官方APP下载:钱柜娱乐qg999全能特训(微信小程序版,支持苹果手机、安卓手机)
创办于2003年
UNSV记不住?那就记中文谐音“忧安思危”吧!
UNSV钱柜娱乐qg999学习频道 - Slow and steady wins the race!
报名“钱柜娱乐qg999口语慢成班”,三年拿下钱柜娱乐qg999口语!
手机微信学钱柜娱乐qg999
打开手机微信,扫描以下二维码,即可通过我们的微信小程序学钱柜娱乐qg999。
钱柜娱乐qg999全能特训(微信小程序)
UNSV钱柜娱乐qg999学习频道淘宝网店
淘宝网店购买咨询
客服短信:18913948480
客服邮箱:web@unsv.com
标准VIP会员
全站资料无限下载、手机APP免费使用。
¥598元/12个月
钱柜娱乐qg999口语慢成班
承诺3年拿下口语!

#144: US Begins to Extend Its Influence Far Beyond Its Shores

阅读次数:

VIP会员专享下载:(非VIP会员无权下载!如果想下载,但还不是VIP会员,请点此订购
下载方式:使用鼠标右键(注意是鼠标右键!)点击下面的MP3音频/MP4视频链接,然后选择“另存为…”。
MP3节目录音(英文版) MP3节目录音(英文版)  MP3节目录音(中文版) MP3节目录音(中文版)  PDF节目文稿 PDF节目文稿 
文章正文
同步字幕
The destruction of the U.S. battleship Maine in Havana Harbor in 1898
The destruction of the U.S. battleship Maine in Havana Harbor in 1898

SHIRLEY GRIFFITH:  Welcome to the MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English.

During the second half of the nineteenth century, the United States was not concerned much with events in other countries. It was too busy dealing with events inside its own borders. At that time, the nation was recovering from the Civil War. It was expanding to the West. And it was developing industries.

十九世纪后半叶,美国不太关心其它国家发生的事情,因为美国人都忙于处理国内的各种事物。那时的美国正在从内战中复元,忙于向西部扩张,同时全力发展工业。

As production increased, the United States began trading more and more with other countries. At the same time, it needed a new foreign policy to defend its interests.

随着工农业产品增多,美国与其它国家的贸易也越来越多。与此同时,美国需要新的外交政策来保护自身的利益。

This week in our series, Maurice Joyce and Larry West discuss America's foreign policy in the late eighteen hundreds.

LARRY WEST:   A growing number of lawmakers called for a new foreign policy. One was Henry Cabot Lodge of Massachusetts. Lodge said the great nations of the world were taking control of the world's undeveloped areas. As one of the great nations, Lodge said, the United States must not fall out of this line of march.

越来越多的议员呼吁制订新的对外政策。麻萨诸塞州的亨利.洛奇就是其中之一。他说,各大强国都在争相控制世界上的欠发达地区。作为强国之一的美国也决不能掉队。

Another lawmaker said: "Fate has written our policy. The trade of the world must and shall be ours." Some of these ideas came from the writings of Captain Alfred Mahan. He was head of America's Naval War College.

另一位议员说:"我们的政策是命运安排好的。美国应该、也必须参与世界贸易。"类似这样的想法有些来自阿尔佛雷德.马汉上尉所写的书。马汉是美国海军军事学院的院长。

Mahan wrote that all the great nations in history had possessed great sea power. He said the United States must build up its sea power, too, if it wanted to be a great nation.

他写道,历史上所有大国都拥有强大的海上势力。如果美国想成为强国,就必须也建立自己的海上力量。

Sea power, Mahan said, was more than a strong navy. It was an economy that could produce goods for export. It was trade ships that could carry the goods. It was colonies that could supply raw materials and markets. And it was overseas naval bases that could defend American interests far from home.

马汉说,海上力量不仅仅指强大的海军,还指国民经济可以生产用于出口的产品,能够运输商品的商船,能够为本国提供原材料和市场的殖民地,还有在遥远的海外可以保护美国利益的海军基地。

MAURICE JOYCE:  The Washington Post newspaper described America's growing power this way:

华盛顿邮报这样描述美国日益强大的国力:

"A new understanding seems to have come upon us, an understanding of our strength. And with it, a new feeling -- we want to show our strength. We are face-to-face with a strange fate. The taste of empire is in the mouth of the people."

"我们似乎正在形成一种新的认识,认识到我们的力量。随这种力量而产生的是一种新的感觉,那就是,我们要展示这种力量。我们正面对一种陌生的未来,人们已经开始尝到帝国的味道。"

The Washington Post was not speaking for everyone, of course. In fact, many American presidents of the late eighteen hundreds did not have this taste for empire. Yet they were forced to face the future. Changes were coming. And it was their responsibility to guide the nation through the changes.

