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#173: American History: Calvin Coolidge Wins in Election of 1924

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Voters in Lanham, Maryland, during the election of 1924
Voters in Lanham, Maryland, during the election of 1924

BOB DOUGHTY: Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION - American history in VOA Special English.

Vice President Calvin Coolidge became president in nineteen twenty-three following the death of President Warren Harding. Coolidge quickly gained the trust of most Americans by investigating the crimes of Harding's top officials. The conservative economic policies of the new president also won wide support.

1923年,美国总统沃伦.哈丁去逝后,副总统加尔文.柯立芝接任哈丁的职位。柯立芝下令调查哈丁手下官员的犯罪行为,从而赢得了大多数美国人的信任。同时,他采取保守的经济政策,也使他获得了广泛的支持。

Coolidge had one year to prove his abilities to the American people before the election of nineteen twenty-four.

距1924年美国总统大选还有一年,柯立芝要利用这段时间向美国人证明他的领导能力。本周,我们就向你讲述1924年的大选。

This week in our series, Kay Gallant and Harry Monroe tell us about that election.

(MUSIC)

KAY GALLANT: Coolidge was a quiet man who believed in limited government policies. But his silence hid a fighting political spirit. Coolidge had worked for many years to gain the White House. He would not give it up without a struggle.

柯立芝是个话不多的人,他认为政府的功能和规模应该是有限的。但在他平静的外表下却隐藏着好胜的政治精神。柯立芝为进入白宫已经奋斗多年,他不会把当总统的机会拱手让出。

Coolidge moved quickly after becoming president to gain control of the Republican Party. He named his own advisers to important jobs. And he replaced a number of officials with people whose loyalty he could trust.

柯立芝接任总统后迅速采取行动,掌握了共和党的控制权。他任命自己的顾问担任重要职位,还启用自己信任的、忠诚的人,替换了原先的许多政府官员。

Most Republicans liked Coolidge. They felt his popular policies would make him a strong candidate in the presidential election. For this reason, Coolidge faced only one serious opponent for the Republican presidential nomination in nineteen twenty-four.

大多数共和党人喜欢柯立芝,他们觉得,他那些深受欢迎的政策将使他成为1924年总统大选强有力的候选人。

Coolidge's opponent was the great automobile manufacturer, Henry Ford of Michigan. Ford had been a candidate for Congress in nineteen eighteen. He lost that election. But after the election, some people in his company began to call for Ford to be the Republican presidential nominee in nineteen twenty-four.

所以,在1924年共和党总统候选人提名大会上,柯立芝只有一位强劲对手。他就是来自密歇根州的汽车大王亨利.福特。1918年,福特曾经竞选过国会议员,但落选了。不过,那次竞选后,福特公司的一些人开始鼓励他去参选1924年共和党总统候选人的提名。

Calvin Coolidge
Calvin Coolidge

HARRY MONROE: Ford was one of history's greatest inventors and manufacturers. But he had limited skills in politics. Ford was poorly educated. He had extreme opinions about a number of groups. He hated labor unions, the stock market, dancing, smoking, and drinking alcohol. But most of all, Ford hated Jews. He produced a number of publications accusing the Jewish people of organizing international plots.

福特是历史上最伟大的发明家和工业家之一,但他的政治能力非常有限。他没受过什么教育,对一些社会团体抱有很极端的看法。他痛恨工会、股市、跳舞、抽烟和饮酒,而在他所有痛恨的事情中,他最恨的是犹太人。他出版了许多刊物,指责犹太人组织从事国际阴谋。

At first, Ford appeared to be a strong opponent to Coolidge. But soon, he realized that Coolidge was too strong politically. His economic policies were popular among the people. And the nation was at peace. The party could not deny Coolidge's nomination. Ford himself put an end to his chances by telling the nation that it was "perfectly safe with Coolidge."

起初,福特似乎是柯立芝的有力对手,但不久,福特就意识到,柯立芝在政治上的强大是自己望尘莫及的。柯立芝的经济政策受到美国民众的欢迎,美国当时又处于和平时期,共和党不会否决对柯立芝的提名。于是,福特自己结束了竞选,他告诉全国人民:"选柯立芝当总统绝对不会错。"

Calvin Coolidge won the presidential nomination easily at the nineteen twenty-four Republican convention in Cleveland, Ohio. The Republican delegates chose Charles Dawes of Illinois to run with him as the vice presidential candidate.

