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#30: Two-Party Political System Takes Hold in US

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Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.

George Washington became America's first president in seventeen eighty-nine. He had commanded the forces of the American colonies in their successful rebellion against Britain. Washington was elected without opposition. But American politics were about to change. This week in our series, Frank Oliver and Ray Freeman describe the beginnings of the two-party political system in the United States.

(MUSIC)

在上一次的建国史话中,我们讲到,美国独立战争中的大陆军统帅乔治·华盛顿众望所归,1789年成为美国第一届总统。

VOICE TWO:

George Washington
George Washington

George Washington did not belong to a political party. There were no political parties in America at that time. This does not mean all Americans held the same political beliefs. They did not. But there were no established organizations that offered candidates for elections.

美国当时还没有政党政治,乔治·华盛顿也不属于任何党派,但是,这并不意味着美国人都有着同样的政治信仰。

Two such organizations began to take shape during President Washington's first administration. One was called the Federalists. Its leader was Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton. The other was called the Republicans. Its leader was Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson. Each group represented the political beliefs of its leader.

乔治·华盛顿总统第一届任期里,两大政党逐渐形成,其中一个是联邦党,以当时的财政部长亚历山大·汉密尔顿为首;另一个是共和党,为首的是国务卿托马斯·杰斐逊。两大政党分别崇尚汉密尔顿和杰斐逊的政治理念。

VOICE ONE:

Hamilton and the Federalists wanted a strong national government with a powerful president and courts. They supported policies that helped bankers and wealthy businessmen. They urged close economic and diplomatic ties with Britain. They did not like democracy, which they described as mob rule.

汉密尔顿领导的联邦党主张建立强大的联邦政府,总统和法院享有极大的权力,他们支持对银行家和富商有利的政策,要求加强跟英国的经济和外交关系,他们不喜欢民主,认为民主就是暴民统治。

The Federalist Party led by Alexander Hamilton was not the same as an earlier group also called Federalists.

汉密尔顿领导下的联邦党不同于早期的联邦主义者。

The word was used to describe those who supported the new American Constitution. Those who opposed the Constitution were known as anti-Federalists.

早期的联邦主义者主要是指那些支持美国新宪法的人。反对新宪法的人则被称作反联邦主义者。

Some early Federalists, like Hamilton, later became members of the Federalist Party. They were extremely powerful. They controlled the Congress during the presidency of George Washington. And they almost controlled Washington himself, through his dependence on Alexander Hamilton.

汉密尔顿等早期的联邦主义者后来都成了联邦党人,他们权势很大,在乔治·华盛顿任期内控制着国会。由于华盛顿总统十分依赖汉密尔顿,因此总统也几乎处于联邦党人的控制之下。

VOICE TWO:

Thomas Jefferson and the Republicans supported the Constitution as a plan of government. But they did not think the Constitution gave the national government unlimited powers.

与此同时,托马斯·杰斐逊领导的共和党支持根据宪法建立的政府,但他们不认为宪法赋予了联邦政府无限的权力。

They supported policies that helped the nation's farmers and small businessmen. They urged closer ties with the French people, who were rebelling against their king. And they demanded more rights, more democracy, for the people of the United States.

他们支持对农民和小生意人有利的政策,认为应该跟当时正在反抗国王统治的法国人民加强联系,他们还要求增加美国人民的权利和民主。

VOICE ONE:

Alexander Hamilton
Alexander Hamilton

The men who led these two groups were very different.

亚历山大·汉密尔顿和托马斯·杰斐逊是两个很不一样的人。

Alexander Hamilton of the aristocratic Federalists was not born to an established, upper-class American family. He was born in the West Indies to a man and woman who were not married. However, Hamilton was educated in America. And he gained a place in society by marrying the daughter of a wealthy landowner in New York state.

联邦党领袖汉密尔顿的出身并不是上层社会。他生在西印度群岛,父母并没有结婚,但他是在美国接受的教育,后来娶了纽约州一个很有钱的土地所有者的女儿,确立了自己的社会地位。

Money and position were important to Hamilton. He believed men of money and position should govern the nation.

