官方APP下载:钱柜娱乐qg999全能特训(微信小程序版,支持苹果手机、安卓手机)
创办于2003年
UNSV记不住?那就记中文谐音“忧安思危”吧!
UNSV钱柜娱乐qg999学习频道 - Slow and steady wins the race!
报名“钱柜娱乐qg999口语慢成班”,三年拿下钱柜娱乐qg999口语!
手机微信学钱柜娱乐qg999
打开手机微信,扫描以下二维码,即可通过我们的微信小程序学钱柜娱乐qg999。
钱柜娱乐qg999全能特训(微信小程序)
UNSV钱柜娱乐qg999学习频道淘宝网店
淘宝网店购买咨询
客服短信:18913948480
客服邮箱:web@unsv.com
标准VIP会员
全站资料无限下载、手机APP免费使用。
¥598元/12个月
钱柜娱乐qg999口语慢成班
承诺3年拿下口语!

#145: A Dispute Over Cuba Leads to the Spanish-American War

阅读次数:

VIP会员专享下载:(非VIP会员无权下载!如果想下载,但还不是VIP会员,请点此订购
下载方式:使用鼠标右键(注意是鼠标右键!)点击下面的MP3音频/MP4视频链接,然后选择“另存为…”。
MP3节目录音(英文版) MP3节目录音(英文版)  MP3节目录音(中文版) MP3节目录音(中文版)  PDF节目文稿 PDF节目文稿 
文章正文
同步字幕
A painting of the Battle of Manila Bay in 1898 in which the United States Navy defeated the Spanish Navy
A painting of the Battle of Manila Bay in 1898 in which the United States Navy defeated the Spanish Navy

SHIRLEY GRIFFITH: Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION - American history in VOA Special English.

The Spanish-American War took place in the late eighteen hundreds during the administration of President William McKinley. This week in our series, Harry Monroe and Kay Gallant tell the story of that war.

美国与西班牙之间的战争发生在十九世纪末麦金利总统执政期间。

HARRY MONROE: Unlike other presidents of the late eighteen hundreds, William McKinley spent much of his presidency dealing with foreign policy. The most serious problem involved Spain.

麦金利总统和十九世纪后期的其他几位美国总统不一样,他把主要精力都放在了对外政策上,其中最重要的一个问题涉及到西班牙。

Spain ruled Cuba at that time. Cuban rebels had started a fight for independence. The Spanish government promised the Cuban people equal rights and self-rule -- but in the future. The rebels did not want to wait.

当时,西班牙统治着古巴。古巴的反政府分子发动了争取独立的战争。西班牙政府承诺,会给予古巴人平权和自治,但是要等到将来。而古巴反政府分子不愿意再等待。

President McKinley felt Spain should be left alone to honor its promises. He also felt responsible for protecting the lives and property of Americans in Cuba. When riots broke out in Havana, he ordered the battleship Maine to sail there.

麦金利总统认为,外界不应该插手这件事,应该让西班牙履行其诺言。他同时觉得有责任保护那些生活在古巴的美国人的生命和财产安全。所以,当哈瓦那发生暴乱时,他命令军舰"缅因号"开赴那里。

One night in early eighteen ninety-eight, a powerful explosion sank the Maine. More than two hundred fifty American sailors died. There was some evidence the explosion was caused by an accident in the ship's fuel tanks. But many Americans blamed Spain. They demanded war to free Cuba and make it independent.

1898年年初的一个晚上,缅因号军舰发生大爆炸,军舰沉没了,250多名美国海军丧生。一些迹象表明,这次爆炸是军舰燃料箱发生事故引起的。但许多美国人指责西班牙,要求政府向西班牙开战,解放古巴,让古巴独立。

KAY GALLANT: President McKinley had a difficult decision to make. He did not want war. As he told a friend: "I fought in our Civil War. I saw the dead piled up. I do not want to see that again." But McKinley also knew many Americans wanted war. If he refused to fight Spain, his Republican Party could lose popular support.

