官方APP下载:钱柜娱乐qg999全能特训(微信小程序版,支持苹果手机、安卓手机)
创办于2003年
UNSV记不住?那就记中文谐音“忧安思危”吧!
UNSV钱柜娱乐qg999学习频道 - Slow and steady wins the race!
报名“钱柜娱乐qg999口语慢成班”,三年拿下钱柜娱乐qg999口语!
手机微信学钱柜娱乐qg999
打开手机微信,扫描以下二维码,即可通过我们的微信小程序学钱柜娱乐qg999。
钱柜娱乐qg999全能特训(微信小程序)
UNSV钱柜娱乐qg999学习频道淘宝网店
淘宝网店购买咨询
客服短信:18913948480
客服邮箱:web@unsv.com
标准VIP会员
全站资料无限下载、手机APP免费使用。
¥598元/12个月
钱柜娱乐qg999口语慢成班
承诺3年拿下口语!

#161: In November 1918, a Truce in World War

阅读次数:

VIP会员专享下载:(非VIP会员无权下载!如果想下载,但还不是VIP会员,请点此订购
下载方式:使用鼠标右键(注意是鼠标右键!)点击下面的MP3音频/MP4视频链接,然后选择“另存为…”。
MP3节目录音(英文版) MP3节目录音(英文版)  MP3节目录音(中文版) MP3节目录音(中文版)  PDF节目文稿 PDF节目文稿 
文章正文
同步字幕
Americans at the peace conference, from left: Colonel Edward House, Secretary of State Robert Lansing, President Woodrow Wilson, Henry White and General Tasker Bliss
Americans at the peace conference, from left: Colonel Edward House, Secretary of State Robert Lansing, President Woodrow Wilson, Henry White and General Tasker Bliss

BOB DOUGHTY: Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION - American history in VOA Special English.

On November eleventh, nineteen eighteen, a truce was signed ending the hostilities of World War One. The Central Powers -- led by Germany -- had lost. The Allies -- led by Britain, France and the United States -- had won.

1918年11月11日,第一次世界大战的交战国签署停战协议。由德国领导的轴心国战败,由英国、法国和美国领导的协约国胜利。

The war lasted four years. It took the lives of ten million people. It left much of Europe in ruins. It was described as "the war to end all wars."

这场战争打了四年,导致一千万人死亡,欧洲的大片地方成了废墟。人们把第一次世界大战形容为"一场终结了所有战争的战争"。

This week in our series, Barbara Klein and Doug Johnson tell about President Woodrow Wilson and his part in events after the war.

BARBARA KLEIN: The immediate task was to seek agreement on terms of a peace treaty. The Allies were filled with bitter anger. They demanded a treaty that would punish Germany severely. They wanted to make Germany weak by destroying its military and industry. And they wanted to ruin Germany's economy by making it pay all war damages. Germany, they said, must never go to war again.

当时的首要任务是就和平条约的内容达成一致。协约国集团的各成员国内心充满仇恨,他们要求在和平条约里对德国严加惩罚。他们要摧毁德国的军事和工业,以削弱德国国力,要让德国支付巨额战争赔款,以摧毁其经济。这些国家说,德国绝不能再有作战能力。

President Woodrow Wilson of the United States did not agree completely with the other Allies. He wanted a peace treaty based on justice, not bitterness. He believed that would produce a lasting peace.

美国总统威尔逊的想法同这些国家不完全一样。他希望和平条约建立在正义--而不是仇恨--的基础上。威尔逊相信,只有这样的协议才能带来持久的和平。

President Wilson had led negotiations for a truce to end the hostilities of World War One. Now, he hoped to play a major part in negotiations for a peace treaty. To be effective, he needed the full support of the American people.

在为一战停火协议所进行的谈判中,威尔逊已经发挥了领导作用,现在,他希望自己能够在和平协议的谈判中再次发挥重要作用。为此,他需要得到美国人民的全力支持。

DOUG JOHNSON: Americans had supported Wilson's policies through most of the war. They had accepted what was necessary to win. This meant higher taxes and shortages of goods. At the time, Americans seemed to forget party politics. Democrats and Republicans worked together.

在第一次世界大战绝大部分时间里,美国人都支持威尔逊总统的政策,他们接受了为赢得战争而必须付出的代价,包括加税和物资短缺。那时,美国人似乎忘记了党派政治,民主共和两党通力合作。

All that changed when it became clear the war was ending. Congressional elections were to be held in November, nineteen eighteen. President Wilson was a Democrat. He feared that Republicans might gain a majority of seats in Congress. If they did, his negotiating powers at a peace conference in Europe would be weakened. Wilson told the nation:

然而,在战争明显即将结束时,这一切都发生了变化。1918年11月美国举行国会中期选举。威尔逊总统是民主党人,他担心,共和党在选举中可能会取得多数席位,如果真是这样,他在欧洲和平会议上的谈判力量就将被削弱。为此,威尔逊对美国人说:

"The return of a Republican majority to either house of Congress would be seen by foreign leaders as a rejection of my leadership."