因此,金钱和地位对汉密尔顿来说非常重要。他认为国家应该由有钱有权的人统治。

Thomas Jefferson of the Democratic Republicans could have been what Alexander Hamilton wanted to be. Through his mother, he was distantly related to British noblemen. And he liked fine food, wine, books, and music.

托马斯·杰斐逊其实就是汉密尔顿渴望成为的那种人。杰斐逊母亲祖上是英国贵族,他对美食、美酒、书籍和音乐都有着特殊的爱好。

But Jefferson had great respect for simple farmers and for the men who opened America's western lands to settlement. He believed they, too, had a right to govern the nation.

但与此同时,杰斐逊又对朴实的农民,对开发了美国大西部的人们充满了敬意。他认为,这些人同样有权统治国家。

VOICE TWO:

Both Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson were loyal Americans. Yet they held completely opposing opinions on how America's government should operate.

Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson

Their personal disagreements turned into a public dispute when they served in President Washington's cabinet. The two men did not argue directly in public, however. They fought their war of words in two newspapers.

汉密尔顿和杰斐逊在华盛顿总统的政府里任职期间,两人的意见分歧演变成了一场社会辩论。他们并没有面对面地公开论战,而是把两份报纸当做战场。

Both knew the power of the press. Jefferson, especially, felt the need for newspapers in a democracy. He believed they provided the only way for a large population to know the truth. He once said: "If I had to choose between a government without newspapers, or newspapers without a government, I would choose newspapers without a government."

汉密尔顿和杰斐逊都深知媒体的力量。杰斐逊尤其看重民主体制下报纸的重要性。他认为,报纸是让大量民众了解事实真相的唯一途径。杰斐逊曾经说过,“如果一定要我在没有报纸的政府,和没有政府的报纸之间做出选择的话,那么我宁可选择没有政府的报纸。”

VOICE ONE:

Hamilton already had experience in using newspapers for political purposes.

汉密尔顿也曾依靠过报纸的力量。

During the American Revolutionary War, Hamilton served as an assistant to George Washington, the commander-in-chief. One of his jobs was to get money and supplies for the army.

美国独立战争期间,汉密尔顿担任当时大陆军统帅乔治·华盛顿的助手,他的工作之一就是为大陆军筹措资金和供给。

Hamilton asked the thirteen state governments. He also asked the Congress, which had little political power at that time. He got almost no help from either.

汉密尔顿向十三个州的政府和没有实权的大陆会议求助,收效甚微。

Hamilton felt the new system of government under the Articles of Confederation was weak and disorganized. He did not think the states should have so much power. What America needed, he said, was a strong central government. Without it, the Confederation would break apart.

汉密尔顿因此认为,《邦联条例》下的政府组织松散,力量薄弱,他觉得州政府权力过大,美国真正需要的是一个强大的中央政府,否则国家就会分裂。

VOICE TWO:

Hamilton expressed his opinions in several newspaper articles. He did not put his own name on the articles. He signed them "The Continentalist."

汉密尔顿在报纸上发表评论性文章,阐述自己的观点,署名“大陆主义者”。

He soon became one of the strongest voices calling for a convention to amend the Articles of Confederation. This was the convention that finally met in Philadelphia in seventeen eighty-seven and wrote the American Constitution.

汉密尔顿后来成为要求召开会议,修改《邦联条例》的主要倡导者之一,结果促成了1787年的费城制宪大会,并制定了美国第一部宪法。

Hamilton was one of the delegates. Afterwards, he helped write a series of newspaper articles to win support for the Constitution. These were the Federalist Papers, written together with James Madison and John Jay.

汉密尔顿是与会代表之一。他后来又在报纸上发表了一系列文章,为宪法寻求支持。这就是后来的“联邦主义者文集”,作者还有詹姆斯·麦迪逊和约翰·杰伊。

VOICE ONE:

Philip Freneau's National Gazette was the first official Republican newspaper. During its two-year existence, it was the leading critic of Federalist policies.
Philip Freneau's National Gazette was the first official Republican newspaper. During its two-year existence, it was the leading critic of Federalist policies.