就这样,加尔文.柯立芝轻而易举地赢得了共和党1924年总统大选候选人提名,提名大会是在俄亥俄州的克里夫兰市举行的。共和党代表们还推举伊利诺依州的查尔斯.道斯为副总统候选人。

KAY GALLANT: The Democratic Party was much more divided. Many of the groups that traditionally supported Democratic candidates now were fighting against each other. For example, many farmers did not agree on policies with people living in cities. The educated did not agree with uneducated people. And many Protestant workers felt divided from Roman Catholic and Jewish workers.

与共和党不同,民主党内存在更多的意见分歧。原先许多支持民主党的阵营正在相互争斗。例如,许多农民在一些政策上与城市人意见相左,受过良好教育的人又与未受过教育的人有分歧。许多信奉新教的工人觉得和天主教徒以及犹太教徒存在隔阂。

These differences made it hard for the Democratic Party to choose a national candidate. There was little spirit of compromise.

这些分歧使民主党很难选出自己的总统候选人,而各方又都不想妥协。

Two main candidates campaigned for the Democratic nomination. The first was former Treasury Secretary William McAdoo. McAdoo had the support of many Democrats because of his strong administration of the railroads during the world war. Democratic voters in Southern and Western states liked him because of his conservative racial policies and his opposition to alcohol.

当时的主要候选人有两个。第一个是前财政部长威廉.麦卡杜。他因为在一战期间管理铁路得力而得到许多民主党人的支持,另外,美国南部和西部的民主党选民也喜欢他,因为他持保守的种族政策,而且主张禁酒。

The second main candidate was Alfred Smith, the governor of New York. Smith was a Roman Catholic. He was very popular with people in the Eastern cities, Roman Catholics, and supporters of legal alcohol. But many rural delegates to the convention did not trust him.

第二位主要候选人是纽约州州长阿尔佛雷德.史密斯。他是天主教徒,在美国东部城市、天主教徒和反对禁酒的人中深受欢迎,但许多从农村地区前来参加民主党提名大会的代表并不信任他。

HARRY MONROE: The Democratic Party convention met in New York City. It quickly became a battle between the more liberal delegates from the cities and the more conservative delegates from rural areas.

民主党提名大会在纽约市举行,很快就变成了城市自由派代表与农村保守派代表之间的论战。

It was July. The heat was intense. Speaker after speaker appealed to the delegates for votes. One day passed. Then another. For nine days, the nation listened on the radio as the delegates argued about the nomination.

时值七月,天气非常炎热。演说者们一个接一个上台,争取代表们的支持。一天过去了,又一天过去了。连续九天,美国全国人民通过广播收听这些代表们不停地争论着有关提名的问题。

The delegates voted ninety-five times without success. Finally, McAdoo and Smith agreed to withdraw from the race. Even then, the delegates had to vote eight more times before they finally agreed on compromise candidates.

民主党代表们先后投了95次票,还是选不出一个候选人。最后,麦卡杜和史密斯同意退出。尽管如此,民主党代表们仍然进行了八次投票才最终达成妥协。

The Democratic delegates finally chose John Davis to be their presidential nominee. Davis was a lawyer for a major bank. He had served briefly under President Wilson as ambassador to Britain. The delegates also chose Charles Bryan to be the vice presidential candidate. Bryan was the younger brother of the famous Democrat and populist leader, William Jennings Bryan.

他们推选约翰.戴维斯为民主党总统候选人。戴维斯是美国一家大银行的律师,在威尔逊担任总统期间,曾短暂地出任过美国驻英国大使。民主党代表们还推选查尔斯.布莱恩为副总统候选人。查尔斯.布莱恩的哥哥是著名民主党人,民粹领袖威廉.詹宁斯.布莱恩。

Robert LaFollette
Robert LaFollette

KAY GALLANT: There also was a third party in the nineteen twenty-four election. Many of the old progressive supporters of Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson opposed the choices of the Republicans and Democrats. They thought the country needed another candidate to keep alive the spirit of reform.

1924年,美国还有第三个政党参加大选。西奥多.罗斯福和伍德罗.威尔逊等许多老牌进步派支持者反对共和党和民主党所选择的总统候选人,他们认为,美国应该有另一位候选人,继承和发扬改革精神。

Progressive candidates had done well in the congressional election of nineteen twenty-two. But following the election, communists had gained influence in one of the major progressive parties. Most progressives did not want to join with communists. So, they formed a new progressive party. The new party named Senator Robert LaFollette of Wisconsin to be its presidential candidate.

在1922年的国会选举中,进步派候选人表现不错。但那次选举后,一个主要的进步党被共产党控制,而大多数进步派人士并不想加入共产党人的行列。所以,他们成立了一个新的进步派政党,并提名威斯康星州参议员罗伯特.拉弗莱特为总统候选人。

LaFollette campaigned for increased taxes on the rich and public ownership of water power. He called for an end to child labor and limits on the power of the courts to interfere in labor disputes. And LaFollette warned the nation about the dangers of single, large companies gaining control of important industries.

