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#41: Jefferson Suspends Trade with Europe in 1807

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ANNOUNCER:

Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.

This week in our series, Steve Ember and Shirley Griffith continue the story of Thomas Jefferson's second term as president.

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson

In the early eighteen hundreds, Britain and France were at war with each other. The United States remained neutral. President Jefferson did not want to become involved in a war. He believed it would destroy all the progress he had made.

十九世纪初期,英法战争期间,美国保持中立。托马斯.杰斐逊总统不希望卷入战争,他相信,战火会摧毁业已取得的所有进展。

His economic policies had helped to pay much of the national debt. And he was able to reduce taxes. Staying neutral was not easy, however. The United States was having trouble with Britain.

在杰斐逊经济政策的引导下,美国不仅还清了大部分债务,而且还减少了人民的赋税。然而,保持中立并不简单,美国跟英国之间发生了矛盾。

VOICE ONE:

For many years, Britain had been taking men by force to serve in its navy. The custom was called 'impressment.' Britain claimed the right to impress -- or seize -- any British citizen, anywhere.

多年来,英国海军一直采取强制入伍的政策。英国政府认为,他们有权强制任何地方的英国公民参军服役。

Conditions in the British navy were not good at that time, and many sailors deserted. Some went to work on American ships. The American ships were stopped and searched in British waters. Anyone born in Britain was seized. Several thousand sailors were taken off American ships during the early eighteen hundreds. Sometimes, American citizens were taken by mistake.

当时,英国海军的条件恶劣,不少水兵当逃兵开小差,其中一些人到美国船只上工作,因此美国船只途径英国水域,经常会遭到拦截和搜查,只要是英国出生的人就会被抓走。十九世纪初期,共有几千名水兵被英国海军从美国船只上抓走,其中也有被误抓的美国人。

VOICE TWO:

Impressment was one of two major problems the United States was having with Britain in the early eighteen hundreds. The other problem was trade.

强制征兵是美国和英国十九世纪初期的两大主要矛盾之一,另外一大矛盾是贸易。

Britain wanted to stop the United States from trading with France and its colonies. British warships blocked the port of New York all through the year eighteen-oh-five. No American ship could leave without being searched. When goods for France were discovered, the ship was taken to Halifax on the coast of Canada.

英国希望阻止美国跟法国及其殖民地进行交易。1805年整整一年,纽约港口都被英国战舰封锁,出港船只要接受搜查。一旦发现运往法国的物资,货船就要被押往加拿大的哈利法克斯港。

There, a British court had the power to seize the goods and force the ship's owners to pay a large amount of money.

在那里,英国法庭有权没收物资,并强迫船主缴纳巨额罚款。

VOICE ONE:

James Monroe
James Monroe

President Jefferson protested this interference in American trade. He sent James Monroe to London to negotiate a treaty. Jefferson wanted Britain to stop taking sailors from American ships, and to stop interfering in the trade of neutral nations. Monroe tried many times to discuss such an agreement. But the British foreign minister was always too busy to see him.

杰斐逊总统对英国插手美国贸易提出抗议。他派詹姆斯.门罗到伦敦去,设法跟英国达成某种协议。杰斐逊希望英国不要再到美国船只上去抓捕水兵,并停止对中立国贸易的干涉。门罗多次试图跟英国交涉,但是英国外交大臣一直以没时间为由,拒绝接见他。

VOICE TWO:

In Washington, Congress decided to act and not wait for a treaty. The House of Representatives debated two proposals.

与此同时,美国国会决定不再等待,主动出击。国会众议院讨论了两项提案。

One proposal would stop all goods from being imported into the United States from Britain and its colonies. Imports would be permitted only after Britain had answered America's protests.

其中一项提案要求,在英国对美国的抗议做出答复前,禁止从英国及其殖民地进口物资。

The representative who offered the proposal said: "We do not wish to destroy the ties that ought to join nations of the same interests. To prevent this, we want an agreement that will satisfy both the United States and Britain. But if Britain continues its hostile acts, then we must loosen these ties of friendship."

