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#48: War of 1812 Ends, but Fighting Continues

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Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.

Most recently in our series, we have been talking about the War of Eighteen Twelve between the United States and Britain. In the summer of eighteen fourteen, the two countries opened peace talks at Ghent, in Belgium. But Britain was in no hurry to agree on a peace treaty. This week, Maurice Joyce and Stuart Spencer tell us about how the War of Eighteen Twelve ended.

1814年夏天,英美两国谈判代表在比利时的根特举行和平谈判。然而,英方谈判代表一味拖延时间。

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

British forces were planning several campaigns in the United States later in the year. Successful military campaigns could force the United States to accept the kind of treaty Britain wanted.

英军还在继续策划后半年的战斗,战场上的胜利,无疑会成为英国谈判的筹码。

British representatives to the talks demanded that the United States give control of its Northwest Territory to the Indians. They also asked that the United States give part of the state of Maine to Canada, and make other changes in the border.

英方谈判代表要求美国将西北部地区让给印第安人,还要求美国把缅因州的部分地区划给加拿大,并且重新划定美加边境。

VOICE TWO:

John Quincy Adams
John Quincy Adams

United States representatives were led by John Quincy Adams, son of former president John Adams. They made equally tough demands. The United States wanted payment for damages suffered during the war. It also demanded that Britain stop seizing American seamen for the British navy. And the United States wanted all of Canada.

美方首席谈判代表是前总统约翰.亚当斯的儿子约翰.昆西.亚当斯。他也提出了强硬的要求:包括要求英国赔偿美国的战争损失、要求英军停止强硬扣押和征用美国海员、并将加拿大划归美国。

The British representatives said they could not even discuss the question of impressing Americans into the British navy.

英方谈判代表说,在英军征用美国海员的问题上,丝毫没有谈判的余地。

John Quincy Adams had little hope the talks would succeed. The Americans would surrender none of their territory. Old John Adams, the former president, told President James Madison: "I would continue this war forever before surrendering an acre of America."

约翰.昆西.亚当斯对谈判不抱任何希望,因为在领土问题上,美国绝对不会让步。他的父亲,美国前总统老亚当斯告诉麦迪逊总统说,“就是永远打下去,我也不会出让美国的一寸土地。”

His son, John Quincy, did not believe the British would reduce any of their demands. But another of the Americans at Ghent, House Speaker Henry Clay, felt differently. Clay was right. After Britain received word that its military campaigns had failed at Baltimore and Plattsburgh, its representatives became easier to negotiate with. They dropped the demand that the United States give the Northwest Territory to the Indians.

约翰.昆西.亚当斯不相信英国会降低要求,但是美方的另外一位谈判代表、国会众议院议长亨利.克莱并不这么看。结果证明,克莱是对的。英国代表得知巴尔的摩和普拉茨堡战役失败后,立即放缓了口气,不再要求美国把西北地区让给印第安人了。

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

Britain still hoped for military successes in America. The British government asked the Duke of Wellington to lead British forces in Canada. The duke had won important victories in the war against Napoleon. Perhaps he could do the same in America. The duke was offered the power to continue the war or to make peace.

不过,英国依旧希望在美国能打个胜仗。英国政府要求多次打败拿破仑的韦林顿公爵亲自出马,希望他能在美国再建奇功。英国政府授权韦林顿公爵,可以全权决定是继续作战,还是握手言和。

Wellington told the government he would go to America if requested. But he refused to promise any success. He said it was not a new general that Britain needed in America, but naval control of the Great Lakes that separated the United States from Canada.

韦林顿公爵表态说,他可以奉命前往美国,但是他不保证能取得胜利。他表示,英军需要的不是一位新统帅,而是对美加之间大湖区的控制权。

"The question is," Wellington said, "can we get this naval control? If we cannot, then I will do you no good in America. I think," said Wellington, "that you might as well sign a peace treaty with the United States now. I think you have no right to demand any territory from the United States. The failure of the British military campaigns in America gives you no right to make such demands."

