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#36: Jefferson Begins Presidency With a Loyal Cabinet

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ANNOUNCER:

Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION – an American history series in VOA Special English.

Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson

In eighteen-oh-one, the United States had a new president, Thomas Jefferson. It also had a new party in power: his Democratic-Republican Party. Though supporters of Jefferson were called Republicans, that party led to the modern Democratic Party.

在上次的建国史话中,我们讲到,1801年美国新总统托马斯.杰斐逊宣誓就职。他领导的民主-共和党开始掌权。虽然杰斐逊的支持者被称为共和党人,但当年的共和党其实就是今天美国民主党的前身。

On taking office, Jefferson spoke of the bitter struggle between his party and the Federalist Party of Alexander Hamilton. The United States now had a two-party system. Jefferson held out the hand of peace and friendship to the Federalists. He said: "We are all Republicans. We are all Federalists. Let us unite with hearts and minds. Let us have peace and love in our relations with each other."

杰斐逊在就职演说中谈到了自己领导的共和党和汉密尔顿领导的联邦党之间的激烈斗争。他同时也向联邦党人伸出了和平和友谊的橄榄枝。他说,“我们都是共和党人。我们都是联邦党人。让我们同心同德,让我们和平共处、彼此爱护。”

Now, Jack Weitzel and Stuart Spencer continue our story.

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

Alexander Hamilton
Alexander Hamilton

Thomas Jefferson, third president of the United States, thus held out the hand of friendship to the Federalists. But Alexander Hamilton did not accept it. As Jefferson became president, Hamilton made a speech attacking Jefferson.

然而,汉密尔顿并没有接受杰斐逊的友善。杰斐逊宣誓就职时,汉密尔顿发表讲话,对杰斐逊大肆攻击。

Hamilton had decided to continue fighting the democratic movement in the United States. This did not worry Jefferson. He was sure he could show even the Federalists that his program was good for all.

汉密尔顿决心继续跟美国的民主运动做斗争,但是杰斐逊并不担心,因为他相信,自己能够让联邦党人看到,自己的政策符合所有人的利益。

Of course, he said, the top leaders of the Federalists -- men like Hamilton -- could never be changed. But he was more interested in bringing their followers to his side.

杰斐逊承认,象汉密尔顿这样的联邦党高层领袖是永远不会改变的,但他更关心的是,如何让汉密尔顿的追随者们改变立场。

VOICE ONE:

Jefferson was a happy president in those early days of eighteen hundred-one. Jefferson said: "We can no longer say that there is nothing new under the sun. What we have done in this country is all new. The force of public opinion is new. But the most important and pleasing newness is that we have changed our government without violence. This shows a strength of American character that will give long life to our republic.

1801年就职后的日子里,杰斐逊心情舒畅。他曾经说,“我们再也不能说阳光下没有任何新鲜事物了。我们在美国的成就是全新的。公众舆论的力量是前所未有的。最重要的是,我们没有使用暴力就完成了政府换届,体现了美国的力量,这种力量会让我们的共和体制世代长存。”

The Declaration of Independence was composed on this wood desk, designed by Thomas Jefferson and built by Philadelphia cabinet maker Benjamin Randolph
The Declaration of Independence was composed on this wood desk, designed by Thomas Jefferson and built by Philadelphia cabinet maker Benjamin Randolph

"We have proved that freedom of the press, freedom of speech, and freedom of thought are necessary in a healthy nation. Let men argue with each other. The arguments may become bitter. But the bitterness is just a cloud that passes. And out of the arguments will come the truth."

杰斐逊还说,“我们证明,媒体自由、言论自由、思想自由对一个国家的健康必不可少。让大家随意争论吧,即使争论会变成争吵,但激烈的争吵只是过眼烟云,拨开云雾,会看到真理。”

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

As for the Federalist leaders, they too -- except for Hamilton -- were pleased. President Jefferson had said in his inaugural speech: "We are all Republicans. We are all Federalists." This, the Federalist leaders said, showed that Jefferson would not even think of trying to destroy their program.

除了汉密尔顿以外的其他联邦党领袖对杰斐逊很满意。他们指出,杰斐逊在就职演说里提出“我们都是共和党人,我们都是联邦党人”,这种说法显示,杰斐逊没有消灭联邦党人的打算。

George Cabot, the strongest Federalist leader in New England, usually agreed with Hamilton. But now, he did not. Cabot said, "I believe that our new president wants to stay out of war. We do not have to worry any longer that he plans to join France against England. He is friendly to us and wants our help. Therefore, I am sure that he will not dismiss any of our people from their government positions."