支持这项提案的议员说,“我们不希望破坏国际关系,因此希望能达成让美国和英国都满意的协议,但是如果英国继续敌对行动,我们就必须疏远这种友好关系。”

VOICE ONE:

Some members of Congress felt that this measure was too extreme. They believed it might lead to war with Britain. The second proposal was more moderate. It would ban only those British goods which could be gotten from other places.

有些国会议员觉得这样做过于极端,担心会导致战争。另外一项提案则相对温和,只禁止从英国进口那些可以从其他地方进口的物资。

The House of Representatives debated the two proposals. After four months, it finally approved a ban on the import of some British goods.

美国国会对这两项提案进行了四个月的讨论,最后批准了第二项提案,拒绝进口部分英国物资。

VOICE TWO:

President Jefferson did not want the trade ban to last long. He pressed for an agreement with Britain. He sent William Pinkney to assist James Monroe in London.

杰斐逊总统不希望贸易禁运延续太长的时间,他的本意是希望借此迫使英国接受协议。他让威廉.平克尼到伦敦去,协助门罗的工作。

The two diplomats were told to make clear to Britain what it must do to end the limited ban on British imports. Britain was to stop taking sailors from American ships. It was to stop interfering with trade between the United States and the colonies of France. And it was to pay for all property seized from American ships.

平克尼和门罗的任务是清楚地告诉英国,如果想要结束进口限制,就不能再从美国船只上抓捕水兵,停止干涉美国跟法国殖民地的贸易,对没收美国货船的物资进行赔偿。

Monroe and Pinkney knew they could never reach an agreement if they obeyed their orders. So they decided to negotiate on their own as best they could.

平克尼和门罗明白,如果完全照办,肯定无法达成协议,因此决定自做主张。

VOICE ONE:

They dropped the demand for payment for seized property. And they accepted a note -- separate from the agreement – about impressment. The note promised that Britain would be careful not to seize any more American sailors.

不要求英国赔偿没收的物资;在强制征兵的问题上,他们也接受了一项备注,只让英国保证不再抓捕美国水兵。

At the end of December, eighteen-oh-six, Monroe and Pinkney sent word to Washington that the treaty was ready. But from the way their note was written, it seemed the treaty might not be satisfactory.

1806年年底,门罗和平克尼通知华盛顿,可以签署协议了。但是从他们的信中可以看出,协议内容似乎不尽人意。

Secretary of State James Madison wrote back. He said if the two diplomats could get no clear agreement on the question of impressment, then the talks should end without a treaty. But it was too late. Monroe and Pinkney had signed the agreement. But it was too late. Monroe and Pinkney had signed the agreement.

当时的美国国务卿詹姆斯.麦迪逊回信说,如果平克尼和门罗无法在强制征兵的问题上达成明确共识,就不要签署协议。但是太晚了,门罗和平克尼已经签字了。

VOICE TWO:

President Jefferson was angry. His negotiators had disobeyed his orders. He refused to send the treaty to the Senate for approval. And he said he would tell Monroe and Pinkney to re-open negotiations.

谈判特使竟敢违背自己的命令,让杰斐逊总统十分气愤。他决定,要让门罗和平克尼重新谈判。

Before that could happen, an incident added more fuel to the diplomatic fire. A British navy ship attacked the American Navy ship Chesapeake while looking for deserters.

但是尚未付诸行动,就发生了一起冲突,加剧了英美两国间的外交紧张。事情的起因是,一艘搜捕逃兵的英国海军舰只对美国海军切萨皮克号发起了进攻。

Britain believed that some of the deserters were on the American ship. The United States said the men were American citizens who had been forced to serve in the British navy. It refused to return them.

英国相信,有些逃兵就在切萨皮克号上,但美国方面说,船上的都是被强迫在英国海军里服役的美国公民,所以拒绝交人。

VOICE ONE:

When the Chesapeake sailed out of American waters, the British ship tried to stop it and search it. The American captain did not stop. The British ship first fired two shots in front of the Chesapeake. Then it fired all its guns directly at the American ship. The Chesapeake was able to answer with only one gun. The American captain surrendered.

