,特别是新英格兰地区的政治领袖很不痛快。

Monroe tried to improve this situation. He wanted to give the top four jobs in his cabinet to men from each of the nation's four major areas: the Northeast, the South, the West and the Middle Atlantic coast. This would help improve unity. And it would help the president get expert knowledge about each of those parts of the country.

门罗努力改善局面,计划把内阁里四大要员的位置按照地理位置分配,东北部、南部、西部和中部大西洋沿岸各一个。这样一来,不仅能加强团结,而且能让门罗获得全国各地区最准确的信息。

Monroe was not able to do what he wanted. He got cabinet ministers from only three of the four areas. The West was not represented.

不过,门罗没能如愿以偿,在他的内阁里,只有三个地区的领袖,西部没有代表。

VOICE ONE:

The top cabinet job -- secretary of state -- went to John Quincy Adams of Massachusetts. Adams was the son of former president John Adams. John Quincy Adams had been a Federalist, like his father. But he became a Republican during the presidency of Thomas Jefferson.

国务卿由麻萨诸塞州的约翰.昆西.亚当斯担任。亚当斯是前总统约翰.亚当斯的儿子,以前曾经是联邦党人,后来在托马斯.杰斐逊任期内,改弦易张,投奔共和党。

Adams had served his country in many ways. He had served as minister to Russia. And he had been the chief negotiator at the peace talks with Britain following the War of Eighteen Twelve. President Monroe asked Henry Clay of Kentucky to be secretary of war. But Clay refused.

他曾经担任驻俄罗斯的使节,是1812年战争跟英国的首席谈判代表。门罗总统要求肯塔基的亨利.克雷出任战争部长,被克雷婉然拒绝。

The president could find no other westerner who would take the job as chief of the War Department. So he gave it to John C. Calhoun, a congressman from South Carolina. William Crawford of Georgia, another Southerner, continued as treasury secretary. And William Wirt of Virginia became head of the Justice Department.

门罗因为找不到其他合适的西部人选担任战争部长,所以决定任命南卡罗来纳州的国会议员约翰.卡尔霍恩。此外,财政部长继续由来自南方乔治亚州的威廉.克劳福德担任,司法部长由维吉尼亚的威廉.沃特担任。

VOICE TWO:

One of the first problems facing President Monroe was east Florida. It was the territory which is now the state of Florida in the southeastern United States. At that time, the territory belonged to Spain. But Spain controlled only a few towns in the area. The rest was controlled by criminals, escaped slaves and former British soldiers.

门罗上任后遇到的问题之一是佛罗里达东部的骚乱,也就是今天美国东南部的佛罗里达州。当时,那片地区归西班牙所有,但是西班牙只控制着几个小镇,其余地区都是罪犯、在逃奴隶和前英国士兵的地盘。

There also were native American Indians of the Seminole and Creek tribes. Sometimes, people from east Florida would cross the border and attack American citizens. One serious fight involved Seminole Indians and people just across the border in the state of Georgia.

当地还有西米诺尔和克里克印第安部落。有时候,佛罗里达东部的人会跨过边界,对美国人发动袭击。西米诺尔印第安人和边界对面的乔治亚州人就曾发生过一次激烈冲突。

VOICE ONE:

General Andrew Jackson was ordered to march against the Indians. He was a hero of the war of eighteen twelve against Britain. Jackson sent a message to President Monroe. He said:

"Let me know in any way that the United States wants possession of the Florida territory. And in sixty days, it will be done."

1812年英美战争中的英雄安德鲁.杰克逊将军得到命令,率兵进攻印第安人。杰克逊写信给门罗总统说,“告诉我美国是否想占领佛罗里达地区。我60天内就能办到。”

Jackson received no answer to his letter. He believed the silence meant that he was free to seize Florida. He quickly gathered a force of soldiers and marched toward Florida.

