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#156: Foreign Events Begin to Shape Wilson's Presidency

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Woodrow Wilson and his cabinet seated around table, 1913
Woodrow Wilson and his cabinet seated around table, 1913

BOB DOUGHTY:  Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English.

Woodrow Wilson's first year as president showed the American people that they had elected a strong and effective leader. Wilson took office in nineteen thirteen. He moved quickly to fulfill his campaign promises. He won congressional approval for lower import taxes, a new tax on earnings, and restrictions on the power of big companies.

伍德罗.威尔逊担任美国总统后的第一年,让美国人看到,他们选了一位坚强能干的领导人。威尔逊1913年就任总统后,迅速行动,兑现了竞选诺言。他促使国会通过法案,降低进口关税,开征所得税,以及限制大企业权力。

These were some of the most important economic reforms the nation had seen in many years.

这是多年来美国经济生活中发生的最重大改革。

This week in our series, Larry West and Maurice Joyce continue the story of Wilson's administration.

LARRY WEST:   Most of Woodrow Wilson's political victories were on national issues. He had little experience with international issues. But foreign events soon began to demand more and more of his time. With all of his successes at home, it is a surprising fact of history that his presidency is remembered best for its foreign policy.

威尔逊的政治胜利绝大多数都涉及国内问题。他没有什么处理国际问题的经验。不过,没过多久,外交事件就开始占据他越来越多的时间。让人惊讶的是,虽然威尔逊在国内政治上取得了那么大的成就,但后来的人们一提到威尔逊政府,记得最多的却是它的对外政策。

The story of Woodrow Wilson's foreign policy is full of high ideas and political bravery. But it also is a story of fierce struggle and lost hopes. It is a story that begins across America's southern border--in Mexico.

威尔逊的对外政策充满了崇高的理念和政治勇气,但同时也写满了激烈的斗争和破灭的希望。所有这些都从美国的南方邻国--墨西哥开始。

MAURICE JOYCE:   At that time, Mexico had been ruled for many years by Porfirio Diaz. As Diaz grew older, his power began to weaken. In nineteen eleven, a revolt broke out. It was led by Francisco Madero, the leader of a land reform movement. Diaz understood he could not win. He resigned and fled the country.

当时,墨西哥已经被波菲里奥.迪亚斯统治多年。随着迪亚斯的年龄越来越大,他的权力开始弱化。1911年,墨西哥暴发了叛乱。叛乱的领导人叫弗朗西斯科.马德罗,是一个土地改革运动的领导人。迪亚斯清楚,自己无法战胜叛乱队伍,于是,他辞去职务,逃离了墨西哥。

Madero declared himself president. However, powerful groups in Mexico opposed him. In a short time, one of his own generals, Victoriano Huerta, arrested him. Madero was murdered soon after Huerta seized power.

马德罗宣布自己就任总统。然而,墨西哥国内许多有权势的政治团体反对他。不久,他的部下维克托里亚诺.韦尔塔将军把他逮捕。韦尔塔夺取权力后不久,马德罗就被杀死了。

President Wilson refused to recognize Huerta's government. He believed other forces would rise up against him. Wilson was right. Another revolt began, led by General Venustiano Carranza.

威尔逊总统拒绝承认韦尔塔政府,他相信,墨西哥还会有新的势力起来反对韦尔塔。威尔逊的看法是对的。墨西哥又暴发了新的起义,由维纳斯提诺.卡兰萨将军领导。

LARRY WEST:  Wilson offered aid to Carranza. Carranza rejected the offer. He was afraid of American interference in Mexico. He told Wilson that Mexican troops would do all the fighting. He only wanted guns and ammunition.

威尔逊提出援助卡兰萨,但遭到拒绝。卡兰萨担心美国会借此干涉墨西哥内政。他对威尔逊说,墨西哥军队什么仗都能打,他只需要枪支和弹药。

American forces did, however, get involved in the conflict. President Wilson learned that a ship from Germany was bringing supplies to the Huerta government. The ship would land at the Mexican port of Vera Cruz. Wilson ordered the United States Navy to seize and occupy the port. The move started a storm of criticism in the United States and throughout Latin America.