韦林顿公爵说,“问题在于,我们能否赢得水上控制权,如果不能,我去了也无济于事,我觉得还不如干脆现在就跟美国签署和平协议。我认为,英国没有权利要求美国割让领土,英军在战斗中失败,我们没有提出这种要求的权利。”

VOICE TWO:

Detail of Amedee Forestier's
Detail of Amedee Forestier's "A Hundred Years Peace. The Signature of the Treaty of Ghent between Great Britain and the United States of America"

The British government accepted this advice from its top military expert. It ordered the British representatives at Ghent to drop the demands for American territory. The Americans then dropped their demands for Canadian territory.

英国政府接受了韦林顿公爵的意见,下令比利时的谈判代表放弃对美国的领土要求。美方代表随即同意放弃对加拿大的领土要求。

The things that led to the war no longer existed. Britain's war with France had caused the British and French to interfere with neutral American trade. And Britain had needed men for its navy. Now, the war with France was over. No longer was there any reason to interfere with the trade of any nation. And no longer was there any need to seize Americans for service in the British navy.

原先引发1812年战争的因素都已经消失了。英法战争期间,英法双方都干预美国做为中立国的贸易活动,而且英国也需要为海军补充兵源。英法战争结束后,英国没有理由再去干涉任何国家的贸易,也不再需要抓美国人去充军了。

On the day before Christmas, eighteen fourteen, the United States and Britain signed a simple treaty. In it, each side agreed to stop fighting. They agreed to settle all their differences at future negotiations.

1814年圣诞节前夜,美英两国谈判代表签署了一份非常简单的和平协议。根据协议,双方同意停战,并决定通过后续谈判解决剩下的纠纷。

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

The war had ended. But one more battle was to be fought before news of the peace treaty reached the United States.

然而,停战的消息传到美国之前,双方还有最后一场仗要打。

During the autumn of eighteen fourteen, British soldiers at Jamaica began preparing for an attack against New Orleans, at the mouth of the Mississippi River. Late in November, this force of about seven thousand five hundred men sailed from Jamaica to New Orleans.

1814年秋天,驻扎在牙买加的英军士兵开始为进攻密西西比河口处的新奥尔良做准备。11月下旬,一支大约七千五百人的队伍从牙买加出发,坐船驶向新奥尔良。

The British soldiers were commanded by General Sir Edward Pakenham. The general did not take his men directly to the mouth of the Mississippi River. Instead, they sailed across a lake east of the city.

英军统帅爱德华.帕克南没有率兵直接赶往密西西比河口,而是坐船穿过了新奥尔良以东的一个湖。

Early during the afternoon of December twenty-third, General Andrew Jackson, the commander of American forces at New Orleans, learned the British force was near.

12月23号下午,新奥尔良的美军指挥官安德鲁.杰克逊接到消息,英军部队正在逼近。

VOICE TWO:

General Jackson was a good soldier and a great leader of men. He fought in the Revolutionary War, then studied law. He moved west to Nashville, Tennessee. The general also served in both houses of the United States Congress.

杰克逊将军英勇善战,运筹帷幄,他参加过美国独立战争,后来搬到田纳西州的纳什维尔。杰克逊还曾担任为国会参众两院议员。

When war broke out in eighteen twelve, he was elected general of a group of volunteer soldiers from Tennessee. Jackson was a rough man. His soldiers feared and respected him. They called him "Old Hickory," because he seemed as tough as hickory wood.

1812年战争爆发后,田纳西州的志愿部队推举他担任统帅。杰克逊是条硬汉,部下对他既害怕,又敬重。他们称他为“老山核桃”,因为他跟核桃木一样硬。

Jackson was given responsibility for defending the Gulf coast. Earlier in the year, he had attacked Pensacola, in east Florida, and forced out several hundred British marines. Jackson believed the British would attack Mobile before attacking New Orleans. He left part of his forces at Mobile and took the others to the mouth of the Mississippi.