杰克逊没有得到回音,他认为,这是门罗的默许,所以立即纠集兵马,直扑佛罗里达。

A statue of Andrew Jackson in Pensacola, Florida, marks the area where he spoke to citizens of the territory
A statue of Andrew Jackson in Pensacola, Florida, marks the area where he spoke to citizens of the territory

VOICE TWO:

General Jackson failed to capture any Indians. But he seized two Spanish towns: Saint Marks and Pensacola.

杰克逊将军没有抓住任何印第安人,但是占领了两个西班牙城镇,圣马克斯和彭萨科拉。

He also arrested two British subjects. The two men were tried by a military court. They were found guilty of spying and giving guns to the Indians. Both were executed.

他还逮捕了两个英国人。这两个英国人接受军事法庭的审判。法庭认定,二人的间谍罪和向印第安人提供枪支的罪名成立,被处死。

Jackson left soldiers at several places in Florida. Then he returned to his home in Tennessee.

杰克逊将军下令一些驻军留守佛罗里达,然后返回了田纳西。

VOICE ONE:

President Monroe called a cabinet meeting as soon as he learned of Jackson's actions. All the ministers, except Secretary of State Adams, believed that Jackson had gone too far. But they decided not to denounce him in public.

门罗总统一得到消息,立即召开内阁会议。除了国务卿亚当斯以外,所有人都认为杰克逊的做法过了头,但是大家一致决定,不公开指责他。

Secretary Adams prepared messages to Britain and Spain about the incidents. His message to Britain carefully stated the activities of the two British subjects in Florida and explained why they were executed. Britain agreed not to take any action.

国务卿亚当斯向英国和西班牙作出解释。亚当斯在给英国的信中历数了那两个英国人在佛罗里达的所作所为,解释了处死他们的理由。英国同意不采取行动。

VOICE TWO:

Adams's message to Spain explained the situation this way: Spain had failed to keep the peace along the border as it had promised to do in a treaty. The United States had sent soldiers into Florida only to defend its citizens on the American side.

亚当斯在写给西班牙的信中是这样说的:西班牙没有履行条约里的承诺,保证边境和平。美国出兵佛罗里达,是为了保护美国公民。

The United States recognized that Florida belonged to Spain. But if Americans were forced to enter Florida again -- in self-defense -- the United States might not return the territory to Spain. Spain had a choice. It could send enough soldiers to keep order in Florida. Or it could give Florida to the United States.

美国承认佛罗里达属于西班牙,但是如果今后,美国被迫再次进入佛罗里达采取自卫行动,美国就可能不再归还西班牙的领地。西班牙有两种选择,要么增兵维持治安,要么把佛罗里达送给美国。

VOICE ONE:

Spain really had no choice. At that time, Spain's colonies in South America were rebelling. All had declared their independence. Jose de San Martin led the struggle in Argentina. Bernardo O'Higgens was in Chile. And Simon Bolivar created the Republic of Great Columbia in the north.

实际上,西班牙除了把佛罗里达送给美国,没有其他选择。当时,西班牙在南美的殖民地正在闹叛乱,纷纷宣布独立。阿根廷有圣马丁,智利有奥希金斯,还有西蒙.玻利瓦尔在北部创建的大哥伦比亚共和国。

Spain's forces could not be sent to Florida. They were needed in South America. So the king of Spain agreed to give Florida to the United States. In exchange, the United States agreed to pay five million dollars to American citizens who had damage claims against Spain.

西班牙忙于料理南美局势,无法向佛罗里达增兵。西班牙国王因此同意把佛罗里达送给美国,作为交换,美国答应拿出五百万美元,安抚那些要求西班牙赔偿的美国公民。

A map of Florida from 1823
A map of Florida from 1823

VOICE TWO:

The Florida treaty was signed in February eighteen nineteen. The American Senate quickly approved the treaty. But the king of Spain delayed his approval for almost two years.

美国和西班牙1819年2月签署了条约,立即得到美国国会参议院的批准,但是西班牙国王迟迟不在条约上签字,足足拖了两年。

He had hoped the United States would agree to one more demand. He did not want the United States to recognize the independence of the rebel Spanish colonies in South America.

