官方APP下载:钱柜娱乐qg999全能特训(微信小程序版,支持苹果手机、安卓手机)
创办于2003年
UNSV记不住?那就记中文谐音“忧安思危”吧!
UNSV钱柜娱乐qg999学习频道 - Slow and steady wins the race!
报名“钱柜娱乐qg999口语慢成班”,三年拿下钱柜娱乐qg999口语!
手机微信学钱柜娱乐qg999
打开手机微信,扫描以下二维码,即可通过我们的微信小程序学钱柜娱乐qg999。
钱柜娱乐qg999全能特训(微信小程序)
UNSV钱柜娱乐qg999学习频道淘宝网店
淘宝网店购买咨询
客服短信:18913948480
客服邮箱:web@unsv.com
标准VIP会员
全站资料无限下载、手机APP免费使用。
¥598元/12个月
钱柜娱乐qg999口语慢成班
承诺3年拿下口语!

#160: President Wilson Helps Negotiate an End to World War

阅读次数:

VIP会员专享下载:(非VIP会员无权下载!如果想下载,但还不是VIP会员,请点此订购
下载方式:使用鼠标右键(注意是鼠标右键!)点击下面的MP3音频/MP4视频链接,然后选择“另存为…”。
MP3节目录音(英文版) MP3节目录音(英文版)  MP3节目录音(中文版) MP3节目录音(中文版)  PDF节目文稿 PDF节目文稿 
文章正文
同步字幕
A poster for selling liberty bonds shows Uncle Sam with a truck full of citizens holding bonds under a sign saying
A poster for selling liberty bonds shows Uncle Sam with a truck full of citizens holding bonds under a sign saying "To Berlin"

BOB DOUGHTY: Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION - American history in VOA Special English.

This week in our series, Larry West and Maurice Joyce continue the story of President Woodrow Wilson and American involvement in World War One.

LARRY WEST: Nineteen eighteen was the final year of the most terrible war the world had ever known. But World War One did not end quickly or easily. The German Army made a final effort to defeat the Allies. The United States had entered the conflict. And Germany wanted a victory before large numbers of American troops could get to Europe.

第一次世界大战的血腥程度超过了之前所有的战争。1918年是一战的最后一年。然而,战争并没有迅速而轻易地结束。德国军队为打败协约国做出了最后的努力。美国已经参战,德国希望能够在大批美军进入欧洲之前取得胜利。

Germany's effort became easier after it signed a peace treaty with the new Bolshevik government in Russia. The treaty made it possible for Germany to use all its forces against the Allies on its western border. In the end, however, Germany's plan failed.

德国的这一努力在它和俄国的布尔什维克新政府签署和平条约之后变得轻松了一些。因为这个条约使德国能够把所有兵力投入西线同协约国作战。然而,德国的计划最后还是失败了。

Allied troops pushed back the German attack in a series of bloody battles. The addition of American soldiers greatly increased Allied strength.

协约国军队经过一系列血战,击退了德军的进攻。美军的协助极大地增强了协约国的力量 。

MAURICE JOYCE: The leader of American forces in Europe was General John J. Pershing. General Pershing used a weapon new to the world of war: air power.

美军在欧洲的指挥官是约翰·潘兴将军。他在这次世界大战中使用了一种新武器:飞机。

Airplanes were used first simply as 'eyes in the sky'. They discovered enemy positions so ground artillery could fire at them. Then they were used as fighter planes. They carried guns to shoot down other planes. Finally, planes were built big enough to carry bombs.

飞机最开始只是作为“空中的眼睛”,执行侦察任务。飞机确定敌人的地面位置,然后大炮对敌人进行轰炸。后来,飞机变成了战斗机,上面配备了枪炮,可以打到别的飞机。最后,飞机变得足够大,可以携带炸弹。

General Pershing also used another new weapon of war: tanks. He put these inventions together for his battle plan against Germany.

潘兴将军还在战场上使用了另一种新的武器:坦克。他把这些新武器统统用在了同德国的一场较量中。

German soldiers standing around a German tank as other soldiers make repairs
German soldiers standing around a German tank as other soldiers make repairs

LARRY WEST:  Pershing's target was the Argonne Forest. It was a tree-covered area Germany had held since nineteen fourteen.

这次战役的目标是阿贡森林。阿贡森林自1914年就被德军占领。

The forest was protected by barbed wire and by defensive positions built of steel and concrete. It was the strongest part of the German line. It also was the most important part. If Argonne fell, Germany's final lines of defense would fall.

森林四周都是铁丝网和钢筋水泥的碉堡,是德军防线最坚固、最重要的地方。如果阿贡森林防线被攻破,那德军的最后防线也就崩溃了。

The fighting in the Argonne Forest was fierce. Thousands of men died. Sometimes, troops got lost because the forest was so thick with trees. But day by day, the Allies pushed the Germans back.

