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#146: Treaty Brings Quick End to Spanish-American War

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The Battle of Manila in 1899 help push public opinion in America toward taking possession of the Philippines
The Battle of Manila in 1899 help push public opinion in America toward taking possession of the Philippines

SHIRLEY GRIFFITH: Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION - American history in VOA Special English.

The Spanish-American War took place in the late eighteen hundreds during the administration of President William McKinley.

美西战争爆发于19世纪末,当时的美国总统是威廉.麦金利。

On December tenth, eighteen ninety-eight, the United States and Spain signed a treaty in Paris officially ending the war between them. However, the fighting had stopped much earlier.

1898年12月10日,美国和西班牙在巴黎签署和平条约,正式结束了两国间的战争。

Spain had made the first move toward peace after its forces surrendered at Santiago, on the Cuban coast. A few weeks before that, the United States Navy had destroyed Spain's Atlantic fleet. The American naval victory ended any chance that Spain could win the war.

其实,在条约签订之前,双方的交战早就结束了。美国海军在战场上打垮了西班牙的太平洋舰队,这一胜利使西班牙失去了获胜的机会。几个星期后,西班牙军队在古巴沿海城市圣地亚哥投降。

This week in our series, Doug Johnson and Steve Ember continue the story of President William McKinley and the Spanish-American War.

DOUG JOHNSON: Late in July, the French ambassador in Washington gave President William McKinley a message from the Spanish government. Spain asked what terms the United States would demand for peace. President McKinley sent an immediate answer.

1898年7月末,法国驻美国大使向麦金利总统转交了一封西班牙政府的信函。西班牙问美国,要实现和平,美国有什么要求。麦金利总统马上做出回答说:

Spain, he said, must give up Cuba. It must also give to the United States the islands of Puerto Rico and Guam. And he said Spain must recognize the right of the United States to occupy Manila in the Philippines. The future of the Philippines, he said, would be decided during negotiations on a peace treaty.

西班牙必须放弃古巴,必须将波多黎各和关岛交给美国,而且,西班牙必须承认美国对菲律宾首都马尼拉的占领权。至于菲律宾的未来,将由美国和西班牙通过和平谈判来决定。

STEVE EMBER: McKinley's terms seemed severe to Spain. But Spain had no choice. It could not continue the war. So, ten weeks after war broke out, Spain agreed to stop the fighting and accept the American terms. It signed a peace agreement in Washington on August Twelfth.

对于西班牙而言,麦金利总统的条件似乎太苛刻了。但西班牙别无选择,因为它已经无力再战。所以,在美西战争爆发10个星期后,西班牙同意停火,并接受美国提出的条件。1898年8月12日,美国和西班牙在华盛顿签署和平协议。

A Spanish note protested sadly that the agreement took away the last memory of a glorious past. "It expels us from the western hemisphere, which became peopled and civilized through the proud efforts of our fathers."

西班牙的一份文献资料对这个协议感到不满,并哀伤地指出,它夺走了对西班牙辉煌历史的最后一点记忆:"这份和平协议把我们赶出了西半球,而西半球变成今天的繁荣和文明社会,靠的正是我们西班牙父辈们的艰苦努力。"

DOUG JOHNSON: The two countries agreed to meet in Paris to negotiate details of a peace treaty. The talks opened October first. The two sides agreed quickly on the issue of Cuban independence, and an American takeover of Puerto Rico and Guam. But they could not agree on what to do about the Philippines.

美国和西班牙同意在巴黎开会,谈判和平条约的细节。谈判从1898年10月1日开始。双方很快在古巴独立、美国接管波多黎各和关岛的问题上达成了一致意见,但双方在菲律宾问题上依然存在分歧。

At the beginning of the talks, the United States was not sure if it wanted all or only part of the Philippines. At first, President McKinley wanted Spain to give up only Luzon, the main island. Then he decided that the United States should demand all of the Philippines. McKinley explained later how he made this decision.

会谈开始的时候,美国并不清楚自己想要完全控制菲律宾还是只控制一部分。起初,麦金利总统只希望西班牙能放弃菲律宾的主要岛屿--吕宋岛。后来,他决定,美国应要求控制整个菲律宾。麦金利事后这样形容他做决定的过程。

STEVE EMBER: "I thought first we would take only Manila. Then Luzon. Then other islands, perhaps. I walked the floor of the White House many nights. More than once, I went down on my knees and asked God to help me decide.

他说:"开始时,我想,我们只控制马尼拉,后来又想,我们应该拿下吕宋岛。后来又觉得,可能应该再控制菲律宾的其它岛屿。很多个夜晚,我在白宫来回踱步,思考这个问题。很多次,我甚至跪在地上,请求上帝帮我作决定。"

"And one night," said McKinley, "It came to me this way: "That we could not give the Philippines back to Spain. That would be cowardly and dishonorable. We could not turn them over to France or Germany, our trading competitors in Asia. That would be bad business. We could not leave them to themselves. They were not ready for self-government.