然而,美国军队还是卷入了墨西哥的冲突。威尔逊总统得知,一艘来自德国的船只将向韦尔塔政府提供物资,这艘船会在墨西哥的维拉.克鲁兹港停泊。于是,他命令美国海军占领这个港口。这一行动引来了美国国内和整个拉丁美洲的批评浪潮。

(MUSIC)

MAURICE JOYCE:  Many people denounced President Wilson. They called him an imperialist and a fool. They asked: what right did the United States have to interfere in Mexico. Wilson finally stopped American military action in Mexico. He tried to settle the dispute at an international conference at Niagara Falls, Canada. The effort failed. The conference did not produce a settlement.

许多人公开指责威尔逊总统,称他是帝国主义者和笨蛋。他们质问:美国有什么权力干涉墨西哥内政?威尔逊最终下令美国军队停止在墨西哥的行动。他试图通过在加拿大尼亚加拉瀑布召开一次国际会议来解决这个争端,但他的努力失败了,这个会议什么决议也没产生。

While the diplomats were talking, Carranza's revolutionary forces were fighting. They moved on Mexico City, the capital. President Huerta fled. Carranza formed a new government.

正当外交官们讨论墨西哥问题时,卡兰萨的革命武装发起战斗,向首都墨西哥城挺进。韦尔塔总统逃跑了,卡兰萨成立了新政府。

LARRY WEST:  The new government began to split apart almost immediately. Another general, Francisco "Pancho" Villa, tried to seize power. He forced Carranza out of Mexico City. Then he formed his own government. President Wilson recognized Villa and his government.

而新政府几乎马上就陷入了分裂。另一位将军弗朗西斯科.潘乔.维拉试图夺取大权。他把卡兰萨赶出墨西哥城,随后成立了自己的政府。威尔逊总统承认了维拉和他的新政府。

Carranza, however, refused to give up. Day by day, his army grew stronger. He forced Villa to retreat. Then President Wilson recognized Carranza's government. Like Carranza, Villa refused to give up. He decided to try to start a war between Mexico and the United States.

然而,卡兰萨拒绝放弃权力。他的军队一天天壮大,逼得维拉撤离墨西哥城。这样,威尔逊总统又承认了卡兰萨的政府。而和卡兰萨一样,维拉也拒绝放弃权力。他决定在墨西哥和美国之间挑起战争。

Pancho Villa wanted the United States to attack Carranza. Then he would step in to lead Mexican forces in battle. That would make him a hero. With this plan in mind, Pancho Villa attacked an American town across the border in Texas. He killed nineteen persons.

他想让美国攻打卡兰萨的军队,然后他自己介入,并在战争中领导墨西哥军队,从而使自己成为墨西哥的英雄。抱着这样的计划,维拉袭击了美墨边界附近德克萨斯州的一个镇,杀死了19个人。

MAURICE JOYCE:  President Wilson immediately ordered a large American force to find and punish Villa. At first, Carranza welcomed the move. Villa was his enemy. He wanted him captured. Then Carranza began to fear that the American troops might threaten his government. He demanded the withdrawal of all American soldiers from Mexico.

威尔逊总统立即命令一支庞大的美国军队寻找并惩罚维拉。起初,卡兰萨欢迎美军的这个行动,因为维拉是自己的敌人,他希望维拉被抓。不过,卡兰萨不久就开始担心美军可能会威协到自己的政权,于是他要求所有美军撤出墨西哥。

Tensions increased between the two countries. Villa's forces attacked another town in Texas. President Wilson considered asking Congress to declare war. But the crisis cooled down before then. American forces were withdrawn. And the people of Mexico elected a new government. They chose Carranza as president.

两国局势日益紧张。与此同时,维拉的军队又袭击了美国德克萨斯州的另外一个镇。威尔逊总统考虑请求国会宣布与墨西哥开战,但还没等他这么做,美国与墨西哥之间的危机就平静下来了。美军撤出了墨西哥,而且墨西哥人民选出了新的政府,选卡兰萨为他们的总统。

(MUSIC)

LARRY WEST:  As President Wilson dealt with the situation in Mexico, trouble began to surface in another part of the world. The crisis was in Europe. Tensions were growing between several groups of nations. They were on the edge of what would become World War One.