乔治.卡伯特是新英格兰最重要的联邦党领袖。一贯跟汉密尔顿步调一致的他,这次却是例外。卡伯特说,“我相信,新总统不想打仗,我们不用再担心他计划协助法国,跟英国交战。他对我们非常友好,而且需要我们的帮助。因此我相信,他不会将联邦党人踢出联邦政府。”

VOICE ONE:

Another Federalist leader -- Timothy Pickering -- the secretary of state under President Adams, said: "I am satisfied that Jefferson will not make any important changes in government policy, and that he will depend for support more on us Federalists than on the Democrats."

另外一位联邦党领袖、亚当斯总统任期内的美国国务卿蒂莫西.皮克林表示,“我感到满意的是,杰斐逊不会对政府的政策做出重大变动,而且他更依赖于我们这些联邦党人,而不是民主党人的支持。”

During those first few weeks of the new government, the Federalist leaders really believed that Jefferson was afraid of them, that he had surrendered to them and would soon be destroyed as the leader of the Republican Party. One Federalist wrote: "Soon Jefferson will feel the bite of his dirty Democrats when they attack him!"

杰斐逊就职后的几个星期里,联邦党领袖坚信,杰斐逊十分惧怕联邦党人,已经向他们投降,用不了多久,就会被自己人摧毁。其中一位联邦党人曾经写到,“杰斐逊不久就会感受到他那些肮脏的民主党人对他发起的攻击。”

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

George Washington and Thomas Jefferson sought the best talents to design the United States Capitol. This drawing by Stephen Hallet shows a great conference room where the House and Senate were to meet in joint session.
George Washington and Thomas Jefferson sought the best talents to design the United States Capitol. This drawing by Stephen Hallet shows a great conference room where the House and Senate were to meet in joint session.

Jefferson soon did hear complaints from Republican leaders who felt he was being too kind to the Federalists.

杰斐逊宣誓就职后,向联邦党人伸出了和平的橄榄枝。他的这种做法,很快引起了共和党领袖的不满,他们指责杰斐逊对联邦党人过于宽宏大量。

William Giles, a Jeffersonian leader in Virginia, wrote: "Of course, I am very pleased by the president's inaugural speech. The president's program is correct. It agrees with the opinions of the people. But I still think that the president's success will depend on how he carries out his program.

维吉尼亚州的共和党领袖威廉.贾尔斯曾写道:“当然了,我对总统的就职演说十分满意。总统的政策是正确的,符合民意,但我还是相信,他的成功与否要取决于他落实这些政策的方式。”

"Let him offer friendship to the Federalists. But he must not permit friendship to become weakness. His friends believe that the first thing he must do is to clean out the executive branch of the government. He must dismiss from office all men who are enemies of the Republican program."

威廉.贾尔斯接着写道,“他可以向联邦党人表示友好,但绝不能让这种友好变成软弱。他的友人们相信,他的当务之急是要整顿政府,把反对共和党政策的所有敌人都清除出去。”

VOICE ONE:

Even James Monroe wrote a strong letter to the president:

就连詹姆斯.门罗也给杰斐逊写了一封措辞强硬的信。

"Your speech and your program are healthy and good. But there are serious dangers ahead of you. There are two parties in this country, not one. One of these parties, the Federalists, has controlled the government for twelve years and has hurt our nation greatly. Some of these Federalists now speak softly to you and promise their support.

信中说,“你的讲话和政策都很好。但是你会遇到严重的威胁。这个国家里有两个政党,不是一个。联邦党人控制政府长达十二年,对国家造成了巨大的伤害。如今,联邦党里有些人轻声细语地表示支持你。”

"But you must remember, too, that there are thousands of good Republicans who have always supported you. If you keep Federalists in office, if you appoint Federalists to office, many of these good Republicans will stop believing in you.

“但你必须记住,共和党里数以千计的优秀人才一直支持你,如果你继续留任联邦党人,如果你任命联邦党人担任政府要职,很多共和党人就会停止对你的信任。”

"Certainly, there is no reason why you should give jobs to men who worked for the Federalist government of John Adams. Certainly, you must throw out the officials of the last government who stole money and sold their services. Do this and you will give strength to our Republican movement.

“很显然,你没有理由对那些效劳于亚当斯政府的人委以重任。很显然,你必须将上届政府里那些贪赃枉法的官员清除出去。这样做,你就能增强共和运动的力量。”

"Please understand me. I am speaking only of high offices. I do not ask that you dismiss small officials because they are Federalists. They have a right to their political beliefs. Let them keep their jobs. This will show that you are a president who can accept different political opinions."