阿贡森林战役打得非常激烈,数以千计的军人阵亡。由于森林里树木太茂密,军队有时会迷路。但随着时间一天天过去,协约国步步进逼,德军连连败退。

MAURICE JOYCE:  Germany's leaders were losing hope. In September, nineteen eighteen, they met with German ruler Kaiser Wilhelm. The army chief reported that the war was lost. Germany had no choice, he said. It must give back all the territory it had seized and try to negotiate a peace agreement.

德军将领对战争失去了希望。1918年9月,德国皇帝威廉二世召见他们时,陆军总司令报告说,德国将输掉这场战争。他说,德国已经别无选择,只能把占领的领土退还,并想办法谈判一个和平协议。

Other officials told the Kaiser that the situation at home was bad, too. People were starving. Revolutionaries were plotting to overthrow the government.

其他官员告诉威廉皇帝说,德国国内的形势也不乐观。人们正遭受饥饿,革命党阴谋推翻政府。

Kaiser Wilhelm agreed it might be best to seek peace now. . . Before Germany was destroyed completely. He asked his foreign secretary to send a secret message to American President Woodrow Wilson. The message would propose immediate negotiations to end the war.

威廉皇帝同意,在德国被完全毁灭前,现在就谋求和平或许是最好的出路。威廉皇帝让外相给美国总统威尔逊发去一封密函,建议立即举行结束战争的和平谈判。

From left, General Paul von Hindenburg, Kaiser Wilhelm II and General Erich Ludendorff examine maps
From left, General Paul von Hindenburg, Kaiser Wilhelm II and General Erich Ludendorff examine maps

LARRY WEST: President Wilson received it. He did not tell the other Allied leaders. Instead, he returned a message to Germany. Wilson asked if Germany was willing to accept the peace proposals he had offered many months earlier.

威尔逊收到了密函。他没有将此事告诉其他协约国领导人,而是直接给德国回信。他问德国能否接受他几个月前提出的和平提议。

Germany's Chancellor answered that his government did accept the proposals. However, the events of war ended the secret exchange of messages between Germany and the United States. German submarines had increased attacks on Allied shipping. Two passenger ships were sunk. Eight hundred twenty persons were killed. Many were women and children.

德国首相回答说,德国接受美国的提议。然而,欧洲战场上发生的一系列事件使德国和美国之间的这一秘密谈判没有继续下去:德国潜艇加紧了对协约国船只的进攻,有两艘客船被击沉,820名乘客遇难,其中许多是妇女和儿童。

President Wilson was shocked. He told Germany there could be no peace negotiations with such an inhuman enemy.

威尔逊总统震惊了,他对德国人说,他决不同德国这样没人性的敌人进行和平谈判。

MAURICE JOYCE:  In late October, nineteen eighteen, Wilson sent a final message to Germany. He wanted a settlement that would make it impossible for Germany to fight again. Germany, Wilson said, must promise to withdraw its forces from all Allied territory. It also must close its weapons factories.

1918年10月底,威尔逊给德国发去最后一封信。他提出一项解决方案,将让德国失去作战能力。他说,德国必须承诺把军队从所有协约国领土撤出,而且必须关闭兵工厂。

Wilson added that the Allies would negotiate only with a government that truly represented the people of Germany. . . not with military rulers.

威尔逊还说,协约国只愿意同真正代表德国人民的政府谈判,不会与军方统治者谈判。

The new German Chancellor was Maximilian, Prince of Baden. Prince Max received President Wilson's message. He succeeded in getting Kaiser Wilhelm to dismiss the man responsible for German military policy. But he failed to get the Kaiser himself to give up power.

新任德国首相是巴登亲王马西米兰。他收到了威尔逊的信,并成功地说服威廉皇帝将负责德国军事政策的人革职。但是,马西米兰没能让威廉皇帝本人放弃权力。

President Woodrow Wilson
President Woodrow Wilson

LARRY WEST: Not all allied leaders supported President Wilson's plan to end World War One. They could not agree on some parts of it.

并非所有的协约国领导人都支持威尔逊结束战争的计划,他们对计划中一些内容持不同意见。

Britain, for example, opposed the part about freedom of the seas. Britain said it would prevent the kind of naval blockade which had been so effective against Germany. France and Italy opposed the part about creating a new international organization. Wilson had called it a league of nations.

例如,英国反对海上自由航行的部分,认为这会使一直以来对德国的有效海上封锁无法实施。法国和意大利则反对计划中关于创立一个新的国际组织的内容。威尔逊称这个国际组织为国联。

To solve these differences, Wilson sent his closest adviser to Europe to meet with Allied leaders. The discussions were long and sometimes bitter. Many of the Allies thought Wilson was being too kind to the defeated enemy. But in the end, they all agreed to accept the plan as a starting point for peace talks.

