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#175: American History: Hoover Wins in 1928

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Herbert Hoover, right, and the president he followed in office, Calvin Coolidge
Herbert Hoover, right, and the president he followed in office, Calvin Coolidge

BOB DOUGHTY: Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English.

The presidential election of nineteen twenty-eight gave American voters a clear political choice. The Democratic Party nominated Al Smith. He was the popular governor of the state of New York. The Republican Party chose Herbert Hoover. He was an engineer and businessman who served as secretary of commerce for presidents Warren Harding and Calvin Coolidge.

1928年总统大选赋予了美国选民一个清晰的政治选择。民主党提名著名的纽约州州长、阿尔弗雷德.史密斯为其总统候选人。共和党则提名休伯特.胡佛为总统候选人。胡佛是一位工程师和商人,在沃伦.哈丁和加尔文.柯立芝执政期间,曾担任美国商务部长。

This week in our series, Rich Kleinfeldt and Harry Monroe tell us about the presidential election of nineteen twenty-eight.

RICH KLEINFELDT: Governor Alfred Smith of New York had campaigned for the Democratic presidential nomination in nineteen twenty-four. But he was defeated at the party convention by a compromise candidate, John Davis.

纽约州州长阿尔弗雷德.史密斯1924年曾经竞选过民主党的总统候选人提名,但败给了党内黑马约翰.戴维斯。

Four years later, however, Smith could not be stopped. He had a strong record as governor of the nation's most heavily-populated state. He campaigned for the presidency on a policy of building new electric power stations under public control.

然而史密斯并没有放弃。四年后,他出色胜任美国人口众多的纽约州州长一职而给人留下深刻印象。他的竞选政策是在公众的控制下建立新的电站。

Smith knew that many conservative Americans might be worried by his new ideas and his belief in strong government. So he chose as his campaign manager a Republican industrial leader who had worked with General Motors, DuPont and other major companies.

史密斯知道,许多保守的美国人也许对他的新政以及大政府理念担忧,所以,他选择了一位曾经与通用汽车公司、杜邦公司和其他一些大公司合作过的共和党工业界领导人担任自己的竞选活动负责人。

Smith hoped this would prove his faith in the American private business system.

史密斯希望这样做能有助于证明他对美国私有制经济体系的信心。

Al Smith
Al Smith

HARRY MONROE: Al Smith was a strong political leader and an effective governor. But he frightened many Americans, especially conservative citizens living in rural areas.

阿尔弗雷德.史密斯是一位优秀的政治领导人和富有成效的州长。但他的所作所为使许多美国人,特别是生活在农村地区的保守的美国人感到害怕。

They lived on farms or in small towns. Al Smith was from the city. And not just from any city, but New York City, a place that seemed big and dirty and filled with foreign people and strange traditions. Al Smith's parents came from Ireland. He grew up in New York and worked as a salesman at the Fulton Fish Market.

这些人大都生活在农村或小城镇,而史密斯却来自城市,而且不是一般的城市,而是又大又脏,到处都是外国人,稀奇古怪的纽约市。史密斯的父母是爱尔兰移民。他从小在纽约市长大,在富尔顿鱼市当销售员。

Smith was an honest man. But many rural Americans simply did not trust people from big cities. Al Smith seemed to them to represent everything that was new, different, and dangerous about American life.

史密斯是个诚实的人,但许多来自农村的美国人偏偏不信任大城市里的人,对他们来说,史密斯代表着美国生活方式中一切新的、与众不同而且危险的事物。

But being from New York City was not Al Smith's only problem. He also opposed the new national laws that made it illegal to buy or produce alcoholic drinks. And he had political ties to the New York political machine. But worst of all, in the eyes of many Americans, Al Smith was a Roman Catholic.

来自纽约并不是史密斯的唯一问题。他还反对美国新颁布的国内法,这些法律规定购买和生产酒精饮料是非法的。此外,他还与纽约市政界有关联。但在许多美国人眼里,最要命的是,阿尔弗雷德.史密斯是个罗马天主教徒。

RICH KLEINFELDT: From George Washington through Thomas Jefferson, Abraham Lincoln, and up to Calvin Coolidge, every American president had been male, white, and a Protestant Christian. Of course, there was no law requiring a candidate to be Protestant. But millions of traditional Americans just were not ready to give their vote to a Roman Catholic.