我想说明的是,我指的只是政府高官。我并不是要你解除那些基层联邦党人的职务。他们享有政治信仰的权利,不要让他们丢掉饭碗。这会显示出,你是一个能够接受不同政见的总统。

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

As the Federalists and the Republican leaders kept asking Jefferson for positions in the government, the president was thinking of his cabinet. He quickly decided who would be his secretary of state and secretary of the treasury.

联邦党和共和党领袖不断向杰斐逊总统要求出任公职。与此同时,杰斐逊也很快决定了国务卿和财政部长的人选。

James Madison of Virginia -- Jefferson's old friend and the father of the Constitution -- would be secretary of state. For secretary of the treasury, Jefferson chose Albert Gallatin of Pennsylvania, the brilliant leader of the Republicans in Congress, the man who understood economics and finance as well as Alexander Hamilton.

国务卿是杰斐逊的老朋友、美国宪法的奠基人之一,维吉尼亚州的詹姆斯.麦迪逊。财政部长由宾夕法尼亚州的阿尔伯特.加勒廷担任。加勒廷是共和党国会议员,政绩显著,而且精通经济和金融,丝毫不比汉密尔顿逊色。

For the War Department, Jefferson turned to General Henry Dearborn of New England.

战争部长的人选,杰斐逊挑选了新英格兰的亨利.迪尔伯恩将军。

Jefferson's first choice to be secretary of the Navy was Judge Robert Livingston, the great lawyer from New York. But Judge Livingston rejected this position. Jefferson finally chose Robert Smith of Baltimore, Maryland.

至于海军部长,杰斐逊的首选是纽约州的罗伯特.利文斯顿法官,但是遭到宛然拒绝,杰斐逊只好选择了马里兰州巴尔地摩的罗伯特.史密斯。

VOICE ONE:

The president had already appointed one man from New England to his cabinet, Secretary of War Dearborn. Yet, he went to New England for two more appointments.

Jefferson knew that the strength of the Federalist Party was greater in New England than in any other part of the country. He believed that there was no better way to move New England away from the Federalist program than to give cabinet positions to men from New England.

杰斐逊知道,新英格兰州是联邦党人最强势的地方。他因此认为,任命新英格兰人担任内阁官员,是让新英格兰脱离联邦党影响的最佳手段。

And so, Jefferson found his attorney general in Levi Lincoln of Massachusetts. Like Dearborn, Lincoln was a patriot of the American Revolution. He had been a supporter of Jefferson from the beginning. He was famous as a lawyer in Massachusetts, where he was the top leader of the Republican Party.

基于这种原因,杰斐逊任命麻萨诸塞州的利瓦伊.林肯担任司法部长。跟战争部长迪尔伯恩一样,利瓦伊.林肯也是美国独立战争时期的爱国者,一开始就支持杰斐逊,他在麻萨诸塞州是远近闻名的大律师,也是共和党在那里的最高领袖。

Jefferson went to New England, too, for the postmaster general. It was not yet a cabinet office. But its importance was growing. The president gave this appointment to Gideon Granger -- lawyer, businessman, and writer, one of the strong Jeffersonians in the state of Connecticut.

杰斐逊政府内的邮政局长也来自新英格兰,虽然那个时候,邮政局长还不是内阁部长,但是这个职务的重要性正在逐步增加。杰斐逊任命吉迪恩.格兰杰担任邮政局长。格兰杰是律师、商人、作家,也是康涅迪格州的共和党领袖。

Such was Jefferson's cabinet. All strong Republicans. All completely loyal. The Federalists were shocked. Not one of their men had been appointed.

杰斐逊组建内阁的工作就此完成,所有内阁成员都是共和党人,都死心塌地地忠实于他。内阁里没有一个联邦党人,让联邦党人大吃一惊。

(MUSIC)

ANNOUNCER:

Join us each week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English. Our narrators today were Jack Weitzel and Stuart Spencer. Transcripts, podcasts and MP3s of our programs can be found at www.unsv.com

网友的学习评论(2条):
作者:xuding45
The third president, Tomas Jefferson, called on the federalist party and the republican party joined together. He tried to avoid the differences between the two parties. But at final he bulit his cabinet, there were all strong republicans.
作者:Alumni
but the bitterness is just a cloud that passes. it is history as well as the lives of society of human beings.
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