当然,华盛顿邮报的话并不代表每个人的想法。事实上,十九世纪后期的许多任美国总统并没有体会到这种帝国的味道,但他们不得不面对未来。变革正在来临,而引导美国走过充满变革的时代正是这些总统的责任。

For this reason, the United States entered into several agreements with foreign lands during the late eighteen hundreds.

正因为如此,在十九世纪末,美国先后与外国签订了几份协议。

LARRY WEST:  In eighteen seventy-eight, for example, the United States signed a treaty with Samoa. The United States agreed to help the South Pacific islands settle any differences with other nations. A few years later, the treaty was put to a test.

例如,1878年,美国与萨摩亚群岛签订了一个条约,同意帮助这个南太平洋岛国解决与其它国家的纠纷。几年后,这个条约就派上了用场。

A group of Germans living in Samoa forced the islands' ruler from power. They replaced him with a ruler who was more friendly to Germany.

一些生活在萨摩亚群岛的德国人强行把该国的领导人赶下了台,然后扶植了一个亲德国的领导人。

For a time, it seemed the United States and Germany would go to war. But when American warships arrived in Samoa, so did a big storm. The storm smashed both American and German ships. Neither side was left with a force strong enough to fight.

一时间,美德战争似乎一触即发。但当美国军舰到达萨摩亚群岛时,遭遇到了大风暴。风暴把美国和德国的军舰尽数摧毁,双方谁也没有力量开战了。

In eighteen eighty-nine, the United States, Germany, and Britain agreed that Samoa should be an independent kingdom. For ten years, local leaders attempted to establish a strong government. Their efforts failed. In eighteen ninety-nine, Germany took control of Samoa's large western islands. The United States took control of the smaller islands to the east.

1889年,美国、德国和英国一致同意萨摩亚群岛应该成为一个独立王国。此后十年,萨摩亚群岛领导人试图建立一个强大的政府,但没有成功。1899年,德国控制了萨摩亚群岛西部各大岛,美国控制了东部几个小岛。

MAURICE JOYCE:  Events in another group of Pacific Ocean islands affected American foreign policy in the late eighteen hundreds. These were the Hawaiian islands.

夏威夷群岛的事态发展也影响了美国十九世纪末的对外政策。

Queen Liliuokalani of Hawaii
Queen Liliuokalani of Hawaii

Hawaii was an important port for American trade ships sailing between the United States and China. Good relations between Hawaii and the United States were necessary to keep the port open to American ships.

对于航行在美国与中国之间的商船来说,夏威夷是十分重要的口岸。美国必须维持和夏威夷的良好关系,以确保那里的港口对美国船只开放。

In eighteen ninety-one, Liliuokalani became queen of Hawaii. She was not friendly to the United States. A group of American businessmen and planters in Hawaii plotted to oust her.

1891年,莉奥卡拉尼成了夏威夷的女王,她对美国不友好。于是,一些美国商人和夏威夷的种植园主就谋划要把她赶下台。

The group started an uprising. Then it called on the United States for protection. Queen Liliuokalani was forced to surrender. The businessmen and planters formed a new government. They wanted Hawaii to be part of the United States. By the end of the century, Congress had made Hawaii an American territory.

这些人发动起义,然后向美国寻求保护。莉奥卡拉尼女王被迫投降。商人和种植园主成立了一个新政府,他们要求把夏威夷变成美国的一部分。十九世纪末,美国国会通过决议,将夏威夷纳入美国版图。

LARRY WEST:  The United States also offered to serve as a negotiator in several international disputes during the late eighteen hundreds. One dispute involved Britain and Venezuela.

十九世纪后期,美国还主动提出在几个国际争端中充当斡旋国。其中之一是英国与委内瑞拉的争端。

Both countries claimed land that bordered the British colony of Guiana on the northeast coast of South America. The situation became tense when gold was discovered in the disputed area. The United States offered to negotiate an agreement. Britain refused the offer. The United States offered again. Britain refused again.

南美洲东北海岸英国殖民地圭亚纳旁边有一块土地,英国和委内瑞拉都声称对其拥有主权。后来,这里又发现了黄金,使局势骤然紧张起来。美国两次提议谈判达成协议,都遭到英国拒绝。

Finally, President Grover Cleveland asked the United States Congress to appoint a committee to decide the border. Before the American committee had a chance to meet, Britain and Venezuela agreed to let an international committee decide.

最后,克利夫兰总统要求国会成立一个委员会,裁定英国和委内瑞拉在这个地区的边界。但是,委员会还没来得及开会,英国和委内瑞拉就同意由一个国际委员会来裁定边界。

MAURICE JOYCE:  In eighteen ninety-five, Cuban rebels revolted against the colonial government. They tried to destroy the economy of the island by burning private property.

1895年,古巴反政府分子发动针对殖民政府的起义。他们试图靠烧毁私人财产来摧毁古巴经济。

Spain sent a large force to Cuba to crush the revolt. Thousands of persons were arrested and put into prison camps. Many died of hunger and disease. Spain was denounced for its cruelty.