"共和党无论在众议院还是参议院占多数,都会被外国首脑看作是美国人对我领导能力的否定。"

BARBARA KLEIN: Republicans protested. They charged that Wilson's appeal to voters was an insult to every Republican. One party leader said: "This is not the president's private war." The Republican campaign succeeded. The party won control of both the Senate and House of Representatives.

共和党人对此进行抗议。他们指责说,威尔逊对选民说的这些话是对所有共和党人的侮辱。一位共和党领导人指出:"国会选举不是总统的私人战争。"结果,共和党在这次中期选举中取得了胜利,控制了国会参众两院。

The congressional elections were a defeat for President Wilson. But he did not let the situation interfere with his plans for a peace conference. He and the other Allied leaders agreed to meet in Paris in January, nineteen nineteen.

这对威尔逊而言是政治上的失败,不过,他并没有让选举结果影响自己的欧洲和平计划。他和其他协约国领导人同意1919年1月在巴黎举行和平会议。

(MUSIC)

President Woodrow Wilson, left, and French President Raymond Poincare in Paris
President Woodrow Wilson, left, and French President Raymond Poincare in Paris

BARBARA KLEIN: In the weeks before the conference, Wilson chose members of his negotiating team. Everyone expected him to include one or more senators. After all, the Senate would vote to approve or reject the final peace treaty. Wilson refused. Instead, he chose several close advisers to go with him to Paris.

在和会召开前的几个星期里,威尔逊开始挑选他的谈判代表。大家都以为他会挑至少一位参议员,毕竟,参议院将决定是否批准他签署的和平条约。然而,威尔逊拒绝这样做。相反,他挑选了最亲近的几名助手和他一同前往巴黎和会。

Today, American history experts say Wilson's decision was a mistake. Failure to put senators on the negotiating team, they say, cost him valuable support later on.

今天的美国历史学家们说,威尔逊的这个决定是错误的。不让参议员加入和谈队伍使威尔逊在日后丧失了重要的支持。

In early December, President Wilson sailed to France. The voyage across the Atlantic Ocean lasted nine days. He arrived at the Port of Brest on December thirteenth. Wilson felt very happy. Thirteen, he said, was his lucky number.

不管怎样,1918年12月初,威尔逊前往法国。他花9天时间,乘坐轮船跨越大西洋,12月13日到达法国的布雷斯特港。威尔逊很兴奋,他说,13是他的幸运数字。

DOUG JOHNSON: French citizens stood along the railroad that carried him from Brest to Paris. They cheered as his train passed. In Paris, cannons were fired to announce his arrival. And a huge crowd welcomed him there. The people shouted his name over and over again -- Wilson! Wilson! Wilson! The noise sounded like thunder. French Premier Georges Clemenceau commented on the event. He said: "I do not think there has been anything like it in the history of the world."

威尔逊总统乘坐火车从布雷斯特前往巴黎,法国人在铁路线两侧欢迎他,在火车经过时向他欢呼。在巴黎,礼炮的巨响向人们宣告威尔逊的到来,很多人前来欢迎他。人们一次又一次高呼他的名字:威尔逊、威尔逊、威尔逊! 高呼声如同隆隆的雷声。法国总理乔治.克里孟梭对此评论说:"我想,在历史上还从来没有过这样的情景。"

People cheered President Wilson partly to thank America for sending its troops to help fight against Germany. But many French citizens and other Europeans also shared Wilson's desire to establish a new world of peace. They listened with hope as he made an emotional speech about a world in which everyone would reject hatred -- a world in which everyone would join together to end war, forever.

法国人民这么做在很大程度上是为了感谢美国派兵帮助协约国对付德国。同时,许多法国人和其他欧洲人也都和威尔逊一样,期望建立一个新的和平的世界。他们满怀希望地聆听威尔逊激情洋溢的演讲。威尔逊说,我们要建立一个人人抛弃仇恨、大家齐心协力避免战争的世界。

BARBARA KLEIN: More than twenty-five nations that helped win the war sent representatives to the peace conference in Paris. All took part in the negotiations.

超过25个帮助协约国赢得一战的国家派代表出席巴黎和会。 所有代表都参加了谈判。

However, the important decisions were made by the so-called "Big Four": Prime Minister David Lloyd-George of Britain, Premier Georges Clemenceau of France, Premier Vittorio Orlando of Italy, and President Woodrow Wilson of the United States.

然而,真正重要的决定都是由所谓的"四巨头"做出的,这四个人是:英国首相戴维.劳埃德.乔治、法国总理乔治.克里孟梭、意大利总理维托里奥.奥兰多和美国总统伍德罗.威尔逊。

Wilson hoped the other Allied leaders would accept his plan for a new international organization. The organization would be called the League of Nations.