就在威尔逊总统设法解决与墨西哥之间的关系时,在地球的另一边又开始出现麻烦。这次的危机发生在欧洲。几个国家联盟之间的矛盾愈演愈烈,第一次世界大战爆发在即。

The major powers in Europe had been threatening each other for years. But they had not fought for more than forty years. Most Americans believed there would never be another European war. Such a war would be unbelievably destructive. Millions would die. No nation would win.

多年以来,欧洲的主要大国相互威协,不过它们已经有四十多年没有打仗。因此,绝大多数美国人认为欧洲再也不会发生新的战争,因为这样的战争将造成无法估量的损失,数百万人死亡,而且没有一个国家会在战争中获胜。

MAURICE JOYCE:  Europe depended on a balance of power to keep the peace. On one side were the central powers -- Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy. On the other side were the members of the triple entente -- Britain, France, and Russia.

欧洲依靠势力均衡来维持和平。一方是由德国、奥匈帝国和意大利组成的轴心国集团,另一方是由英国、法国和俄罗斯组成的协约国集团。

Each side made every effort to win the support of Europe's smaller nations. A number of nations refused to join either side. The neutrals included Switzerland, Belgium, the Netherlands, and the Scandinavian countries.

这两个集团都千方百计地想赢得其它欧洲小国的支持,但很多国家拒绝加入任何一方。这些中立国包括瑞士、比利时、荷兰和斯堪的纳维亚半岛各国。

LARRY WEST:  This political balance did not prevent the major nations from competing with each other for colonies and economic power. They competed all over the world. In China, in the Middle East, in Africa -- everywhere money could be invested. Competition was especially sharp in the Balkans. This was the area of Europe between the Adriatic and Black Seas.

这种政治平衡并不能阻止几个大国为了殖民地和经济权利而相互竞争。它们在世界各地竞争,在中国,在中东,在非洲,在所有可以投资的地方。竞争在巴尔干地区尤为激烈。巴尔干是欧洲的一部分,位于亚得里亚海和黑海之间。

Many nations claimed special interests in the Balkans. And several Balkan countries were fighting each other. The whole continent seemed ready to explode.

许多国家都声称自己在巴尔干半岛拥有特殊的利益,而巴尔干一些国家也在相互交战。整个地区就好像是要爆炸的火药桶。

MAURICE JOYCE:  The spark that set off the explosion came in the city of Sarajevo. The date was June twenty-eighth, nineteen fourteen. Sarajevo had been taken over by Austria. And the Archduke of Austria -- Ferdinand -- had come for a visit. Ferdinand was expected to become the next emperor of Austria.

而引爆这个火药桶的火星在萨拉热窝市被点燃了。这一天是1914年6月28日。那时,萨拉热窝已经被奥地利占领,奥地利的大公斐迪南访问萨拉热窝。他当时正准备作奥地利的下一任皇帝。

Seven young extremists from the area decided to assassinate the Archduke to protest Austrian control. One of the extremists threw a bomb at the royal family. The bomb missed its target. But another extremist shot at the group. He killed both the Archduke and the Archduke's wife.

萨拉热窝七名年轻的激进分子决定刺杀斐迪南,以抗议奥地利的统治。一名激进分子向斐迪南大公和其他皇室成员扔了一枚炸弹。炸弹没有击中目标。但另一名激进分子则向斐迪南一行人开枪,打死了斐迪南大公和他的妻子。

LARRY WEST:  The assassinations in Sarajevo started a series of events that quickly brought war to all of Europe. Soon the continent was covered with armies, battles, and death. The war in Europe forced President Wilson to face the greatest crisis of his presidency.

萨拉热窝刺杀事件引发了一系列事件,立即点燃了整个欧洲的战火。很快,欧洲到处都是军队、战斗和尸体。这场战争迫使威尔逊面对他总统任期中最大的危机。

That will be our story next week.

(MUSIC)

BOB DOUGHTY:  Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Larry West and Maurice Joyce.

You can find our series online with transcripts, MP3s, podcasts and images at www.unsv.com. You can also follow us on Facebook and Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

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