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#32: John Adams Is Elected Nation's Second President

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ANNOUNCER:

Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.

The year seventeen ninety-six saw a change in American politics. That year, the new nation held its third presidential election. And for the first time, there was more than one candidate.

在上次的建国史话中,我们讲到,美国第一位总统乔治·华盛顿连任两届后,决定让贤。美国政治在1796年发生了巨大的变化。在总统大选中,第一次出现了多位候选人。

In his farewell address as president, George Washington urged Americans to view themselves as united and to avoid political parties
In his farewell address as president, George Washington urged Americans to view themselves as united and to avoid political parties

George Washington won the first two elections without opposition. But now there were two political parties. The Federalists were led by former Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton. The Republicans were led by former Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson.

乔治·华盛顿当选总统时,没有任何竞争对手,但是1796年的时候,美国两党体制初具规模,联邦党和共和党分别由前财政部长亚历山大·汉密尔顿和前国务卿托马斯·杰斐逊领导。

This week in our series, Harry Monroe and Kay Gallant tell the story of the election of seventeen ninety-six and the winner, John Adams.

VOICE TWO:

Most people expected John Adams to win. He was well known throughout the country. He had campaigned for American independence from British rule. He had served as a diplomat in Europe and as the first American minister to Britain. He was Washington's choice for vice president and had served in that position for two terms.

大多数人都估计,约翰·亚当斯会当选。毕竟,他知名度高,推动过美国独立战争,曾担任美国驻欧洲外交官,还是美国派往英国的第一位部长。除此之外,乔治·华盛顿也对他委以重任,让他连做了两届副总统。

Adams was a Federalist. But he was not -- like other Federalists -- loyal to Alexander Hamilton. So Hamilton worked against Adams. He tried to win electoral support for his own candidate for president, Thomas Pinckney of South Carolina.

亚当斯是一名联邦党人,但是他跟其他联邦党人不一样,他并不听命于汉密尔顿。正因为如此,汉密尔顿不仅不支持亚当斯,反而跟亚当斯对着干,为自己支持的总统参选人,南卡罗来纳州的托马斯·平克尼拉选票。

VOICE ONE:

At last, the day arrived for counting the votes. The Federalists were shocked by the results. Seventy-one electors voted for John Adams. Sixty-eight voted for Republican Thomas Jefferson. Only sixty voted for Hamilton's choice, Thomas Pinckney.

计票结果出乎联邦党人的意料。在选举人票中,约翰·亚当斯赢得71票,共和党人托马斯·杰斐逊赢得68票,而汉密尔顿支持的托马斯·平克尼只得到了60票。

Under the electoral system used at that time, the candidate with the most votes became president. The candidate with the next largest number of votes became vice president. So America's second president would be John Adams. Its second vice president would be Thomas Jefferson.

根据当时的选举人制度,得票最多的担任总统,得票数量排在第二的担任副总统,因此,约翰·亚当斯就成了美国历史上的第二位总统,托马斯·杰斐逊担任第二位副总统。

VOICE TWO:

Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson

Jefferson had resigned from public service a few years earlier. But he decided to accept his election as vice president. He wrote to his friend James Madison: "I am willing to serve under President Adams. I believe Adams is the only man who can stop Alexander Hamilton from becoming president in eighteen hundred."

杰斐逊早在几年前就已经辞去了公职,但他还是决定接受副总统的职务。他在给好友詹姆斯·麦迪逊的信中说,“我愿意做亚当斯总统的副手。我认为,亚当斯是唯一能够阻止汉密尔顿在1800年成为总统的人。”

To Adams himself, Jefferson wrote that he valued their long friendship and hoped it would continue. Republican newspapers carried articles that were friendly to Federalist John Adams -- the first time they had done so.

杰斐逊还致函亚当斯说,他很珍视两人的长期友谊,并希望这种友谊能够继续下去。共和党人的报纸也一反常态,刊登了对联邦党人约翰·亚当斯表示友好的文章。

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

When Adams and Jefferson took office in March, seventeen ninety-seven, some Federalists believed their political power had come to an end. But Alexander Hamilton, sitting in his law office in New York City, did not lose hope. He knew he still controlled the top Federalist leaders in Congress.

1797年三月,亚当斯和杰斐逊宣誓就职后,有些联邦党人觉得,他们的政治权力宣告结束了,但是坐在纽约律师事务所办公室里的汉密尔顿并没有灰心。他知道,国会里的主要联邦党领袖仍然在自己的掌控之中。

More than that, he believed he knew how to control John Adams.

不仅如此,他同时坚信,自己知道如何去控制新总统约翰·亚当斯。

The new president made Hamilton's job easy. Adams kept President Washington's cabinet. The three men who were Washington's chief government officials would now advise President Adams. Washington had appointed them at Hamilton's request. And they always did what Hamilton told them to do.