从乔治.华盛顿到托马斯.杰佛逊,再到亚伯拉罕.林肯,再到加尔文.柯立芝,每一任美国总统都是信仰新教的白人男性。 当然,美国法律并没有规定必须是新教徒才能够竞选总统。但无数的传统美国人还没有做好将选票投给一位天主教徒的准备。

Opponents of the Smith campaign generally did not speak openly about his religion. But many of them were afraid that Smith would take his orders from the Vatican in Rome, instead of working with the Congress in Washington.

史密斯的反对者并没有公开质疑他的宗教信仰,但他们中许多人都担心史密斯会接受梵蒂冈罗马教廷的指令,而不是与华盛顿的国会合作。

Al Smith fought back. He told the country, "I am unable to understand how anything I was taught to believe as a Catholic could possibly be in conflict with what is good citizenship. My faith," he said, "is built upon the laws of God. There can be no conflict between them. "

史密斯这样做出回应:"我无法理解作为一名天主教徒会与成为一名良好公民发生冲突。我信仰的是上帝的旨意,这二者是不会发生冲突的。"

HARRY MONROE: But many Protestant Americans thought there was a conflict. And they looked to the Republican Party to supply a strong candidate to oppose Smith and the Democrats.

但许多信仰新教的美国人认为这二者是有冲突的,他们希望共和党能推选出一位有实力的候选人,与史密斯和他的民主党竞争。

The Republicans did just that. They nominated former secretary of commerce Herbert Hoover, one of the country's most popular men. Hoover was well-known to Americans. People trusted him. And they liked the way he had gained great personal success from poor beginnings.

共和党没有辜负大家的期望,他们提名前商务部长休伯特.胡佛为总统候选人。胡佛是一位非常有名的人物,人们都信任他,而且大家都很赞赏他从穷困走向成功的人生历程。

In fact, Hoover's life story would have pleased Abraham Lincoln, another American who rose from a poor family to fame.

事实上,胡佛的人生历程与林肯的奋斗历程很相似,林肯就是从出身贫寒,最后走向成功的人。

Hoover was born in the farm state of Iowa in eighteen seventy-four. His father was a poor metal worker who kept moving his family from state to state.

1874年,胡佛出生在爱奥华州的一个农场里,他父亲是一个贫穷的金属工人,全家不断从一个州搬到另一个州。

Herbert Hoover's father died when the boy was just six years old. His mother died four years later. Young Herbert had to move to the western state of Oregon to live with his mother's brother.

胡佛只有六岁时,父亲就去世了,四年后,母亲也去世了。小胡佛不得不到西部的俄勒冈州与舅舅生活在一起。

Herbert's uncle was luckier in life than Herbert's parents. He had made money in the land business. And he helped the boy gain admission to Stanford University in California. At the university, Herbert showed great skill in mathematics. And he decided to go into business as a geologist studying the science of the earth.

跟胡佛的父母比,他的舅舅要幸运的多,他买卖土地赚了钱,资助胡佛考上加州的斯坦福大学。胡佛在大学里显露出非凡的数学才能。他的专业是地质学。

Herbert Hoover
Herbert Hoover

RICH KLEINFELDT: After college, Herbert Hoover got a job as a mine worker. During the next several years, Hoover spent most of his time working as an engineer in foreign countries. And he succeeded beyond his greatest dreams. By the time he was forty years old, he had earned more than one million dollars.

大学毕业后,胡佛在矿上找到了工作。在此后的几年里,胡佛主要时间都在国外担任工程师,他的成功超出了他的想像,到40岁的时候,他已经赚到了100多万美元。

After World War One, he organized the effort to provide food for starving people in Europe. He did an excellent job, winning praise from people in Europe and the United States alike. Next, Hoover joined the administration of President Warren Harding, serving as the secretary of commerce. Again, he did a very good job.

一战结束后,他为欧洲处于饥荒的人们筹集食品,因此受到了欧洲和美国人民的高度赞扬。此后 ,他加入沃伦.哈丁政府的内阁,担任商务部长。他在这个岗位上干得非常出色。

Hoover left the cabinet in nineteen twenty-five. But two years later, he organized efforts to provide relief for victims of a flood in the southern state of Mississippi. And again, Americans all around the country took note of this quiet, serious man who did such effective work in so many different kinds of situations.

1925年,他离开了沃伦.哈丁的内阁。两年后,他又为密西西比州洪灾灾民提供援助。全国民众都注意到了这个言语不多,做事认真的人,他先后多次出色完成各项工作。

Some Americans, however, did not like Hoover, including some people who usually supported Republicans.