这让麦金利总统很为难。他不想打仗。他曾对一位朋友说:"我参加过内战,看到过尸横遍野,我不想再看到那种场面。"但他同时知道,许多美国人想打仗。如果他拒绝向西班牙开战,那么他所在的共和党将会失去公众的支持。

William McKinley in June of 1898
William McKinley in June of 1898

So, he did not ask Congress for a declaration of war right away. He sent a message to the Spanish government, instead. McKinley demanded an immediate ceasefire in Cuba. He also offered his help in ending the revolt.

所以,麦金利总统没有立即要求国会宣战,而是致信西班牙政府,要求西班牙立即在古巴停火,还提出帮助西班牙结束古巴起义。

By the time Spain agreed to the demands, McKinley had made his decision. He asked Congress for permission to use military force to bring peace to Cuba. Congress agreed. It also demanded that Spain withdraw from Cuba and give up all claims to the island.

然而,等西班牙政府表示接受麦金利的建议时,麦金利已经做出另外的决定。他要求国会允许他动用军队来实现古巴的和平。国会同意了,并要求西班牙从古巴撤军,并放弃对古巴所有的主权。

The president signed the congressional resolution. The Spanish government immediately broke relations. On April twenty-fifth, eighteen ninety-eight, the United States declared war on Spain.

麦金利总统签署了国会通过的决议。西班牙立即与美国断交。1898年4月25日,美国宣布向西班牙开战。

HARRY MONROE: The American Navy was ready to fight. It was three times bigger than the Spanish navy. It also was better trained. A ship-building program begun fifteen years earlier had made the American Navy one of the strongest in the world. Its ships were made of steel and carried powerful guns.

美国海军已经做好战斗准备。美国海军是西班牙海军的三倍,比西班牙海军更加训练有素。十五年前开始的大造军舰项目使美国海军成为当时世界上最强大的海军之一。美国海军的军舰都是钢制的,并配备强大的火力。

Part of the American Navy at that time was based in Hong Kong. The rest was based on the Atlantic coast of the United States.

当时,美国海军一部分驻扎在香港,其余驻扎在美国东海岸。

Admiral George Dewey commanded the Pacific Fleet. Dewey had received a message from the Assistant Secretary of the Navy, Theodore Roosevelt. If war broke out, it said, he was to attack the Spanish naval force in the Philippines. The Spanish force was commanded by Admiral Patricio Montojo.

海军上将乔治.杜威指挥太平洋舰队。海军助理部长西奥多·罗斯福授命杜威,如果战争爆发,他可率领太平洋舰队进攻驻守在菲律宾的西班牙海军。当时指挥西班牙海军的是海军上将帕特里西奥·蒙托霍。

KAY GALLANT: The American fleet arrived in Manila Bay on May first. It sailed toward the line of Spanish ships. The Spanish fired first. The shells missed. When the two naval forces were five thousand meters apart, Admiral Dewey ordered the Americans to fire. After three hours, Admiral Montojo surrendered. Most of his ships were sunk. Four hundred of his men were dead or wounded.

美国舰队5月1日到达马尼拉湾,并直接冲向西班牙海军的防线。西班牙率先开火,但没有击中美舰。当双方军舰相距5000米时,杜威将军下令开火。三个小时后,蒙托霍将军向美国投降,他手下的大部分军舰被击沉,400多人伤亡。

American land forces arrived several weeks later. They captured Manila, giving the United States control of the Philippines.

美国陆军在几周后抵达,占领了马尼拉。美国控制了菲律宾。

HARRY MONROE: Dewey was suddenly a hero. Songs and poems were written about him. Congress gave him special honors. A spirit of victory spread across the nation. People called for an immediate invasion of Cuba.

