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#154: Taft, Wilson and Roosevelt in the Election of 1912

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Theodore Roosevelt at what appears to be the first Progressive Party Convention. They met in August 1912 in Chicago, Illinois, and nominated him to run for president.
Theodore Roosevelt at what appears to be the first Progressive Party Convention. They met in August 1912 in Chicago, Illinois, and nominated him to run for president.

BOB DOUGHTY: Welcome to the MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English.

This week in our series, we talk about the presidential election of eighteen twelve.

The first ten years of the twentieth century in America were shaped by the strong leadership of President Theodore Roosevelt. And in the second decade, he returned to national politics to bring, once more, dramatic changes to the United States.

在20世纪的头十年,美国的领导人是西奥多·罗斯福,他是一位强有力的总统。在20世纪的第二个十年,罗斯福重返美国政坛,希望能再次给美国带来翻天覆地的变化。

Theodore Roosevelt was a distant cousin of Franklin Roosevelt, a Democrat who became president in nineteen thirty-three.

美国后来还有另一位"罗斯福总统",也就是1933年当选的民主党人富兰克林.罗斯福,他和西奥多.罗斯福是的远房表兄弟。

In nineteen twelve, Teddy Roosevelt organized a new political party: the Progressives. Roosevelt created this new party after he failed to win the Republican presidential nomination.

1912年,西奥多.罗斯福组建了一个新的政党:进步党。此前,罗斯福没能获得共和党的总统竞选提名。

Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt

The Republican convention of nineteen twelve had been controlled by conservative supporters of President William Howard Taft. And, as we hear now from Leo Scully and Maurice Joyce, the party nominated Taft for four more years in the White House.

1912年的共和党大会--也就是总统候选人提名大会--被支持时任总统塔夫脱的保守派分子所控制,所以,塔夫脱得到了共和党的提名。

LEO SCULLY: As a result, Roosevelt broke with the Republicans. And he and his supporters held their own convention. They formed the Progressive party and approved a platform that promised reforms. These reforms were proposed to make the government serve the people and carry out more fully their desire for social progress.

这导致罗斯福与共和党的决裂。他与支持者自行召开提名大会,成立了进步党,并推出一套致力于改革的党纲。这些改革措施的目标是使政府为人民服务,更好地满足人们对社会进步的渴望。

The Democratic Party also nominated a candidate who supported progressive ideas. The Democrats chose Governor Woodrow Wilson of New Jersey, a former president of Princeton University.

民主党也提名一个支持进步改革的人为总统候选人,他就是新泽西州州长、前普林斯顿大学校长伍德罗.威尔逊。

So, for the first time in many years, there were three major candidates for president. Wilson clearly had the best chance to win. He had the support of almost all the Democrats. The Republicans, however, were split. Some supported Taft. The others were for Roosevelt.

于是,美国出现了多年来不曾有过的三个候选人争夺总统宝座的局面。很显然,威尔逊的胜算最大。所有民主党人都站在他的身后。而共和党则陷入分裂,一些人支持塔夫脱,另一些人支持罗斯福。

MAURICE JOYCE: Roosevelt refused to accept the idea of defeat. He campaigned hard, visiting many cities and towns, making speech after speech. Wilson also campaigned hard. He seemed to enjoy it as much as Roosevelt.

但罗斯福不认输。他奋力竞选,走访很多城镇,发表一个又一个演讲。威尔逊也积极参加竞选活动,他似乎与罗斯福一样,很享受竞选的乐趣。

Taft did not like it at all. He refused to do much campaigning. He spent most of the time at his summer home.

与他们不同的是,塔夫脱完全不喜欢这些事,他拒绝大搞竞选,大部分时间都呆家里,享受夏日时光。

It was a quiet election campaign...until the middle of October. Then, only three weeks before election day, Roosevelt was shot.

