官方APP下载:钱柜娱乐qg999全能特训(微信小程序版,支持苹果手机、安卓手机)
创办于2003年
UNSV记不住?那就记中文谐音“忧安思危”吧!
UNSV钱柜娱乐qg999学习频道 - Slow and steady wins the race!
报名“钱柜娱乐qg999口语慢成班”,三年拿下钱柜娱乐qg999口语!
手机微信学钱柜娱乐qg999
打开手机微信,扫描以下二维码,即可通过我们的微信小程序学钱柜娱乐qg999。
钱柜娱乐qg999全能特训(微信小程序)
UNSV钱柜娱乐qg999学习频道淘宝网店
淘宝网店购买咨询
客服短信:18913948480
客服邮箱:web@unsv.com
标准VIP会员
全站资料无限下载、手机APP免费使用。
¥598元/12个月
钱柜娱乐qg999口语慢成班
承诺3年拿下口语!

#37: Jefferson Moves to Cut Debt, Spending

阅读次数:

VIP会员专享下载:(非VIP会员无权下载!如果想下载,但还不是VIP会员,请点此订购
下载方式:使用鼠标右键(注意是鼠标右键!)点击下面的MP3音频/MP4视频链接,然后选择“另存为…”。
MP3节目录音(英文版) MP3节目录音(英文版)  MP3节目录音(中文版) MP3节目录音(中文版)  PDF节目文稿 PDF节目文稿 
文章正文
同步字幕

ANNOUNCER:

Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION – an American history series in VOA Special English.

By eighteen hundred and one, Thomas Jefferson of Virginia had already done much for his country. He wrote the Declaration of Independence in seventeen seventy-six. He served as America's first ambassador to France and its first secretary of state. Now he would govern the nation.

在上次的建国史话中,我们讲到,1801年美国新总统托马斯·杰斐逊宣誓就职。他是美国的功臣,1776年撰写美国独立宣言,后来曾任派驻法国的第一任使节,也是美国的第一位国务卿。如今,他走马上任,成为美国的第三位总统。

This week in our series, Maurice Joyce and Richard Rael continue the story of America's third president.

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

Thomas Jefferson by Moses Jacob Ezekiel
Thomas Jefferson by Moses Jacob Ezekiel

Thomas Jefferson was happy and hopeful as he took office. His new political party, the Republicans, had defeated the older Federalist Party. The Federalists had controlled the government for twelve years.

杰斐逊上任之初,意气风发。他所领导的共和党击败了12年来一直控制着政府的联邦党。

America's first president, George Washington, was not a Federalist. But Federalists controlled the cabinet and the Congress during Washington's two terms. America's second president, John Adams, was a Federalist. So the party continued its control during his term.

虽然美国开国总统华盛顿并不是联邦党人,但是在他八年的任期内,内阁和国会始终在联邦党人的控制之下。第二位总统约翰·亚当斯本人就是联邦党人,使联邦党的主导地位得以继续。

VOICE ONE:

The Federalists and the Republicans held very different opinions about how to govern the nation. Yet the change in power from one party to the other took place peacefully.

对于治国之道,联邦党人和共和党人意见分歧,但是两党之间的权力交替却是以和平方式实现的。

Thomas Jefferson recognized the importance of this fact. He said: "What we have done in this country is all new. The force of public opinion is new. But the most important and pleasing newness is that we have changed our government without violence. This shows a strength of American character that will give long life to our republic."

托马斯·杰斐逊认识到了这一事实的重要性。他曾经说过,“我们这个国家所做的一切都是全新的。公众舆论的力量是全新的。但最重要、最令人愉快的新事物是,我们没有借助暴力手段,就实现了政府的交替。这种情况显示了美国的力量,这种力量会让我们的共和体制永世长存。”

VOICE TWO:

President Jefferson wanted to work with Federalists for the good of the nation. But he chose no Federalists for his cabinet. All the cabinet officers were strong Republicans. All were loyal to Thomas Jefferson.

为了国家利益,杰斐逊总统希望跟联邦党人合作,但是他没有挑选联邦党人进入内阁,所有内阁大臣都是对杰斐逊忠心耿耿的铁杆共和党人。

James Madison of Virginia was secretary of state; Albert Gallatin of Pennsylvania, secretary of the treasury; General Henry Dearborn of New Hampshire, secretary of war; Robert Smith of Maryland, secretary of the Navy; and Levi Lincoln of Massachusetts, attorney general.