拉弗莱特的竞选主张包括给富人加税,以及水资源的国有化,他要求停止使用童工,并限制法院干涉劳工纠纷的权力。他还对单一的大型企业垄断国家重要产业的危险提出警告。

HARRY MONROE: Coolidge won the nineteen twenty-four election easily. He won the electoral votes of thirty-five states to just twelve for Davis of the Democrats. LaFollette won only Wisconsin, his home state. Coolidge also won more popular votes than the other two candidates together.

最终,柯立芝轻松赢得了1924年的美国总统大选,他获得了35个州的选举人票,而民主党的戴维斯只获得了12个州的选举人票,拉弗莱特只获得了老家威斯康星州的选举人票。柯立芝所获得的选民票也比其他两位候选人的加起来还多。

The American people voted for Coolidge partly to thank him for bringing back honesty and trust to the White House following the crimes of the Harding administration. But the main reason was that they liked his conservative economic policies and his support of business.

美国人之所以选择柯立芝,部分原因是感谢他在哈丁政府腐败丛生之后,再一次把诚实和信任带回了白宫,但更重要的原因是,美国人喜欢他保守的经济政策和他对企业的支持。

KAY GALLANT: LaFollette's Progressive Party died following the nineteen twenty-four election. Most of his supporters later joined the Democrats. But the reform spirit of their movement remained alive through the next four years.

拉弗莱特的进步党在1924年大选结束后解散,他的支持者后来大多加入了民主党,但他们所推动的改革精神在此后的四年中始终存在。

They were difficult years for Progressives. Conservatives in Congress passed laws reducing taxes for corporations and richer Americans.

对于进步派来说,这段时期十分困难。国会保守派通过法律,给企业和富人减税。

HARRY MONROE: Progressives fought for reforms in national agriculture policies. Most farmers did not share in the general economic growth of the nineteen twenties. Instead, their costs increased while the price of their products fell. Many farmers lost their farms.

进步派争取改革全国农业政策。起因是,大多数美国农民并没有分享到20世纪二十年代美国经济整体发展所带来的好处,相反,他们的生活成本升高了,而农产品价格却下跌了。许多农民失去了自己的农场。

Farmers and progressives wanted the federal government to create a system to control prices and the total supply of food produced. They said the government should buy and keep any extra food that farmers produced. And they called for officials to help them export food.

农民和进步派希望联邦政府建立一个控制物价上涨和食品总供给量的体系。他们认为,联邦政府应该收购并储存农民生产的剩余农产品,并呼吁政府帮助他们出口粮食。

Coolidge and most Republicans rejected these ideas. They said it was not the business of a free government to fix farm prices. And they feared the high costs of creating a major new government department and developing export markets.

柯立芝和大多数共和党人拒绝了这些主张。他们说,控制农产品价格并不是自由政府该做的事,而且他们还担心,如果成立一个新的大型政府部门并发展出口市场,会带来巨大的政府开支。

Coolidge vetoed three major farm reform bills following his election.

柯立芝当选后否决了三项重大农业改革议案。

KAY GALLANT: The debate over farm policy was, in many ways, like the debate over taxes or public controls on power companies. There was a basic difference of opinion about the proper actions of government.

在很多方面,有关农业政策改革的辩论很像有关税收、电力公司国有化问题的争论。人们对政府在这些问题上应该怎么做存在根本性的不同看法。

More conservative Americans believed the purpose of government was to support private business, not to control it. But more liberal Americans believed that government needed to do more to make sure that citizens of all kinds could share the nation's wealth more equally.

保守派美国人认为,政府存在的目的是支持私人企业的发展而不是控制它们。但自由派美国人则认为,政府应该采取更多行动,确保社会各个阶层的人尽可能平等地分享国家财富。

Coolidge and the Republicans were in control in the nineteen twenties. For this reason, the nation generally stayed on a conservative path. The Democrats and Progressives would have to wait until later to put many of their more liberal ideas into action.

柯立芝和共和党人在20世纪二十年代掌握着权利,因此,美国基本上仍然走在一条保守的道路上。民主党和进步党不得不继续等待时机,才能把他们的自由派理念付诸行动。

(MUSIC)

BOB DOUGHTY: Our program was written by David Jarmul. The narrators were Kay Gallant and Harry Monroe. You can find our series online with pictures, transcripts, MP3s and podcasts at www.unsv.com. You can also follow us on Facebook and Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

___

This is program #173

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