在10月之前,竞选一直比较平静,然而,就在离大选开始还有三周的时候,罗斯福遭到枪击。

LEO SCULLY: It happened in Milwaukee. Roosevelt had just left his hotel and climbed into the automobile that would carry him to the hall where he planned to make a speech. As he stood in the open car, an extremist named John Schrank ran up to him, pulled a gun from his coat, and fired a bullet into Roosevelt's chest.

袭击发生在威斯康星州的密尔沃基。当时,罗斯福刚刚离开宾馆,准备乘车去发表演讲。他站在敞篷车上时,一个叫约翰.施兰克的激进分子跑过来,从大衣里掏出枪,向罗斯福的胸部开了一枪。

The bullet knocked him down. Roosevelt said it felt as if he had been kicked by a mule. He jumped up and put his hand to the wound. The bullet had passed through the inside pocket of his coat. It struck a steel case that held his glasses, and went through the folded fifty pages of his written speech. These slowed the bullet, and it went only a few centimeters into his chest.

罗斯福应声倒地。罗斯福说,他当时的感觉好像是被骡子踢了一脚。他马上跳起来,用手捂住伤口。这颗子弹打进了他大衣的暗兜, 射穿了铁制的眼镜盒,然后又穿透了五十页厚的演讲稿。所有这一切减慢了子弹的速度,最后,子弹只进入罗斯福胸口几厘米深。

An x-ray of Theodore Roosevelt's rib showing the bullet shot by John Schrank
An x-ray of Theodore Roosevelt's rib showing the bullet shot by John Schrank

MAURICE JOYCE: Roosevelt did not know if he was seriously wounded. He put his hand to his mouth and coughed. No blood came. And he knew the shot had not damaged his lungs. Roosevelt ordered the crowd around to stop beating Schrank. "Bring him to me," he said. He looked down at the man. "You poor creature," said Roosevelt. Then he turned away.

罗斯福不知道自己的伤势是否严重。他用手捂住嘴咳嗽,发现没有出血,于是他知道,子弹没有伤到肺。他命令周围的人住手,不要再打施兰克。罗斯福说:"把他带过来。"他低头看了看施兰克,说:"你这个可怜虫。"然后就扭过头去。

Doctors arrived. They said Roosevelt must go at once to the hospital. But Roosevelt refused. He said he would go to the hall. "I will make this speech," he said, "or die. It will be one or the other." On his way to the hall, he told a friend: "It takes more than that to kill a Roosevelt. I do not care a rap about being shot. Not a rap."

医生来了。他们说,罗斯福必须立即去医院治疗。罗斯福拒绝了,他说他得去演讲大厅。"我要发表演讲,"他说,"否则我就去死。要么去死,要么去演讲。"在他前往演讲大厅的路上,他对一个朋友说:"我们罗斯福家的人岂能被这小小一颗子弹干掉?我一点也不在乎这样的枪击,一点也不!"

LEO SCULLY: At the hall, he stood before the big crowd. His face was white. But he stood straight, without help. Someone announced that Roosevelt had been wounded, but still planned to speak.

到了演讲大厅,罗斯福站在很多听众面前,脸色苍白。但他站得笔直,不用任何人搀扶。有人告诉大家,罗斯福被枪打伤了,但仍坚持演讲。

Roosevelt's voice was very low, almost a whisper. "I am going to ask you to be very quiet. And please excuse me from making a long speech. I will do the best I can. But there is a bullet in me." He paused and then continued. "It is nothing. I am not hurt badly. I have something to say. And I will say it as long as there is life in my body."

罗斯福的声音很低,像是在说悄悄话。他说:"我将请你们保持安静,允许我发表一个长篇演讲,我将尽力而为,但我的身上有一颗子弹。"他停顿了一会儿,接着说:"没事,我的伤势不严重,我有话要说,只要我活着,我就要把这些话说出来。"

MAURICE JOYCE: Roosevelt's speech was not important. He said nothing that he had not already said many times before. What was important, however, was his cool courage. Men did not see his act as foolish or overly-dramatic. They saw it as the brave act of a strong man. To the public, he was a hero.