维吉尼亚州的詹姆斯·麦迪逊担任国务卿、宾夕法尼亚州的阿尔伯特·加勒廷担任财政部长、新罕布什尔州的亨利·迪尔伯恩将军担任战争部长、马里兰州的罗伯特·史密斯担任海军部长,麻萨诸塞州的利瓦伊·林肯担任司法部长。

VOICE ONE:

For other government positions, Jefferson decided to take a middle road. He would remove all officials appointed by former President John Adams during his lame duck period. That was the time after Jefferson won the election, but before he took office. He also would remove all officials found guilty of dishonesty.

对于其他政府官员,杰斐逊决定采取中间路线。凡是从他当选到就职这段时间里被亚当斯总统任命的一律免职,所有不诚实的官员也被扫地出门。

He said: "Federalists in government positions have nothing to fear if they have acted honestly and with justice. Those who have acted badly must go. As for the men I appoint to office, they must be of the highest character. I will accept no others."

杰斐逊说,“政府里的联邦党人,只要诚实公正,就不用害怕。但行为恶劣者恕不挽留。我任命的官员必须品德高尚,否则一概不用。”

VOICE TWO:

Federalist leaders denounced Jefferson's policy. They thought all Federalists should keep their government jobs. Many Republican leaders denounced Jefferson, too. They thought no Federalist should have a government job. The president was caught between the two groups.

联邦党领袖痛斥杰斐逊的政策,他们觉得,所有联邦党人都应该保持职务。很多共和党人也指责杰斐逊,认为不能让任何联邦党人留任。杰斐逊被夹在了中间。

He finally answered his critics. "Shouts and screams from Federalists or Republicans," he said, "will not force me to remove one more official, or one less. I will do what I think is right and just."

最后,他对批判者做出回应。杰斐逊说,“来自联邦党人和共和党人的大声吼叫不会让我多解除,也不会让我少解除任何一个官员的职务,我会按照自己的判断去做。”

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

Ivory note pages owned by Thomas Jefferson
Ivory note pages owned by Thomas Jefferson

Once President Jefferson formed his cabinet, he began planning the policies of his administration. His two closest advisers were Secretary of State Madison and Treasury Secretary Gallatin. First, they discussed financial policy.

杰斐逊组阁完毕后,开始着手制定政策。国务卿麦迪逊和财政部长加勒廷是他的左膀右臂。首先是金融政策。

They agreed that the government must stop spending as much money as it did under former president Adams. So, government departments would get less money. They also agreed that the government must pay its debts as quickly as possible.

他们三人一致同意,政府必须缩减开支,这就意味着减少政府机构的资金。他们还决定,政府必须尽快偿还债务。

The government owed millions of dollars. Each year, the debt grew larger because of the interest on these loans.

当时,美国政府有两百万美元的债务,加上利息,越滚越大。

Albert Gallatin said: "We must have a strong policy. The debt must be paid. If we do not do this, our children, our grandchildren, and many generations to come will have to pay for our mistakes."

财政部长加勒廷说,“我们必须要有坚定的政策,债务一定要还清。否则的话,我们的子孙后代就要为我们的错误付出代价。”

VOICE TWO:

President Jefferson wanted to pay the government debt. He also wanted to cut taxes on the production and sale of some products, such as whiskey and tobacco. He hoped the government could get all the money it needed from import taxes and from the sale of public lands.

杰斐逊希望偿还政府债务,他同时也想减少威士忌和烟草等产品的生产和销售税。他希望政府能依靠进口税和出售公有土地,得到必要的资金。

Jefferson began saving money by ending unnecessary jobs in the executive branch. He reduced the number of American ambassadors. He dismissed all tax inspectors.

为了节省开支,杰斐逊大刀阔斧,砍掉了政府里很多不必要的职务,他还减少了美国驻外使节的数量,遣散了所有税务检查官。

Congress would have to take the next steps. "Most government offices," Jefferson said, "were created by laws of Congress. Congress alone must act on these positions. The citizens of the United States have paid for these jobs with their taxes. It is not right or just for the government to take more than it needs from the people."

下面就要看国会了。杰斐逊说,“大多数政府部门都是国会立法建立的,因此只有国会才能做出改变。美国公民交税养活官员,政府不能过分要求人民付出,这样做于情于理都说不通。”

Jefferson especially wanted Congress to reduce the judicial branch. He hoped to dismiss all the Federalist judges former President Adams appointed during his last days in office. These men were known as "midnight judges."

杰斐逊尤其希望国会裁减司法体系的编制,解除亚当斯总统任期最后一段时间里任命的所有联邦党籍的所谓“午夜”法官。

VOICE ONE:

The Federalists were furious. They accused Jefferson of trying to destroy the courts. They warned that his financial program would crush the nation. They declared there would be anarchy if Federalist officials were dismissed.