亚当斯上任后,并没有大刀阔斧地进行改革,而是保留了华盛顿内阁的原班人马。华盛顿任期内的三位主要政府官员留任,继续为亚当斯出谋划策。这些人当初都是汉密尔顿要求华盛顿任命的,因此都对汉密尔顿唯命是从。

VOICE TWO:

John Adams
John Adams

Historians still cannot explain why John Adams -- a man who did not like or trust Alexander Hamilton -- kept the three cabinet secretaries. If the secretaries had been men of great ability, then that might be an explanation. But they were not.

历史学家始终无法解释,亚当斯对汉密尔顿既不欣赏也不信任,为什么要保留汉密尔顿推荐的这三位内阁部长?如果这三个人都具备雄才伟略的话,还可以理解,但事实并非如此。

One was a secretary of state who knew very little about foreign relations. The second was a secretary of the treasury who knew less about finance. The third was a secretary of war who knew nothing about military matters and defense.

这三个人一个是国务卿,但是对外交关系一无所知;一个是财政部长,但是对金融理财一窍不通,还有一个是战争部长,但却是军事国防的门外汉。

Adams may have kept these men as an act of party unity. Or he may have kept them because he could not get anyone else.

亚当斯之所以保留他们,可能是为了党内团结,也可能是苦于没有更好的人选。

VOICE ONE:

Whatever his reason, the decision was politically costly, for the three men worked together against him. President Adams told his cabinet secretaries what he wanted. Then they went to Alexander Hamilton for orders.

历史上对于亚当斯让这些人留任找不到一个合理的解释,这种做法让亚当斯付出了沉重的政治代价。这三位部长对于总统亚当斯的指示,反其道而行之,万事都要请示汉密尔顿的意旨。

In the end, these secret activities helped destroy the Federalist Party. And so, they made the administration of John Adams one of the most exciting and important periods in the political history of the United States.

这些秘密行动最终导致了联邦党的垮台,也使约翰·亚当斯政府成为美国政治史上最重要、最令人激动的一段时期。

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

As we said earlier, John Adams was a great man and a true patriot. He was born in the village of Braintree, Massachusetts, in seventeen thirty-five. He wanted to be a farmer. But he was sent to Harvard College to study to be a clergyman. He had no interest in this life and became a lawyer, instead.

我们以前讲过,约翰·亚当斯是一个伟人,真正的爱国者。1735年,他在麻萨诸塞州的一个村庄里诞生,理想是长大后当农民,但后来被家里送到哈佛大学去读神学。他对当牧师没兴趣,后来做了一名律师。

In the years before the American Revolution, John Adams wrote articles about the injustice of British rule. He also became a delegate to the First Continental Congress. He urged the Congress to appoint George Washington as commander-in-chief of American forces. He argued for the creation of an American Navy. And he helped develop the resolutions declaring American independence.

独立战争爆发前,亚当斯发表文章,声讨英国统治,后来出席了第一届大陆会议,敦促大陆会议任命乔治·华盛顿担任大陆军总指挥。他还提议建立海军,并推动了美国的《独立宣言》。

VOICE ONE:

Adams spent most of the war years in Europe. He helped win Dutch recognition of the new American nation. He also negotiated a loan from the Dutch government, as well as a treaty of friendship and commerce. After American forces defeated British forces, he helped negotiate the peace treaty between the two countries. Then he served as the first American minister to Britain.

独立战争期间,亚当斯主要是在欧洲渡过的。他说服荷兰承认美国,还从荷兰政府那里得到了一笔贷款,并跟荷兰签署了友好商业协议。大陆军战胜英国部队后,他又参加了两国和平协议的谈判,并出任美国第一位驻英国的部长。

Adams, like other Federalists, believed that men of money and position should govern America. He did not trust the common people. He did not support democracy. He once wrote: "In the city of Boston, there are four noble families. They are just as much a noble class as the nobility of Britain or Spain. And it is good that this aristocracy exists."

跟其他联邦党人一样,亚当斯也认为美国应该由有权有势的人来统治。他不信任普通民众,也不支持民主。他曾经写到,“波士顿有四个贵族家庭。他们跟英国或是西班牙的贵族没什么两样,这种贵族的存在真是太好了。”

Yet John Adams had a deep love for his country. He would do whatever was necessary to keep it free.

不过,约翰·亚当斯深深地热爱自己的国家,为了美国的自由,不惜一切代价。

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

Abigail Adams
Abigail Adams

Adams was extremely intelligent and was a thoughtful, lively writer. However, he often acted very coldly and said little. Or he became angry easily. His best friend probably was his wife, Abigail. He had few other friends.

