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#162: Remembering the Peace Talks That Followed the Original Armistice Day

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Allies around the conference table in Paris in 1919
Allies around the conference table in Paris in 1919

BOB DOUGHTY: Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION - American history in VOA Special English.

In nineteen eighteen, on the eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month, a truce took effect between the Allies and Germany. But not until seven months later was a treaty signed to officially end what was known as the Great War and the War to End All Wars.

1918年11月11日上午11点,协约国和德国停止交火。但是,双方直到7个月之后才签署协定,正式结束第一次世界大战。

This week in our series, Shirley Griffith and Larry West continue the story of the peace conference following World War One.

SHIRLEY GRIFFITH: American President Woodrow Wilson was one of the chief negotiators at the conference in Paris. Throughout the early months of nineteen nineteen, he struggled hard for a treaty that would result in peace with justice for all sides.

时任美国总统威尔逊是巴黎和会上的主要谈判者之一。1919年的头几个月,威尔逊一直在努力促成和谈,希望能实现对各方都公正的和平。

Wilson demanded a treaty that provided for a new international organization. He called it the League of Nations. To Wilson, the league was more important than any other part of the treaty.

威尔逊要求在和平条约中加入建立一个新国际组织的内容,他把这个组织称为国联。威尔逊认为,国联是整个和约中最重要的内容。

Not all Americans shared Wilson's opinion. Many feared the league would take away the power of the American government to declare war and make treaties. They also agreed with the leaders of the other allied nations. Establishing the league was less important than punishing the defeated enemy.

然而,并不是所有美国人都同意威尔逊的观点。许多人担心,国联会抢走美国政府宣战和缔结条约的权力。他们和协约国其它成员国的领导人一样,认为巴黎和会的首要任务是惩罚战败的敌国,而不是建立国联。

Left to right: Britain's Prime Minister David Lloyd George, Italy's Premier Vittorio Orlando, France's Premier Georges Clemenceau, and President Woodrow Wilson on June 28, 1919.
Left to right: Britain's Prime Minister David Lloyd George, Italy's Premier Vittorio Orlando, France's Premier Georges Clemenceau, and President Woodrow Wilson on June 28, 1919.

LARRY WEST: The other major allied leaders at the peace conference were Prime Minister David Lloyd-George of Britain, Premier Georges Clemenceau of France, and Premier Vittorio Otto of Italy.

除了威尔逊总统外,巴黎和会上的重量级协约国领导人还有英国首相戴维.劳埃德.乔治、法国总理乔治.克里孟梭和意大利总理维托里奥.奥兰多。

Lloyd-George, Clemenceau, and Otto understood how much Wilson wanted the League of Nations. They used this knowledge to win Wilson's approval for other parts of the peace treaty.

他们都明白威尔逊建立国联的迫切愿望,并利用这一点来赢得威尔逊对和约其它内容的认可。

Wilson soon learned that, to get the league, he had to compromise on many issues. For example, he had to accept British and French demands to make Germany pay all war damages. The payments added up to more than three hundred thousand million dollars. Wilson also had to accept the allied takeover of Germany's colonies.

威尔逊很快意识到,为了建立国联,他必须在很多议题上妥协。比如,他不得不接受英国和法国提出的让德国支付全部战争赔款的要求。这笔赔款总额超过3千亿美元。此外,威尔逊还不得不同意让协约国接手德国的殖民地。

SHIRLEY GRIFFITH: Some of Wilson's compromises violated his belief in self-determination. This was the right of all people to decide for themselves who would govern them.

威尔逊的一些妥协违背了他信奉的"自决"理念。所谓"自决"指的是所有人都有权决定由谁来当他们的管理者。

One compromise, for example, gave to Japan Germany's colonial rights in the Shantung area of China. China protested the decision. It asked that control of Shantung be returned to the Chinese government. But President Wilson needed Japan's support for the League of Nations. So he accepted Japan's demand for control of Shantung.

比如,威尔逊做出妥协,同意把德国在中国山东的殖民权交给日本。中国政府对此提出抗议,要求收回对山东的控制权。但是,威尔逊在国联问题上需要日本的支持,所以接受了日本的要求,把山东给了日本。

There were other violations of the policy of self-determination. These affected the people and land along the borders of several European nations.

其它做法也违背了自决原则,而且影响到了几个欧洲国家边界地区的人民和领土。

For example, three million Germans were made citizens of the new nation of Czechoslovakia. Millions of other Germans were forced into the newly formed nation of Poland. And Italy received territory that had belonged to Austria.