他希望美国接受一项额外要求,那就是,不承认西班牙在南美洲的殖民地的独立。

The United States rejected the king's demand. It said Spain must approve the Florida treaty, or it would take Florida on its own. The threat succeeded. Spain approved the treaty.

美国拒绝接受,并威胁说,西班牙必须批准佛罗里达条约,否则美国就要强行夺取佛罗里达。西班牙被逼无耐,只好签字。

VOICE ONE:

Many Americans believed that the United States should recognize the independent republics in South America. The speaker of the House of Representatives, Henry Clay, agreed.

很多美国人都认为,美国应该承认南美共和国的独立,国会众议院议长亨利.克雷就是其中一员。

He said recognition would help protect the rights and liberties of the new republics. He said it would lead to economic ties with the United States. And he said it would make the new republics follow the lead of the United States in diplomacy and foreign policy. As a result of all this, Clay said, the United States would become the leading nation in the Americas.

他表示,外交上的承认有助于保护这些新共和国的权利和自由。他说,这样做还能加强它们跟美国的经济联系,让它们效仿美国的外交政策,使美国在整个美洲取得领导地位。

VOICE TWO:

Secretary of State Adams disagreed. He did not believe that the new republics could develop free and liberal forms of government. He also feared that United States' recognition of the South American republics would lead to trouble with European nations.

亚当斯国务卿表示反对。他不认为南美新独立的国家能够建立自由政府,他还担心,美国承认它们的独立,会带来跟欧洲国家的麻烦。

At the end of the Napoleonic wars, some of the nations of Europe joined in an agreement to keep the peace. They agreed to help each other put down rebellions. Such rebellions were defeated in Spain and Italy.

拿破仑战争结束后,一些欧洲国家签署协议,维持和平,并相互协助,镇压反叛势力,在西班牙和意大利都取得了成功。

Britain refused to be part of the agreement. And it did not want the alliance to interfere in South America. Britain had a good trade with the new republics. Britain proposed a joint statement with the United States. The statement would say that neither country would seize Spanish colonies in the new world. And both would oppose any effort by Spain to give its American territory to another European nation.

但是英国不肯加入协议,也不希望这些欧洲国家插手南美洲的事务。英国跟南美新独立的国家建立了良好的贸易关系。英国提议跟美国发表联合声明,保证两国都不会夺取西班牙在南美洲的殖民地,同时反对西班牙将其美洲领地送给其他任何一个欧洲国家。

VOICE ONE:

At first, President Monroe thought he would accept the British proposal. He asked former presidents Jefferson and Madison for their advice. Both urged him to accept it. Secretary of State Adams, however, disagreed sharply. He said the United States should act alone in protesting European interference in South America.

门罗总统本想接受英国的提案,向前总统杰斐逊和麦迪逊征求意见。两人都表示支持。然而,国务卿亚当斯坚决反对。他提出,美国在反对欧洲干涉南美事务的问题上,应该自己采取行动。

President Monroe finally accepted the advice of his secretary of state. He included Adams's ideas in his message to Congress in eighteen twenty-three. They became known as the Monroe Doctrine. That will be our story next week.

门罗总统最终接受了亚当斯的意见。他1823年向国会提交了美国外交政策原则,也就是所谓的“门罗主义”,里面就包括了亚当斯的主张。

(MUSIC)

ANNOUNCER: Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Tony Riggs and Larry West. Transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our programs are online, along with historical images, at www.unsv.com. Join us each week for THE MAKING OF A NATION - an American history series in VOA Special English.

网友的学习评论(1条):
作者:Alumni
Florida didnt belong to the United States at the first term of James Monroe's presidency, and we know that Louisiana also didnt belong to the United States at the time of Thomas Jefferson's presidency. that means the United States was not built in a day, just like Rome was not built in a day.
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