亚当斯头脑敏锐,是一个很有思想和活力的作家,但是他往往表现冷漠,沉默寡言,动不动就发脾气。他最好的朋友是他的夫人阿比盖尔,除此之外,几乎没有多少朋友。

Adams' personal weaknesses caused trouble during his presidency. He belonged to the Federalist Party. But he did not want to become involved in party arguments. And he did not want to make all the compromises necessary in the world of politics. So, other Federalists often worked against him.

亚当斯性格上的弱点给他带来了麻烦。他当政期间,虽然属于联邦党,但却不愿卷入党派之争,也不愿做出政治上必要的妥协,因此招致了其他联邦党人的反对。

VOICE ONE:

Not many people really liked this difficult, aristocratic man. Strangely enough, one of the few who did was Thomas Jefferson.

很少有人喜欢这个难以相处,充满贵族气派的人。奇怪的是,亚当斯周围为数不多的人当中,却包括了托马斯·杰斐逊。

This was strange, because Jefferson's political philosophy was opposed to everything Adams represented.

这很奇怪,因为杰斐逊的政治理念跟亚当斯所代表的政治理念完全相反。

Perhaps Jefferson liked Adams because he respected him for his intelligence. Perhaps he never forgot that Adams had fought hard for American independence. Or perhaps he understood that, under Adams' selfishness and weaknesses, there was an honest man who would do anything for his country.

杰斐逊喜欢亚当斯也许是因为他尊重亚当斯的智慧,也许是他从未忘记亚当斯为了美国独立血战到底,也许是他能理解,亚当斯虽然自私、软弱,但亚当斯能为自己的国家做任何事。

However, there were not many like Jefferson. Most men in politics just did not like Adams. They used this fact as a weapon. It was such a strong weapon that it made people forget what Jefferson remembered. John Adams had a good mind and loved the United States. He had given many years of his life to the young nation and should be honored for it.

然而,像杰斐逊这样的人并不多。美国政坛里的大多数人都不喜欢亚当斯。他们利用这一事实作为武器,这一武器是如此强大,以致于人们忘记了杰斐逊不曾忘记的东西。约翰·亚当斯善良、爱国,他将自己一生的许多光阴都奉献给了这个年轻的国家,理应受到尊重。

VOICE TWO:

Federalist leaders, especially, appealed to Adams' weaknesses when they wanted his support.

For example, they knew Adams was jealous of President Washington. Adams felt Washington received too much honor, while he received not enough. Sometimes, if Adams knew the president's opinion on a question, he would develop a different opinion. Yet Washington -- like Jefferson -- respected Adams. He felt the new nation needed Adams' skills.

比如,他们知道亚当斯嫉妒华盛顿总统。亚当斯觉得华盛顿获得的赞誉过多,而自己获得的赞誉太少。有时,如果亚当斯知道华盛顿总统对某个问题的观点,他就会提出不同观点。然而,就跟杰斐逊一样,华盛顿尊重亚当斯,他觉得这个年轻的国家需要亚当斯的才能。

VOICE ONE:

Adams won the presidency in seventeen ninety-six. But his term would be difficult. His own party, the Federalists, did not trust him. And he did not have the support of the general public. The people knew he did not like them.

亚当斯赢得了1796年的总统大选,但他的任期困难重重。他自己的党派,联邦党人并不信任他。他也没能获得普通大众的支持。人民知道,亚当斯并不喜欢他们。

Adams did not expect the job to be easy. He once wrote: "In politics, a man must always walk on broken glass and red-hot iron. It is not easy to do this when you are not wearing shoes. But some men must do it. There are many dangerous things that have to be done for our country in these dangerous times. If nobody else will do them, I will."

亚当斯也并未期望这是份轻松的工作。他曾经写道:“在政坛里,人必须时刻行走在刀锋之上,如果你没有穿鞋,就会面临巨大困难。但有些人必须这样做。在我们国家的危急关头,我们必须做很多危险的事情。如果没有别人愿意做,那我会做。”

We will continue the story of John Adams next week.

(MUSIC)

ANNOUNCER:

Our program was written by Harold Braverman and Christine Johnson. The narrators were Harry Monroe and Kay Gallant. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION, an American history series in VOA Special English. Transcripts, podcasts and MP3s of our programs are at www.unsv.com.

网友的学习评论(3条):
作者:xuding45
John Adams was elected as the second president in the nation. He didn't like the federalists and republicans. He had a different idea and didn't like the compromises. Though John Adams' selfishness and weakness, he was thought to a patriot although in his life.
作者:Alumni
John Adams, elected second President of USA, left a famous saying as a politician: In politics ,a man must always walk on broken glass and red-hot iron. my God, how about businessman, novelist, litterateur and artist?
作者:郑烈波
JOHN ADAMS IS ELECTED NATIONS SECOND PRESIDEND
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