杜威将军一夜间成了英雄,人们写诗写歌来赞扬他,国会还授予他特别荣誉。胜利的情绪传遍美国,人们要求立即派军队进入古巴。

Unlike the Navy, America's Army was not ready to fight. When war was declared, the Army had only about twenty-five thousand men. Within a few months, however, it had more than two hundred thousand. The soldiers trained at camps in the southern United States. One of the largest camps was in Florida. Cuba is just one hundred fifty kilometers off the coast of Florida.

然而,美国陆军与海军不同,并没有作好战斗准备。当美国宣布向西班牙开战时,陆军只有大约2万5千人。不过,在短短几个月时间里,陆军人数就超过了20万。他们在南部一些军营中集训,其中最大的一个军营位于佛罗里达州,而古巴距佛罗里达海岸只有150公里。

KAY GALLANT: Two weeks after the Spanish-American War began, the Army sent a small force to Cuba. The force was ordered to inspect the north coast of Cuba and to take supplies to Cuban rebels. That invasion failed. But the second one succeeded. Four hundred American soldiers landed with guns, bullets, and supplies for the rebels.

美国与西班牙开战两周后,美国陆军派遣一小支部队进入古巴,他们的任务是侦察古巴北部海岸的情况,并向古巴反政府武装提供物资。但是,这支小分队失败了。不过随后的第二支小分队的400名美军成功登陆,并为古巴反政府武装带去了枪支、弹药和其它物资。

Next, the Army planned to send twenty-five thousand men to Cuba. Their goal was the Port of Santiago on the south coast. American ships had trapped a Spanish naval force there earlier.

随后,美国计划向古巴派遣2万千名陆军,目标是在古巴南部的圣地亚哥港登陆。此前,美国军舰在那里围困了一支西班牙海军。

One of the commanders of the big American invasion force was Theodore Roosevelt.

美西战争开始时,罗斯福辞去了海军助理部长的职务。

Roosevelt had resigned as Assistant Secretary of the Navy when the war started. He organized a group of horse soldiers. Most of the men were cowboys from America's southwest. They could ride and shoot well. Some were rich young men from New York who simply shared Roosevelt's love of excitement. The group became known as Roosevelt's "Rough Riders."

他组建了一支骑兵队,其大多数成员是来自美国西南部的牛仔。他们能骑善射。还有一些成员是纽约的富家子弟,他们加入骑兵只是因为和罗斯福一样喜爱追求刺激。这支骑兵后来成为赫赫有名的"罗斯福勇猛骑士"。

Theodore Roosevelt, center, with the Rough Riders at San Juan Hill, Cuba, 1898
Theodore Roosevelt, center, with the Rough Riders at San Juan Hill, Cuba, 1898

HARRY MONROE: As the Americans landed near Santiago, Spanish forces withdrew to positions outside the city. The strongest force was at San Juan Hill.

美国陆军在圣地亚哥附近登陆时,西班牙军队撤到了城市的外围。西班牙力量最强的部队驻守在圣胡安山。

The Spanish soldiers used smokeless gunpowder. This made their artillery hard to find. The Americans did not have the smokeless powder. But they had Gatling machine guns which poured a stream of bullets at the enemy.

当时的西班牙军队使用无烟火药,他们的火力不容易被敌人发现。美国那时还没有这种火药,但却有格林机关枪,可以向敌人连续射出多发子弹。

When the machine guns opened fire, American soldiers began moving up San Juan Hill. Several American reporters watched. Later, one of them wrote this report:

在格林机关枪的掩护下,美国士兵向圣胡安山发起冲锋。几位美国记者看到了这一战争场面。后来,一位记者这样写到:

"I have seen many pictures of the charge on San Juan Hill. But none seem to show it as I remember it. In the pictures, the men are running up the hill quickly in straight lines. There seem to be so many men that no enemy could stand against them.