威尔逊希望其他协约国领导人能够接受他提出的建立一个新的国际组织的计划,这个国际组织就是国际联盟,即国联。

Wilson believed the league could prevent future wars by deciding fair settlements of disputes between nations. He believed it would be the world's only hope for a lasting peace.

威尔逊认为,国联将在成员国发生争端时进行公平的裁决,以此防止战争的爆发。他认为,这是获得永久和平的唯一途径。

DOUG JOHNSON: Most of the other representatives did not have Wilson's faith in the power of peace. Yet they supported his plan for the League of Nations. However, they considered it less important than completing a peace treaty with Germany. And they did not want to spend much time talking about it. They feared that negotiations on the league might delay the treaty and the rebuilding of Europe.

但是,绝大多数与会代表并不像威尔逊那样对所谓和平的力量深信不疑。不过,他们还是支持建立国联的计划。但他们认为,国联的问题没有同德国签署和平条约那么重要,他们也不想把时间耗费在讨论国联问题上。他们担心,就国联问题进行的谈判会耽误签署和约以及欧洲重建的进程。

Wilson was firm. He demanded that the peace treaty also establish the league. So, he led a group at the conference that wrote a plan for the operation of the league. He gave the plan to the European leaders to consider. Then he returned to the United States for a brief visit.

然而,威尔逊很坚决。他要求在和平条约中加入建立国联的内容。为此,他在会议期间率领一个团队起草了国联的章程计划,并把这个计划交给欧洲各国的领导人去讨论。他自己则短暂地返回美国一段时间。

(MUSIC)

BARBARA KLEIN: President Wilson soon learned that opposition to the League of Nations existed on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean. Many Americans opposed it strongly. Some Republican senators began criticizing it even before Wilson's ship reached the port of Boston.

威尔逊很快就发现,大西洋两岸都存在反对国际联盟的声音。许多美国人强烈反对他的这个计划。一些共和党参议员甚至在威尔逊的船还没抵达波士顿港口时就开始批评这个计划。

The senators said the plan failed to recognize America's long-term interests. They said it would take away too many powers from national governments. Thirty-seven senators signed a resolution saying the United States should reject the plan for the League of Nations. That was more than the number of votes needed to defeat a peace treaty to which, Wilson hoped, the league plan would be linked.

他们说,这个计划没有考虑到美国的长期利益,国联将会从各国政府手中拿走过多的权力。国会37名参议员签署了一份决议案,指出美国应当反对威尔逊这个成立国际联盟的计划。而实际上,参议院用不着37张反对票就能否决威尔逊在巴黎和会上签署的、含有国联计划的和平协议。

DOUG JOHNSON: The Senate resolution hurt Wilson politically. It was a sign to the rest of the world that he did not have the full support of his people. But he returned to Paris anyway. He got more bad news when he arrived.

参议院的这一决议在政治上伤害了威尔逊,因为这让世界其它地方的人觉得,威尔逊在美国国内说了不算。然而,无论如何,威尔逊还是返回了巴黎。当他回到巴黎时却听到了更多坏消息。

Wilson's top adviser at the Paris peace conference was Colonel Edward House. Colonel House had continued negotiations while Wilson was back in the United States.

在巴黎和会上,威尔逊最重要的助手是爱德华.豪斯上校,威尔逊回国期间,豪斯上校一直出席和谈。

House agreed with Wilson on most issues. Unlike Wilson, however, he believed the Allies' most urgent need was to reach agreement on a peace treaty with Germany. To do this, House was willing to make many more compromises than Wilson on details for the League of Nations.

他在许多问题上同威尔逊观点一致,但是他认为协约国各成员国最关心的是尽快与德国达成和平条约。为此,他愿意在国联问题的一些细节上做出比威尔逊更多的让步。

BARBARA KLEIN: Wilson was furious when he learned what House had done. He said: "Colonel House has given away everything I had won before I left Paris. He has compromised until nothing remains. Now I have to start all over again. This time, it will be more difficult." For Woodrow Wilson, the most difficult negotiations still lay ahead.

当威尔逊得知豪斯所做的一切时,他愤怒了。他说:"豪斯上校把我离开巴黎前所取得的成果丧失殆尽。他不断做出妥协,直到什么都没有了。现在我不得不重新开始,而这次,我的工作将会变得更加困难。"对于威尔逊来说,最为困难的谈判还在前面等待着他呢。

That will be our story next week.

(MUSIC)

BOB DOUGHTY: Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Barbara Klein and Doug Johnson.

You can find our series online with transcripts, MP3s, podcasts and images at www.unsv.com. You can also follow us on Facebook and Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

___

This is program #161

网友的学习评论(0条):
版权所有©2003-2015 南京通享科技有限公司,保留所有权利。未经书面许可,严禁转载本站内容,违者追究法律责任。 中国互联网经营ICP证:苏B2-20120186
广播台