切萨皮克号驶离美国水域后,英国舰只试图拦截搜查。切萨皮克号船长拒绝停船。英国舰只先是向切萨皮克号船头打了两枪,随后将所有大炮对准切萨皮克号开火,切萨皮克号只有一门大炮,最后只好投降。消息很快传到华盛顿。

News of the British attack spread quickly. President Jefferson ordered all British navy ships in American waters to leave at once. He told citizens not to aid them. And he said any person -- American or British -- who disobeyed his orders would be arrested.

杰斐逊总统勒令所有英国舰只立即离开美国水域,告诉美国人不要帮助他们,违令者一律辑拿归案,不论是美国人,还是英国人。

VOICE TWO:

In London, James Monroe protested the attack on the Chesapeake. But the British foreign minister did not want to talk about the incident. Monroe saw little purpose in remaining. So he sailed for home.

在伦敦,门罗对切萨皮克号受袭事件提出抗议,但是英国外交大臣不愿讨论此事,门罗觉得再待下去已经没有任何意义,起身回国。

A few days after he left London, the British government announced a new rule. It said any American ship sailing to Europe must stop first in Britain to get permission. Ships violating the rule would be seized. Relations between the two countries had reached the breaking point.

门罗离开英国几天后,英国政府就颁布了新规定,要求凡是驶往欧洲的美国船只都要停靠英国,申请许可,违反规定的船只一律扣押。英美两国关系濒临破裂。

VOICE ONE:

When President Jefferson learned of the new rule, he called a cabinet meeting to discuss the crisis. He said the United States had three choices: Go to war with Britain. Stop all trade with Europe. Do nothing. Jefferson supported the second choice -- a total embargo -- no trade with Europe.

杰斐逊听到这一消息后,召集内阁开会,商谈这一危机。杰斐逊说,美国面临三种选择,一是跟英国开战;二是停止跟欧洲的一切贸易;三是按兵不动。杰斐逊支持第二种选择,断绝跟欧洲的贸易。

The president sent a special message to Congress. He proposed that no ships be permitted to enter the United States, and no ships be permitted to leave. Both houses of Congress approved Jefferson's proposal. He signed the measure in the closing days of eighteen-oh-seven.

杰斐逊向国会提议,禁止任何船只进出美国水域,得到了国会参众两院的批准。1807年年底,杰斐逊在法案上签字生效。

VOICE TWO:

Jefferson later explained why he thought the embargo was the best choice of action. He said if American ships had sailed out of American waters, they would have been seized by Britain or France. That would have forced the United States into war. Jefferson said: "It was far better to stop all communications with these nations until they returned to some sense of justice."

杰斐逊后来解释说,他认为禁运是最好的选择,理由是,如果美国船只离开美国海域,就可能被英国或是法国扣押,迫使美国参战。杰斐逊说,在这些国家恢复理智之前,美国宁可断绝跟这些国家的一切联络。

VOICE ONE:

Jefferson's decision, and continuing tense relations with Britain, caused problems through his final days as president. The situation did not improve for America's next president, James Madison. That will be our story next week.

杰斐逊的决定,外加上跟英国关系的持续紧张,给杰斐逊任期的最后一段时间带来了麻烦。这种情况还要留待下届总统詹姆斯.麦迪逊去解决。

(MUSIC)

ANNOUNCER:

Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Steve Ember and Shirley Griffith. Join us each week for THE MAKING OF A NATION – an American history series in VOA Special English. Transcripts, podcasts and MP3s of our programs can be found at www.unsv.com.

网友的学习评论(3条):
作者:xuding45
In the second presidency Tomas Jefferson faced many troubles. One of them coped the relationship between Britain and America. Jefffson decided to suspend trade with Europe, in this way America could avoid the war with European countries.
作者:Alumni
another war could take place between the United States and Britain . we could foresee it in being at daggers drawn between them ,with the Britain 's sezing the sailers of America and America's reaction of ' embargo' policy. it would be ravishing !!
作者:hliu
At early eighteen hundreds, America was at its begining phase, it's not powerful enough. It's not completely independent at least in terms of trade.
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