"我看过许多反映圣胡安山冲锋的照片,但似乎没有一张能准确地再现我记忆中的那个场景。在照片中,士兵们排着整齐的队伍,向山上冲。看上去美军人数太多,敌人根本无法抵挡他们。"

"In fact," said the reporter, "there were not many men. And they moved up the hill slowly, in a close group, not in a straight line. It seemed as if someone had made a terrible mistake. One wanted to call to these few soldiers to come back."

他接着说:"其实,没有那么多人,他们上山的速度很慢,也不是排成直线冲锋,而是一群人一块儿冲。整个情景看上去就好像有人做出了极其错误的决定。你会想让那几个冲锋的士兵撤回来,不要去送死。"

KAY GALLANT: The American soldiers were not called back. They reached the top of San Juan Hill. The Spanish soldiers fled. "All we have to do," an American officer said, "is hold on to the hill and Santiago will be ours."

当然,没有人要求士兵们往回撤。美军攻上了圣胡安山顶,西班牙军队逃跑了。一位美军军官说:"我们只需守住圣胡安山,就能控制整个圣地亚哥。"

American Commander General William Shafter sent a message to Spanish Commander General Jose Toral. Shafter demanded Toral's surrender. While he waited for an answer, the Spanish naval force tried to break out of Santiago Harbor. The attempt failed, and the Americans took control of the port.

美军指挥官威廉.沙夫特将军向西班牙指挥官何塞.特拉尔将军发出一封信,要求他投降。正当沙夫特等待特拉尔的回音时,西班牙海军试图突破圣地亚哥港的美军包围圈,但他们失败了,美军继而控制了这座港口。

The loss destroyed any hope that Spain could win the war. There was now no way it could send more soldiers and supplies to Cuba.

这次失利打破了西班牙赢得战争的最后希望。西班牙再不能向古巴增派兵力和补给了。

General Toral agreed to a short ceasefire so women and children could leave Santiago. But he rejected General Shafter's demand of unconditional surrender. American artillery then attacked Santiago. General Toral defended the city as best he could. Finally, on July seventeenth, he surrendered. The United States promised to send all his soldiers back to Spain.

特拉尔将军同意短暂停火,以让妇女和儿童离开圣地亚哥,但他拒绝沙夫特提出的无条件投降的要求。于是,美军开始攻击圣地亚哥。特拉尔将军尽一切所能守城。最终,在7月17日,他投降了。美国承诺把他的士兵全部送回西班牙。

HARRY MONROE: In the next few weeks, American forces occupied Puerto Rico and the Philippine capital of Manila. America's war with Spain was over. It had lasted just ten weeks. The next step was to negotiate terms of a peace treaty. The negotiations would be held in Paris.

在此后的几周里,美军占领了波多黎各和菲律宾首都马尼拉。美西战争结束了,这场战争只持续了十个星期。下一步的工作就是在法国巴黎谈判和平条约。

The victorious United States demanded independence for Cuba. It demanded control over Puerto Rico and Guam. And it demanded the right to occupy Manila. The two sides agreed quickly on the terms concerning Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Guam. But they could not agree on what to do about the Philippines.

打了胜仗的美国要求让古巴独立,还要求控制波多黎各和关岛,以及占领马尼拉。双方很快在古巴、波多黎各和关岛问题上达成协议,但在菲律宾问题上却存在分歧。

Spain rejected the American demand for control. It did not want to give up this important colony. Negotiations on this point of the peace treaty lasted for days.

西班牙拒绝美国占领马尼拉的要求,因为它不想放弃菲律宾这个重要的殖民地。为此,双方就和平条约这部分内容的谈判持续了好多天。

That will be our story next week.

(MUSIC)

SHIRLEY GRIFFITH: Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Harry Monroe and Kay Gallant. You can find our series online with transcripts, MP3s, podcasts and images at www.unsv.com. You can also follow us on Facebook and Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

网友的学习评论(0条):
版权所有©2003-2015 南京通享科技有限公司,保留所有权利。未经书面许可,严禁转载本站内容,违者追究法律责任。 中国互联网经营ICP证:苏B2-20120186
广播台