他说:"终于有一个晚上,我这样做出了决定:我们不能将菲律宾交还给西班牙,因为那是胆怯而没有尊严的做法。我们也不能将菲律宾让给法国或德国,因为它们是我们在亚洲的贸易对手。这么做是吃亏的买卖。我们也不能把菲律宾交给菲律宾人自己,因为他们还没有准备好自己管理自己。

So, there was nothing for us to do but to take them all. And to educate the Filipinos, to civilize them, and make Christians of them.

所以,美国除了控制整个菲律宾外,别无选择。我们将教育菲律宾人,让他们文明开化,让他们信基督教。

"With that decision," said McKinley, "I went to bed and slept well."

当我做出这个决定后,"我上床踏实地睡了一觉。"

DOUG JOHNSON: Spain, however, did not want to give up the Philippines. It protested that the United States had no right to demand the Islands. True, Americans occupied Manila. But they did not control any other part of the Philippines.

然而,西班牙不想放弃菲律宾,并抗议说,美国无权对菲律宾提出要求。不错,美国人是占领了马尼拉,但他们并没有占领菲律宾的其它地方。

The two sides negotiated for days. Finally, they reached an agreement. Spain would give all of the Philippines to the United States. In return, the United States would pay Spain twenty-million dollars.

双方为此进行了几天的谈判,最后达成协议。西班牙同意将整个菲律宾交给美国,作为回报,美国向西班牙支付两千万美元。

With this dispute ended, the peace treaty was quickly completed and signed. But trouble developed when President McKinley sent the treaty to the United States Senate for approval.

随着菲律宾问题的解决,双方很快结束谈判,并签署了和平条约。不过,当麦金利总统将这份条约递交美国国会参议院批准时,麻烦来了。

STEVE EMBER: Many Americans opposed the treaty. They thought McKinley was wrong to take the Philippines. Opponents of the treaty included former President Cleveland, industrialist Andrew Carnegie, labor leader Samuel Gompers, writer Mark Twain, and others.

当时,许多美国人反对这项条约。他们认为麦金利接手菲律宾的决定是错误的。反对者包括前总统克利夫兰、工业家安德鲁·卡内基、劳工领袖龚帕斯,还有作家马克.吐温等。

A cartoon showing William McKinley, right, trying to raise the United States flag over the Philippines, while William Jennings Bryan tries to chop it down
A cartoon showing William McKinley, right, trying to raise the United States flag over the Philippines, while William Jennings Bryan tries to chop it down

They organized anti-imperialist groups in many cities to oppose the treaty. They made speeches and published newspapers explaining their opposition. Imperialism, they said, had ruined ancient Rome. And it would ruin the American republic.

反对者在许多城市成立了反帝国主义组织。他们发表演讲,出版报纸,阐述自己的立场。他们说,帝国主义曾经摧毁了古罗马,现在也将摧毁美利坚合众国。

They said colonies halfway around the world would be costly to protect. A large army and navy would be needed. They said colonial policies violated important democratic ideas upon which the United States had been built. We went to war with Spain, they said, to free Cuba from its colonial masters...not to make ourselves masters of the Philippines.

他们说,要保护像菲律宾那样和美国相隔半个地球之遥的殖民地,需要付出沉重的代价,需要耗费大量陆军和海军军力。反对者们还说,殖民政策违背了美国立国的基本民主思想。美国和西班牙打仗是为了将古巴从殖民宗主国手里解放出来,而不是把美国自己变成菲律宾人的宗主国。

DOUG JOHNSON: Republican Henry Cabot Lodge of Massachusetts led the Senate fight for the treaty. The opposition was led by the other Massachusetts senator, George Hoar, also a Republican.

当时的国会参议员们为是否通过这条和平条约而分成两派。麻萨诸塞州的共和党参议员卡伯特.洛奇领导支持派。而另一位麻萨诸塞州共和党参议员乔治.霍尔则领导反对派。

Senator Lodge appealed to national pride. He urged the Senate not to pull down the American flag. Rejection of the treaty, he said, would dishonor the president and the country. It would show that we are not ready as a nation to enter into great questions of foreign policy.

洛奇参议员拿国家荣誉作理由,敦促参议院不要给美国国旗抹黑。他说,如果参议院拒绝批准这份条约,就会使总统和国家蒙羞,会让外界认为,美国还没有能力处理重大外交问题。

Senator Albert Beveridge of Ohio also spoke in support of the treaty. Senator Beveridge said the Pacific would be of great importance in coming years. Therefore, he said, the power that rules the Pacific will be the power that rules the world. And, with the Philippines, that power is -- and forever will be - the United States.