为了解决协约国之间的分歧,威尔逊派自己最信任的顾问前往欧洲,与协约国各国领导人会谈。这些谈判花了很长的时间,有时还谈得很不愉快。许多协约国领导人认为,威尔逊对战败国太过友善。但最终,他们都同意接受威尔逊提出的计划,作为和平谈判的起点。

MAURICE JOYCE:  By this time, in early November, the situation in Germany was growing worse. Communists and Socialists were calling for a rebellion. The navy was ordered to go to sea. Sailors refused, and killed some officers. Reports told of rebellion in parts of the German army, too.

此时,即1918年11月初,德国的局势不断恶化。共产主义者和社会主义者提出造反。德国将领下令海军出海,但士兵们拒绝执行任务,并杀死了一些军官。有报导说,在德国陆军中也有人造反。

The nation's leaders had no choice. They would negotiate a peace treaty. On the morning of November eighth, a German delegation went to Allied military headquarters to discuss terms.

德军领导人再也没有别的选择,只能同协约国举行和平谈判。1918年11月8日早晨,一个德国代表团前往协约国军事总部商讨和平条款。

LARRY WEST: The Germans were met by the Supreme Allied Commander, Marshal Ferdinand Foch of France. Foch greeted them coldly. And he did not offer peace terms until they officially asked for a ceasefire. Germany -- not the Allies -- had to put down its weapons first.

接待他们的是协约国军队最高指挥官、法国元帅斐迪南·福煦。他对德国代表团态度冷淡,而且直到德国代表团正式请求停火,他才拿出和平条款。在他看来,德国,而不是协约国,必须首先放下武器。

The Germans were shocked when they heard the terms. The list was severe.

和平条款的内容让德国代表团感到震惊,协约国提出的条件非常严苛。

Among other things, Germany must withdraw its forces from all occupied territories. It must give up Alsace-Lorraine, a part of France it had held for almost fifty years. It must give up most of its weapons including airplanes, submarines, and battleships. And it must turn over large numbers of trucks, railroad engines, and other supplies.

比如,德国必须从所有占领区撤离,必须放弃德国从法国夺取并已经控制了50年的阿尔萨斯-洛林地区,必须放弃包括飞机、潜艇和军舰在内的大部分武器,还必须交出大量的卡车、火车机车和其它设备。

MAURICE JOYCE: The German delegation said it could not sign such an agreement. Germany, it said, was not surrendering. It was only asking for a ceasefire. The delegation said it could not accept the peace terms without communicating with the government in Berlin.

德国代表团说,他们不会签署这样的条约。他们说,德国不是投降,只是要求停火;代表团不能在没与柏林政府沟通的情况下就签署条约。

But the German government was falling apart. Kaiser Wilhelm had finally resigned and left the country. A new cabinet had been formed. And a new prime minister had declared a German republic. Yet the situation remained unsettled.

然而,德国政府正在分崩离析。威廉二世最终退位并离开了德国,一个新内阁成立了,新总理宣布德国为共和国,然而德国的局势并没有稳定下来。

Because of this, the German delegation negotiating with the Allies had to decide for itself. After much argument, the men agreed to the Allied terms. They signed the peace treaty. A ceasefire began a few hours later.

正因为如此,与协约国谈判的德国代表团不得不自己拿主意。经过漫长的会谈,代表团最终还是同意了协约国的条件,签署了和平条约。几个小时之后,停火生效了。

LARRY WEST: News that the shooting had stopped set off wild celebrations throughout the world. People danced in the streets. They cheered the end of the worst war in history.

停火的消息引发了世界各地人民的欢庆。人们到大街上跳舞,庆祝这场有史以来最可怕的战争终于结束。

There were celebrations along the battle lines, too. But these were quiet. Soldiers from both sides climbed out of long trenches dug in the ground. They met the men who, a short while earlier, had been their deadly enemy.

同样,战场上的士兵们也在庆祝停火,但却是以一种安静的方式。双方的军人都从长长的战壕中爬出来,与刚刚还在你死我活拼杀的敌人会面。

The bloody European conflict was over. The dispute, however, was not. Another fierce battle was ready to begin. This time, the battle would be among diplomats. The fight over the peace treaty officially ending World War One was about to begin.

这场血腥的欧洲大战终于结束了。然而,矛盾并未解决,另一场激烈的战斗即将开始。这次上场的是各国的外交官们,他们将围绕正式结束第一次世界大战的和平条约展开较量。

That will be our story next week.

(MUSIC)

BOB DOUGHTY: Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Larry West and Maurice Joyce.

You can find our series online with transcripts, MP3s, podcasts and images at www.unsv.com. You can also follow us on Facebook and Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

网友的学习评论(1条):
作者:郑烈波
the dispute,however,was not.another fierce battle was ready to begin.this time,the battle would be among diplomats.the fight over the peace treaty officilly ending world war one was about to begin.
版权所有©2003-2015 南京通享科技有限公司,保留所有权利。未经书面许可,严禁转载本站内容,违者追究法律责任。 中国互联网经营ICP证:苏B2-20120186
广播台