西班牙派一支庞大军队到古巴镇压起义。数千人被逮捕关押。许多人饿死病死。西班牙的暴行受到了谴责。

LARRY WEST:  It was difficult to get a true picture of what was happening in Cuba. American newspapers sent reporters to the island. But much of what they wrote about never happened. The reporters knew very well that exciting and horrifying stories sold newspapers. So, they made up stories about bloody battles and Spanish cruelty. One incident has become famous in American newspaper history.

当时,人们很难了解古巴到底发生了什么。美国报纸派出记者前往古巴采访,但记者们写的许多事从未发生。记者们深知,煽情和恐怖的故事最能让报纸畅销,所以他们编造了许多关于血腥战斗和西班牙暴行的新闻。其中一件事还成为美国报纸历史上的著名事件。

William Randolph Hearst
William Randolph Hearst

Publisher William Randolph Hearst sent artist Frederic Remington to Cuba to paint pictures of the fighting. Remington spent several months in Havana. He saw no fighting. He sent Hearst a message. Things were quiet, Remington said. There would be no war. Hearst sent back this answer: "You supply the pictures. I'll supply the war."

出版商赫斯特派画家雷明顿到古巴,画当地的战斗场面。雷明顿在哈瓦那待了好几个月,什么战斗场面都没看到。于是他给赫斯特写了一封信,说这里很平静,不会发生战争。赫斯特给他回信说:"你提供画作,我提供战争。"

MAURICE JOYCE:  The newspaper built up strong public feeling against Spain. Soon, many Americans were calling for war to free Cuba from Spanish rule.

这份报纸的报导使美国公众对西班牙产生了强烈的愤慨。很快,许多美国人呼吁政府向西班牙宣战,把古巴从西班牙统治下解放出来。

William McKinley was president. He did not want the United States to become involved. He did, however, offer to help Spain find a solution that would return peace to the island. Spain refused the offer. It attempted to improve the situation in Cuba by itself.

当时的美国总统是麦金利,他不想让美国卷入此事。然而,他还是主动提出帮西班牙找个解决办法,让古巴恢复和平。但西班牙拒绝了美国的提议,准备自己来改善古巴局势。

Spain called home the military commander accused of cruelty. It stopped putting people in prison camps. It offered equal political rights to all Cubans. And it promised them self-rule in the future.

西班牙把被指责太过残暴的将领从古巴召回,不再把古巴人关进犯人营,给予古巴人平等的政治权利。西班牙还许诺说,将来古巴人可以自治。

LARRY WEST:  President McKinley welcomed Spain's policy statements. He felt Spain should be left alone to honor its promises to the Cuban people. He said the United States would not interfere. At about that time, however, riots broke out in Havana. President McKinley said it was his responsibility to protect the lives and property of Americans living there. So, he sent the battleship "Maine" to Havana.

麦金利总统欢迎西班牙的政策声明。他觉得外界应让西班牙自己去履行向古巴人许下的诺言。他说,美国不会干涉古巴事件。然而,大约就在那个时候,哈瓦那发生了暴乱。麦金利总统说,他有责任保护生活在那里的美国人的生命财产安全,于是他派遣"缅因号"军舰前往哈瓦那。

During the early weeks of eighteen ninety-eight, President McKinley waited for Spain to act on its promises to Cuba. He saw little progress. Relations between the United States and Spain became tense. Then, on the night of February fifteenth, a powerful explosion shook the battleship Maine in Havana harbor. The ship sank. More than two hundred fifty American sailors were dead.

在1898年头几个星期里,麦金利总统等待西班牙履行诺言,但他没有看到什么进展,美国与西班牙之间的关系变得紧张起来。1898年2月15日夜间,在哈瓦那港口停泊的"缅因号"发生大爆炸。军舰沉没了,舰上的250多名美国海员丧生。

MAURICE JOYCE:  No one knew what caused the explosion on the battleship Maine. The United States said it was an underwater bomb. Spain said it was something on the ship itself.

没有人知道爆炸的原因。美国说是一枚水下炸弹引起的,西班牙说是缅因号自身的问题引起的。

There was some evidence the explosion was caused by an accident in the ship's fuel tanks. Yet some people in the United States blamed Spain anyway. They demanded war. They cried: "Remember the Maine!"

有一些证据表明,"缅因号"爆炸是由于燃料箱发生了事故。然而,一些美国人还是把矛头指向西班牙。他们要求政府向西班牙开战,并大声疾呼:"让我们铭记缅因号!"

That will be our story next week.

(MUSIC)

SHIRLEY GRIFFITH:  Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Maurice Joyce and Larry West. You can find our series online with transcripts, MP3s, podcasts and images at www.unsv.com. You can also follow us on Facebook and Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

网友的学习评论(0条):
版权所有©2003-2015 南京通享科技有限公司,保留所有权利。未经书面许可,严禁转载本站内容,违者追究法律责任。 中国互联网经营ICP证:苏B2-20120186
广播台