不过,有些美国人并不喜欢胡佛,包括一些通常支持共和党的人。

For example, many professional Republican politicians did not trust him, because he had spent most of his life in business, not politics. Some stock market traders thought Hoover might change the rules on the New York Stock Exchange. And many farmers believed Hoover had no new ideas about how to solve their growing economic problems.

例如,许多共和党职业政治家就不相信他,因为他的大部分时间都花在商业上而不是政治领域。一些股票经纪人认为胡佛可能会改革纽约股票交易所的规定。还有许多农民则认为,胡佛对他们的日益膨胀的经济问题没有解决办法。

HARRY MONROE: This, then, was the choice Americans faced in nineteen twenty-eight. On the one hand, Al Smith. A Democrat. A Roman Catholic. A politician from the city. A man wanting some social change.

这就是1928年美国选民所面临的选择。一边是史密斯,天主教徒,来自大城市的政客,社会变革的推动者。

And on the other hand, Herbert Hoover. A Republican. A businessman who had proven the dream that even a poor boy could become great in America. A man who seemed to succeed with every effort he touched.

另一边是休伯特.胡佛,共和党人,商人,他证明了美国梦,一个穷苦的男孩也能实现自己的梦想。他似乎在其所触及的所有领域都能够取得成功。

The main issue in the campaign was not economics or religion, but the new national laws banning alcoholic drinks. Hoover was for the laws; Smith against them. The two candidates also argued about how to provide aid to struggling farmers, and how to increase electricity and water supplies.

这次竞选的焦点不在经济问题,也不是宗教问题,而是美国新颁布的禁酒法令。胡佛赞成禁酒法令;而史密斯则反对禁酒法令。这两位候选人还就如何向农民提供援助,以及如何提高水电供给展开辩论。

RICH KLEINFELDT: Herbert Hoover won the election of nineteen twenty eight. It was one of the greatest victories in presidential history. Hoover won fifty-eight percent of the votes. Smith got just forty percent. And Hoover captured four hundred forty-four electoral votes to Smith's eighty-seven.

最后,休伯特.胡佛赢得了1928年的美国总统大选,这是美国总统选举历史上落差最大的选举之一。胡佛获得了58%的公众选票,而史密斯只获得了40%的公众选票;胡佛获得了444张选举人选票,而史密斯只获得了87票。

And so it was that the engineer and businessman Herbert Hoover entered the White House in nineteen twenty-nine. There was some trouble the day he moved in. Outgoing President Coolidge was a man who watched every dollar he owned. And he accused some White House workers of stealing his shoes on the day of the inauguration. But -- finally -- safe, conservative, business-like Herbert Hoover was leading the country.

于是,带有工程师兼商人背景的休伯特.胡佛于1929年入主白宫。在他入主白宫那天,出现了一点小小的不愉快。卸任总统柯立芝特别在乎钱,在宣誓就职那天,他指责白宫的工作人员偷了他的鞋子。宣誓就职后,冷静、保守、做事干练的胡佛就要开始领导美国了。

HARRY MONROE: The nation's stock market reacted by pushing stock prices to record high levels. Everyone expected that economic growth would continue and expand. But the happy times were just a dream. Within one year, the stock market collapsed. Millions of people lost their jobs. The nation fell into the worst economic crisis it had ever faced.

在这一消息的鼓舞下,美国股票市场不断攀升。大家都以为经济会持续增长壮大,但这仅仅是一个梦。在不到一年的时间里,美国股市崩盘,无数人失去工作,整个国家陷入了有史以来最为严重的经济危机。

Herbert Hoover was not personally responsible for the crisis. In many ways, it was his own bad luck to be elected just before the disaster struck. But it was his job to guide the nation through its troubled waters. And he would prove to be the wrong person to give such leadership.

休伯特.胡佛对这场危机并不负有责任。在美国经济大萧条到来之际当选总统是他运气不好。但是,带领国家走出困境则是他的职责所在。

His four years in office would be one of the most difficult periods in the nation's history. We will look at President Hoover's administration in our next program.

他四年的任期是美国历史上最为困难时期之一。

(MUSIC)

BOB DOUGHTY: Our program was written by David Jarmul. The narrators were Rich Kleinfeldt and Harry Monroe. You can find our series online with transcripts, MP3s, podcasts and pictures at www.unsv.com. You can also follow us on Facebook and Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

___

This is program #175

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作者:郑烈波
his four years in office would be one of the most difficult periods in the nation's history.
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