俄亥俄州参议员阿尔伯特.贝弗里奇也支持这个条约。他说,在未来年月里,太平洋将成为至关重要的地区,因此,谁控制太平洋,谁就能控制全世界。如果占领了菲律宾,那么美国就是,而且将永远是,这个控制世界的大国。

STEVE EMBER: Senator Hoar spoke strongly against the treaty. He said that taking over the Philippines would be a dangerous break with America's past.

霍尔参议员则强烈反对这份条约。他说,控制菲律宾是危险地背离美国的历史传统。

He said the greatest thing the United States had was its tradition of freedom. To take the Philippines, he said, would deny that tradition. It would violate the Constitution and the ideas contained in the Declaration of Independence: the idea that all men are created equal...and that government exists only with the permission of the governed.

他说,美国的最伟大财富是其自由的传统。如果控制菲律宾,就否认了这种传统,还将违背美国宪法和《独立宣言》中包含的思想,那就是:所有人生而平等,政府只有在得到被统治者许可的情况下才能成立。

DOUG JOHNSON: The Senate vote on the treaty was set for February sixth. It seemed that the opposition had enough votes to reject it. But several things happened before the vote.

参议院预定1899年2月6日就条约进行投票。当时,反对派似乎已经有足够的票数来否决条约。但就在投票前却发生了几件事。

William Jennings Bryan
William Jennings Bryan

William Jennings Bryan, the leader of the Democratic Party, opposed the take-over of the Philippines. But he urged Democratic senators to vote for the treaty. Bryan was looking ahead to the presidential election in nineteen hundred. He believed that the Philippines' takeover would cause the United States nothing but trouble. He could put the blame for all the trouble on the Republicans. Then -- if he was elected president -- the Democrats could give the Philippines their independence.

首先,民主党领导人威廉.詹宁斯.布莱恩反对美国接管菲律宾,但他却敦促民主党参议员给条约投赞成票。布莱恩这么做是出于长远考虑,那就是1900年的总统大选。他相信,美国控制菲律宾的结果就是惹来一堆麻烦,不会有什么好处。而他可以把所有问题都归咎于共和党,这样就有利于他竞选。如果他真的当选了,民主党可以让菲律宾独立。

Bryan succeeded in getting seventeen Democrats and Populists in the Senate to vote for the treaty.

布莱恩成功地争取到17位民主党和人民党参议员支持这个条约。

STEVE EMBER: Two days before the vote was taken, violence broke out in the Philippines. President McKinley, without waiting for the Senate to act, ordered the American military government in Manila to extend its control throughout the Philippines.

另外,就在离参议院投票表决还有两天的时候,菲律宾发生了暴力冲突。麦金利总统不等参议院有所行动,就命令马尼拉的美国军政府将权限扩展到整个菲律宾。

The leader of the Philippine rebels, Emilio Aquinaldo, opposed the order. Rebel forces prepared to fight. On the night of February fourth, thirty thousand rebels attacked American forces around Manila. Sixty Americans were killed, and more than two hundred seventy were wounded. Rebel losses were much higher.

菲律宾的起义领导人埃米利奥.阿奎纳多反对这个命令。起义军准备战斗。1899年2月4日晚,3万起义军袭击了马尼拉周围的美军,60名美军被杀,270多人受伤。菲律宾起义军伤亡更加惨重。

DOUG JOHNSON: News of the rebel attack caused some Senators to change their minds about the Philippines. Some who had opposed the treaty now agreed with the Washington Star newspaper that "the Filipinos must be taught to obey."

菲律宾起义军袭击美军的消息使一些参议员改变了对菲律宾人的态度。有些原本反对和平条约的参议员现在也支持当时《华盛顿星报》的说法了,那就是:"必须让菲律宾人学会服从 "。

Eighty-four Senators were present for the vote on the treaty. To pass, the treaty needed a two-thirds majority -- fifty-six votes. One by one, the Senators voted. Then the count was announced.

参议院有84名议员参加了投票。条约要想获得通过,必须得到三分之二多数的支持,也就是56票。参议员们一个接一个投票,然后,宣布了计票结果。

Fifty-seven of the lawmakers had voted yes. Only twenty-seven had voted no. The treaty was approved. The Philippines belonged to the United States.

有57位议员投了赞成票,只有27位议员投了反对票。条约通过了,菲律宾属于美国了。

(MUSIC)

SHIRLEY GRIFFITH: Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Doug Johnson and Steve Ember. You can find our series online with transcripts, MP3s, podcasts and images at www.unsv.com. You can also follow us on Facebook and Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

网友的学习评论(1条):
作者:郑烈波
fifty-seven of the lawmakers had voted yes.only twenty-seven had voted no.the treaty was approved.the philippines belonged to the united states.
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