罗斯福的演讲本身并不重要,他所说的都是他以前说过很多次的内容。然而,重要的是他那无畏、镇定的气势。人们认为他的行为不是愚蠢或作秀,而是一个强者的勇敢行为。对公众而言,他就是英雄。

Roosevelt spoke for almost an hour. Finally, very weak, he let himself be helped from the hall. He was rushed to a hospital where doctors could examine the wound.

罗斯福讲了近一个小时,最后,他已经很虚弱了,不得不被人搀扶着离开会场。人们急忙把他送到医院,让医生给他检查伤势。

LEO SCULLY: The doctors found that the bullet had broken a rib, but caused no serious damage. They decided to leave the bullet where it was. The next day, Roosevelt made a statement from his hospital bed. "Tell the people not to worry about me. For if I go down, another will take my place."

医生发现,子弹打断了他的一根肋骨,但伤势并不严重。他们决定让这颗子弹留在罗斯福体内。第二天,罗斯福在病床上发表声明说:"告诉大家,不要为我担心,因为如果我死了,自有别人来接替我。"

President Taft and Woodrow Wilson sent messages of regret to Roosevelt. They announced that they would not campaign until Roosevelt was able to do so.

塔夫脱总统和威尔逊都向罗斯福表示问候,并且宣布,在罗斯福康复之前,他们将不进行竞选活动。

MAURICE JOYCE: Roosevelt's condition improved quickly. After two weeks of rest, he was ready to continue his campaign for the presidency. He made a speech to a big crowd at Madison Square Garden in New York City. Everyone was surprised to see how strong and healthy he seemed.

罗斯福的身体恢复得很快,休息两周后,他就准备重返竞选舞台。他在纽约市麦迪逊广场对很多人发表演讲。罗斯福看上去结实健康,让所有的人都感到惊讶。

Wilson ended his campaign in New York City the next day. He told a cheering crowd of Democrats: "What the Democratic Party proposes to do is to go into power and do the things that the Republican Party has been talking about for sixteen years."

第二天,威尔逊在纽约市结束了他的竞选活动,他对欢呼的民主党人说:"民主党人的目标就是接管权力,开始做共和党说了十六年却没有做的事情。"

Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson

LEO SCULLY: On November fifth, the people voted. The winner was Woodrow Wilson. He received more than six million votes. Roosevelt was second with four million. Taft received only about three and a half million. Wilson's victory was even greater in the electoral vote. He got four hundred thirty-five. Roosevelt got only eighty-eight. And Taft received only the eight electoral votes of Utah and Vermont.

11月5日,人民投票选举。获胜者是伍德罗.威尔逊。他获得了600万张选票,罗斯福获得400万票位居第二,塔夫脱只获得350万张选票。在选举人票中,威尔逊取得了更大的胜利,他获得435张选举人票,罗斯福获得了88张,塔夫脱只获得犹他州和佛蒙特州两个州的8张选举人票。

The Democrats won not only the White House, but also control of Congress. And a number of Democratic governors were elected in states formerly controlled by Republicans.

民主党不仅赢得了总统大选,还控制了国会。另外,许多以前由共和党人任州长的州,也被民主党人拿走了。

MAURICE JOYCE: The nineteen twelve campaign ended public life for Theodore Roosevelt. Soon after the election, a friend visited Roosevelt and talked of possible victory in nineteen sixteen.

对西奥多.罗斯福而言,1912年的大选结束了他的从政生涯。大选结束后不久,一位朋友去看望他,探讨他1916年当选总统的可能性。

"I thought you were a better politician," Roosevelt said. "The fight is over. We are beaten. There is only one thing to do. That is to go back to the Republican Party. You cannot hold a party like the Progressive Party together. There are no loaves and fishes...no financial support."

罗斯福说:"你这么优秀的政治家难道还看不透?斗争已经结束了,我们失败了。现在唯一可做的是回到共和党,像进步党这样的政党是撑不下去的,我们弹尽粮绝,没有资金来源。"

LEO SCULLY: War was soon to break out in Europe. The United States would enter the struggle in nineteen seventeen.