比如,有300万德国人变成了新成立的捷克斯洛伐克的公民,另有数百万德国人被迫加入了新成立的波兰。而意大利接过了原来属于奥地利的一部分领土。

LARRY WEST: Today, most history experts agree Woodrow Wilson was correct in opposing these decisions. They say Germany's loss of territory and citizens caused deep bitterness. And the bitterness helped lead to the rise of fascist dictator Adolph Hitler in the nineteen thirties.

今天的大部分历史学家都认为,威尔逊总统反对以上几项决定是正确的。他们说,这些决定使德国失去领土和国民,给德国人造成痛苦和不满,而这种情绪从一定程度上导致了1930年代法西斯独裁者希特勒的崛起。

In East Asia, Japanese control over parts of China created serious tensions. Both decisions helped plant the seeds for the bloody harvest of World War Two twenty years later. But allied leaders at the Paris peace conference were not looking far into the future. As one person said at the time: "They divided Europe like people cutting up a tasty pie."

在东亚,日本对中国领土的占领也引发了严重的紧张关系。这两个决定都给20年后血腥的第二次世界大战埋下了种子。不过,当年巴黎和会上的协约国领导人并没有着眼于未来。当时有人评价说:"协约国领导人像切一块美味蛋糕一样瓜分了欧洲。"

SHIRLEY GRIFFITH: After months of negotiations, the peace treaty was completed. The Allies gave it to a German delegation on May seventh, nineteen-nineteen. The head of the delegation objected immediately. He said the treaty was unfair. He urged his government not to sign it.

在巴黎和会上,各国经过几个月的谈判,终于敲定了一项和平条约。协约国1919年5月7号把条约交给了德国代表团。德国代表团团长立刻表示拒绝接受和约,认为这个和约是不公平的。他敦促德国政府不要在上面签字。

At first, Germany did not sign. The leader of the government refused and resigned in protest. But a new government was formed. And its leader signed the document at a ceremony at the palace in Versailles outside Paris.

开始时,德国没有签字,德国总理拒绝接受和约,并以辞职表示抗议。但是新政府成立了。新总理在巴黎郊外凡尔赛宫举行的签约仪式上签署了这份和平条约。

Finally, World War One was officially over.

终于,第一次世界大战正式宣告结束。

LARRY WEST: President Woodrow Wilson returned to the United States after the treaty signing ceremony. He was not completely satisfied with the treaty. Yet he believed it was still valuable, because it established the League of Nations.

美国总统威尔逊在签约仪式结束后返回了美国。他对和平条约并不完全满意,但他认为,条约还是有价值的,因为它宣告了国联的建立。

Wilson's battle for the league was only half over when the treaty was signed in Europe. He had to win approval from the United States Senate. That half of the battle would not be easy.

其实,凡尔赛和约的签订只标志着威尔逊建立国联的努力成功了一半,剩下的一半是要让美国国会参议院批准这份和约,而这可不容易做到。

SHIRLEY GRIFFITH: Part of the problem was political. Wilson was a member of the Democratic Party. The Senate was controlled by the Republican Party. Also, Wilson had refused to name any important Republicans to his negotiating team at the peace conference.

其中一部分阻力来自于政治斗争。威尔逊是民主党人,但当时的参议院被共和党控制。另外,威尔逊还曾拒绝挑选任何重要的共和党成员加入他在巴黎和会的谈判代表团。

Henry Cabot Lodge
Henry Cabot Lodge

Part of the problem was personal. A number of senators disliked Wilson. One was Republican Senator Henry Cabot Lodge. Lodge was the powerful chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. He told a friend he never expected to hate anyone as much as he hated Wilson.

另外一部分阻力是个人原因。许多参议员不喜欢威尔逊。参议院外交关系委员会主席、位高权重的共和党人亨利.洛奇就是其中之一。他对一个朋友说,全天下的人他最恨的就是威尔逊。

LARRY WEST: Wilson spoke before the Senate just two days after he returned from Europe. He urged it to approve the peace treaty.

威尔逊从欧洲回来刚两天就到参议院去发表演讲,敦促议员们批准凡尔赛和约。

Wilson said: "The united power of free nations must put a stop to aggression. And the world must be given peace. Shall we and any other free people refuse to accept this great duty? Dare we reject it and break the heart of the world? We cannot turn back. America shall show the way. The light streams upon the path ahead and nowhere else."

他说:"自由国家应合力阻止侵略行为。世界必须获得和平。美国和其他自由的人民难道能拒绝肩负起这一伟大的责任么?我们难道忍心拒绝这个责任,让全世界的人伤心么?我们不能退缩,美国应该指明道路。光芒洒在前进的路上,而不是别的地方。"

SHIRLEY GRIFFITH: The Senate Foreign Relations Committee began hearings on the treaty. It heard a number of people who opposed the League of Nations. They said the league would destroy the freedom and independence of the United States.