杰克逊负责保卫墨西哥湾。1814年早些时候,他曾经对佛罗里达州东部的彭萨科拉发动进攻,赶跑了几百名英军海军。杰克逊原以为,英国人会先攻打莫比尔,再攻打新奥尔良,所以把一部分兵力留在莫比尔,其余人驻守在密西西比河口。

VOICE ONE:

Engraving of Andrew Jackson commanding American troops in the Battle of New Orleans
Engraving of Andrew Jackson commanding American troops in the Battle of New Orleans

Jackson was a sick man when he got to New Orleans. And what he found made him feel no better. Little had been done to prepare for the expected British attack. Jackson declared martial law and began building the city's defenses.

抵达新奥尔良的时候,杰克逊正在生病,所见所闻更让他火冒三丈,因为英国人大军逼近,但是新奥尔良却丝毫没有准备。杰克逊立即宣布戒严,争分夺秒地构筑新奥尔良的防御工事。

Most of the work on the defenses had been completed when Jackson got word that the British were only a few kilometers from New Orleans. "Gentlemen," Jackson told his officers, "the British are below. We must fight them tonight."

杰克逊得到消息说,英军部队距离新奥尔良只有几公里的时候,新奥尔良的防御安排已经大致完成。杰克逊告诉手下的指挥官说,“先生们,英国人来了,我们今天晚上就要行动。”

The British soldiers rested. They believed it would be easy to capture the city the next day. But Jackson rushed up guns and men, and attacked the British by surprise just after dark. Then, the Americans retreated to a place about eight kilometers south of the city.

英军士兵本来已经安营扎寨,准备第二天发起进攻,结果被杰克逊率领的部队打了个措手不及。美军随后撤退到新奥尔良以南大约八公里的地方。

VOICE TWO:

Jackson had chosen this place carefully. On the right was the Mississippi River. On the left was a swamp -- mud and water that could not be crossed. In front of the American soldiers was an open field.

这是杰克逊精心挑选的地方,右边是密西西比河,左边是一片沼泽地,面前是开阔的平原。

For two weeks, the British soldiers waited. They tested the American defenses at several places, but found no weaknesses. Every day, Jackson had his men improve their positions. At night, small groups of Jackson's soldiers would slip across the field and silently attack British soldiers guarding the other side.

整整两个星期的时间里,英军一直按兵不动。他们不断试探美军的防御,没有发现任何薄弱环节。杰克逊白天带人加固防御,晚上派小股部队突袭英军。

Finally, on January eighth, the British attacked. They expected the Americans to flee in the face of their strong attack. But the Americans stood firm.

1月8号,英军大举进攻。他们本以为美军会掉头逃窜,但是没想到,美军坚守阵地。

Jackson's artillery fired into the enemy. When the British got as close as one hundred fifty meters, the Americans began to fire their long rifles. The rain of bullets and shells was deadly. General Pakenham was wounded twice and then killed by a shell that exploded near him. Only one British soldier reached the top of the American defenses.

杰克逊先是炮轰英军,等他们前进到大约150米远的地方时,才下令开枪。炮弹和子弹象雨点般飞来,英军统帅帕克南两次受伤,最后被一枚炸弹炸死。最后,只有一名英军士兵冲破了美军的防线。

VOICE ONE:

The British finally retreated. They left behind more than two thousand dead and wounded. Five hundred other British soldiers had been captured. Thirteen Americans were killed. It was a great victory for the United States, but one that was not necessary. The war had ended, by treaty, two weeks earlier.

英军最终决定撤退。在这场战役中,英军有两千多人伤亡,还有五百人被俘,美军只有13个人被打死。对美国来说,这是一个大胜仗,但同时也是一次没有必要的冲突,因为早在两个星期前,英美双方已经签署和约,宣布战争结束了。

(MUSIC)

ANNOUNCER: Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Maurice Joyce and Stuart Spencer. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION – an American history series in VOA Special English.

网友的学习评论(2条):
作者:Charles
History develops so splendid in this article, i love it, and one can learn more about many parts of the US through this program, such as the geography,and persons of the United States, Great.. Keep learning it.. find more surprise
作者:Alumni
---The United States declared its independence from Britain on July fourth, seventeen seventy-six. ----Next, the Continental Congress had to decide when the states would choose a president. It agreed on March fourth, seventeen eighty-nine. Is it the National Day of the United States?--- and the second war between Britain and the America ended in 1812. the America did experience chaos.
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