联邦党人气愤填膺。他们指责杰斐逊试图破坏法院体制。他们警告说,杰斐逊的财政计划会把国家毁掉。他们宣布,如果解除联邦党籍官员的职务,社会就会陷入无政府状态。

Most people, however, were happy. They liked what Jefferson said. They especially liked his plan to cut taxes.

然而,杰斐逊的主张让大多数人感到满意,尤其是他的减税计划。

Alexander Hamilton
Alexander Hamilton

Jefferson's biggest critic was his long-time political opponent, Alexander Hamilton. Hamilton had served as the nation's first treasury secretary. Now, he was a private lawyer in New York City. He published his criticism of Jefferson in a newspaper he started, the New York Evening Post.

杰斐逊最主要的批判者是他的政治宿敌亚历山大·汉密尔顿。汉密尔顿曾担任美国第一任财政部长,后来解甲归田,在纽约开业当律师。他在自己创办的纽约晚报上发表文章,批判杰斐逊的政策。

VOICE TWO:

While the public debated Jefferson's policies, the Congress debated his proposal to reduce the number of federal courts. Federalist congressmen claimed that the president was trying to interfere with the judiciary. This, they said, violated the Constitution.

就在社会各界公开讨论杰斐逊的政策之际,美国国会也在讨论杰斐逊提出的减少联邦法院数量的建议。联邦党籍国会议员称,杰斐逊这样做是干预司法,违反宪法。

Republican congressmen argued that the Constitution gave Congress the power to create courts and to close them. They said the former administration had no right to appoint the so-called "midnight judges."

但是共和党籍国会议员则争辩说,宪法给了国会创立法院的权力,也给了国会关闭法院的权力。他们指出,上届政府本来就无权任命那些所谓的“午夜”法官。

The Republicans won the argument. Congress approved President Jefferson's proposal on the courts.

最后,共和党人占了上风,国会批准了杰斐逊总统减少法院数量的建议。

VOICE ONE:

Next, Congress debated the president's proposal to cut taxes. Federalists said it was dangerous for the government to depend mainly on import taxes. They said such a policy would lead to smuggling. People would try to bring goods into the United States secretly, without paying taxes on them.

接下来,国会又围绕减税的提案展开讨论。联邦党人说,政府开支完全依靠进口税是很危险的,这种政策会导致走私猖獗。大家为了逃税,会设法把商品走私运进国界。

Federalists also said that if the United States cut taxes, it would not have enough money to pay its debts. Then no one would want to invest in the United States again.

联邦党人还说,如果减税,政府就没有足够的钱还债,这样一来,就没有人愿意再投资给美国了。

VOICE TWO:

Republicans said they were not afraid of smugglers. The danger, they said, would come from taxing the American people. There was no need for production and sales taxes. And, they said, the American people knew it. The Republicans also said they were sure the government would have enough money to pay its debts.

共和党人则指出,走私并不可怕,危险在于对美国人民的苛捐杂税。他们说,政府没有必要征收生产和销售税,美国人民清楚地知道这一点。共和党人还说,他们可以肯定,政府有足够的钱可以还债。

The Republicans won this legislative fight, too. Both the Senate and the House of Representatives voted to approve the president's plan to cut taxes.

最后,共和党人再次取得胜利,国会参众两院一致投票批准了杰斐逊总统减税的计划。

VOICE ONE:

Congress then turned to other business. But the question of the midnight judges would not die. In fact, the Supreme Court would hear the case of one of those judges. Its decision gave the court an extremely important power, which it still uses today.

国会继续讨论其它事务。然而,“午夜”法官的问题并没有就此消失。美国最高法院听取了其中一个法官的案子,其裁决授予了最高法院一项极其重要的权力,这项权力一直保持到今天。

That will be our story next week.

(MUSIC)

ANNOUNCER:

Our program was written by Christine Johnson and Harold Braverman. The narrators were Maurice Joyce and Richard Rael. Join us each week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English. Transcripts, podcasts and MP3s of our programs can be found at www.unsv.com.

网友的学习评论(3条):
作者:xuding45
Thomas Jefferson serviced as the third president. He chose no one Federalist in his cabinet and there were all Republicans which were loyal to him. During the term of service he removed many officials and cut Americans' taxes, he also tried to the midnight judges who were appointed by Adams, at final he lost it.
作者:Alumni
perspnal influence was great yet. we know that from Jefferson's cabinet which was formed by his own will. we know that Jefferson chose no Federalists for his cabinet.
作者:郑烈波
its decision gave the court an extremely important power,which it still uses today.
版权所有©2003-2015 南京通享科技有限公司,保留所有权利。未经书面许可,严禁转载本站内容,违者追究法律责任。 中国互联网经营ICP证:苏B2-20120186
广播台