When Hamilton became treasury secretary under President Washington, he continued to use the press. Only now, he was trying to win support for his own policies.

汉密尔顿出任华盛顿的财政部长后,继续依靠媒体的力量,但这次是为自己的政策寻求支持。

Hamilton spoke through a newspaper called the Gazette of the United States. Its editor was John Fenno.

汉密尔顿在一份叫美国公报的报纸上发表文章,报纸编辑是约翰·芬诺。

Jefferson won the support of several newspapers. But these were not part of his political movement. It was important, he felt, to have one newspaper speak for him. James Madison found it for him. It would be edited by Madison's old friend Philip Freneau. It would be called the National Gazette.

杰斐逊也得到了好几份报纸的支持,但是这些报纸并不是共和党的组成部分。杰斐逊觉得,最好能固定在一份报纸上讲话。詹姆斯·麦迪逊替他找到了一份叫《全国公报》的报纸,报纸编辑是麦迪逊的老朋友菲利普·佛瑞诺。

VOICE TWO:

Most of the people who supported Hamilton lived in the cities of the northeast. They were the nation's bankers and big businessmen. They were lawyers, doctors, and clergymen.

汉密尔顿的支持者大多住在美国东北部的城市里,主要是银行家、富商、律师、医生和牧师。

Jefferson respected Hamilton's political power. But he saw that Hamilton did not have a national organization of common people.

杰斐逊很尊重汉密尔顿的政治实力,但他发现,汉密尔顿并没有一个面对普通民众的全国性组织。

The cotton gin made cotton a profitable crop in the U.S. The machine shown, invented by Eli Whitney, received a patent in 1794.
The cotton gin made cotton a profitable crop in the U.S. The machine shown, invented by Eli Whitney, received a patent in 1794.

In the seventeen nineties, ninety percent of Americans were farmers, laborers, and small businessmen. They were bitter over government policies that always seemed to help bankers, big landowners, and wealthy businessmen. They had no political party to speak for them. These were the people Thomas Jefferson wanted to reach.

当时,美国百分之九十的人口是农民、劳工和小生意人。他们觉得,政府的政策似乎都是对有钱人有利,因此感到十分不满,但是又没有政党替他们说话,杰斐逊希望吸引的就是这批人。

VOICE ONE:

Jefferson's task was big. Many of these Americans knew little of what was happening outside their local area. Many were not permitted to vote, because they did not own property.

杰斐逊的任务十分艰巨。当时,很多美国人除了当地新闻外,对外部世界的动向知之甚少。很多人因为没有财产,所以无权投票。

Jefferson looked at the situation in each state. Almost everywhere he found local political groups fighting against state laws that helped the rich. Here was what Jefferson needed. If these local groups could be brought together into a national party, the Federalists would finally have some organized opposition.

杰斐逊对每个州的情况分别进行了考查。他发现一个普遍的现像是,各地的政治团体反对那些迎合富人的州立法。杰斐逊需要做的就是把这些地方团体组成一个全国性政党,跟联邦党对抗。

Jefferson's party included rich men and poor men. They joined together to fight what they saw as a misuse of power by Federalists in the national government.

杰斐逊组织的共和党里既有富人,也有穷人,他们认为,政府里的联邦主义者滥用职权,并希望改变这种局面。

We will continue our story next week.

(MUSIC)

ANNOUNCER:

Our program was written by Christine Johnson and read by Frank Oliver and Ray Freeman. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION, an American history series in VOA Special English. Transcripts, podcasts and MP3s of our programs are at www.unsv.com.

网友的学习评论(2条):
作者:xuding45
Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson had a different idea about how to rule the nation.Thomas Jefferson hoped to support the power of state, but Alexander Hamilton wished the United States had a strong central government.
作者:Alumni
Two such organizations began to take shape during President Washington's first administration. One was called the Federalists. Its leader was Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton. The other was called the Republicans. Its leader was Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson. Each group represented the political beliefs of its leader.=== no more werds to comment for the section.
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