第一次世界大战即将在欧洲爆发。美国1917年参战。

As always, Roosevelt was ready to join in a fight. He asked for permission to organize an American force and lead it into battle in France. President Wilson, however, turned down the request. Roosevelt was sure that it was a political decision. He never forgave Wilson for keeping him out of the war.

和往常一样,罗斯福已经做好投入战斗的准备,他请求由他组建一支美国军队,并由他领导前往法国参战。威尔逊总统拒绝了他的请求。罗斯福断定,威尔逊这么做是因为他和自己的政治宿怨。所以,他永远没有宽恕威尔逊不让他参战的决定。

Although Roosevelt himself could not fight, four of his sons went into battle. One -- his youngest son Quentin -- did not return. When he received news of his son's death, Roosevelt wrote these words to honor him:

尽管罗斯福自己不能参战,但他的四个儿子都上了战场。他最小的儿子昆廷·罗斯福一去不返。得知儿子牺牲的消息时,罗斯福写下了这段话来纪念他:

MAURICE JOYCE: "Only those are fit to live who do not fear to die. And none are fit to die who have shrunk from the joy of life. Both life and death are parts of the same great adventure. All of us who give service and stand ready for sacrifice are torch bearers. We run with the torches until we fall, satisfied if we can then pass them to the hands of other runners.

"只有那些不怕死的人才有资格活着,而那些在生命的乐趣前退缩的人没有资格去死。无论是生还是死,都是伟大的人生旅程的一部分。我们所有致力于服务他人、准备作出牺牲的人都是火炬手。我们高举火炬,一路奔跑,直到我们倒下。如果在倒下之前,我们能够将手中的火炬传递给另一个火炬手,我们就心满意足了。"

"The torches whose flame is brightest are carried by the brave men on the battlefield and by the brave women whose husbands, lovers, sons, and brothers struggle there. These are the torch bearers. These are they who have dared the great adventure."

他还写道:"战场上的勇士、丈夫、情人、儿子和兄弟在战场上的妇女,他们手中的火焰最耀眼。他们都是火炬手,都是勇于经历伟大人生旅程的人。"

LEO SCULLY: Roosevelt's own great adventure was itself coming to an end.

然而,罗斯福自己的人生旅程就要结束了。

He suffered from painful attacks of inflammatory rheumatism and from a serious ear infection. He had difficulty in hearing and could not walk. But the old man was still cheerful. He spent his sixtieth birthday in the hospital. And to his family and friends, he said: "I am ahead of the game. Nobody ever packed more kinds of fun and interest into sixty years."

急性风湿病和严重的耳膜感染使他痛苦不堪。他听力很差,行走困难。但这位老人依然乐观。他在医院度过了60岁生日,并对家人和朋友说:"我是领先的。从没有人能在60年中享受到比我更多的乐趣。"

Death came to Roosevelt as he slept on the night of January sixth, nineteen nineteen. Said Vice President Thomas Marshall: "Death had to take him sleeping. For if Roosevelt had been awake, there would have been a fight."

1919年1月6号晚上,罗斯福在睡梦中死去。时任副总统托马斯.马歇尔说:"死神只能在罗斯福熟睡时把他带走,因为,如果罗斯福还醒着,他一定会和死神打起来。"

(MUSIC)

BOB DOUGHTY: Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Leo Scully and Maurice Joyce.

You can find our series online with transcripts, MP3s, podcasts and images at www.unsv.com. You can also follow us on Facebook and Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

网友的学习评论(3条):
作者:perfect100
Roosevelt had a strong charactor ,he never wanted to be beaten ,he was a great president in the history of the USA.
作者:perfect100
Death had to take Roosevelt sleeping. For if Roosevelt had been awake,there would have been a fight.
作者:郑烈波
he said,i am ahead of the game, nobody ever packed more kinds of fun and interest into sixty years
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