参议员外交关系委员会开始为凡尔赛和约举行听证会。很多反对国联的人在会上发言。这些人说,国联会摧毁美国的自由和独立。

The committee completed its hearings and prepared a report for the full Senate. The report said the United States should reject the treaty, unless changes were made. The committee proposed almost forty changes.

委员会在听证会结束后起草了一份报告,准备呈交给参议院全体审阅。报告说,美国应该拒绝凡尔赛和约,除非对和约内容进行改动。而委员会提议的改动有将近40处。

LARRY WEST: The committee's report was a blow to President Wilson both politically and personally. He had worked extremely hard to win Europe's support for the idea of a league of nations. Great crowds in Paris had cheered him and his idea. Now, the Senate of his own country was about to reject it.

无论从政治角度还是个人角度,这份报告都是对威尔逊的巨大打击。他为了赢得欧洲对国联计划的支持费尽了心力。在巴黎,人们成群结队地为他欢呼,支持他建立国联的理念。可是,他自己国家的参议院却将把这个理念扼杀。

Wilson decided he must take his case out of the hands of the peoples' representatives. He would take the case directly to the people themselves. He would build public support for the treaty. If enough citizens supported it, he believed, the Senate could not reject it.

威尔逊决定,不能让议员们决定国联的命运。他要把这个理念直接交给人民裁定。他将寻求公众对凡尔赛和约的支持。如果有足够多的美国人支持,参议院就不能拒绝它。

SHIRLEY GRIFFITH: President Wilson planned a speaking trip all across the country. His family and his doctor urged him not to go. They said he was still weak from a recent sickness. But Wilson refused the advice. He said the treaty was more important to him than his own life.

威尔逊计划到全国各地去演说,但他的家人和医生劝他不要去。他们说,威尔逊旧病未愈,身体虚弱。但是威尔逊拒绝了他们的建议,他说,这份协约比他的命还重要。

The president left Washington in early September. He traveled in a special train.

9月初,威尔逊离开华盛顿,乘坐专列开始了演讲之旅。

In city after city, he made speeches and rode in parades. He shook thousands of hands. At times, he suffered from a painful headache. But there was no time to rest.

他在一个又一个城市发表演说,参加游行,和成千上万人握手。有时他因头疼而痛苦不已,可是没有时间休息。

LARRY WEST: Everywhere Wilson stopped, he urged the people to support the League of Nations. It was, he said, the only hope for peace.

威尔逊每到一个地方,都敦促人们支持建立国联。他说,国联是实现和平的唯一希望。

In Boulder, Colorado, ten thousand people waited to hear him. By then, Wilson was extremely weak. He had to be helped up the steps of the building where he was to speak. He made the speech. He said he was working to honor the men who had died in the war. He said he was working for the children of the world.

在科罗拉多州博尔德市,1万人等着听威尔逊演讲。那时,威尔逊的身体已经很虚弱了。他必须靠人搀扶才能走上演讲场地的台阶。在演讲中,他说,他这么做是为了纪念在战争中牺牲的人,是为了世界上所有儿童的未来。

SHIRLEY GRIFFITH: Wilson put all his heart and energy into his speeches. And, as his family and doctor had warned, the pressure was too great. While in Wichita, Kansas, the pain in his head became terrible. He could not speak clearly. His face seemed frozen. A blood vessel had broken in his brain. Wilson had suffered a stroke.

威尔逊把所有的心血和精力都放在了这些演讲中。而正如他的家人和医生警告的那样,他的压力太大了。威尔逊到达堪萨斯州的威奇塔时,他的头疼已经变得非常严重。他不能清楚地讲话,而且面部僵硬。原来,他脑袋里有一根血管爆裂,他中风了。

The president was forced to return to Washington. His condition got worse every day. Soon, he was unable to move.

威尔逊只好返回华盛顿,他的情况一天不如一天,很快就丧失了行动能力。

Woodrow Wilson would spend the rest of his presidency as a terribly sick man. He continued to hold on to his dreams of a League of Nations. But his dreams now filled a broken body.

从那时起直到卸任总统之职,威尔逊一直重病缠身。他继续坚守着建立国联的梦,可是他的身体已经彻底垮了。

We will continue our story next week.

(MUSIC)

BOB DOUGHTY: Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Shirley Griffith and Larry West.

You can find our series online with transcripts, MP3s, podcasts and images at www.unsv.com. You can also follow us on Facebook and Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

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作者:郑烈波
but his dreams now filled a broken body.
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