官方APP下载:钱柜娱乐qg999全能特训(微信小程序版,支持苹果手机、安卓手机)
创办于2003年
UNSV记不住?那就记中文谐音“忧安思危”吧!
UNSV钱柜娱乐qg999学习频道 - Slow and steady wins the race!
报名“钱柜娱乐qg999口语慢成班”,三年拿下钱柜娱乐qg999口语!
手机微信学钱柜娱乐qg999
打开手机微信,扫描以下二维码,即可通过我们的微信小程序学钱柜娱乐qg999。
钱柜娱乐qg999全能特训(微信小程序)
UNSV钱柜娱乐qg999学习频道淘宝网店
淘宝网店购买咨询
客服短信:18913948480
客服邮箱:web@unsv.com
标准VIP会员
全站资料无限下载、手机APP免费使用。
¥598元/12个月
钱柜娱乐qg999口语慢成班
承诺3年拿下口语!

#138: Benjamin Harrison Defeats Cleveland Over Tariffs in 1888

阅读次数:

VIP会员专享下载:(非VIP会员无权下载!如果想下载,但还不是VIP会员,请点此订购
下载方式:使用鼠标右键(注意是鼠标右键!)点击下面的MP3音频/MP4视频链接,然后选择“另存为…”。
MP3节目录音(英文版) MP3节目录音(英文版)  MP3节目录音(中文版) MP3节目录音(中文版)  PDF节目文稿 PDF节目文稿 
文章正文
同步字幕
Benjamin Harrison
Benjamin Harrison

FAITH LAPIDUS:  Welcome to the MAKING OF A NATION - American history in VOA Special English.

In the presidential election of eighteen eighty-eight, one issue that played a major part was tariffs.

在1888年的美国总统大选中,一个十分重要的议题就是关税。

At that time, import taxes were high on many products. The high tariffs protected American goods from competing with lower-priced foreign imports. The tariffs protected millions of jobs in American industry. Not everyone, however, supported high tariffs.

当时,许多产品的进口税都很高。高关税保护美国产品避免与外国廉价进口商品竞争,保护了美国各个行业的数百万个工作机会。然而,并非每个人都赞成征收高额关税。

The president of the United States, Grover Cleveland, decided that high tariffs were wrong. He told other Democratic leaders that he would try to get the tariffs reduced.

当时的美国总统克利夫兰认为,征收高额关税是错误的。他告诉其他一些民主党领导人,他准备设法降低进口关税。

The politicians warned him not to try. They said he would only lose the support of business people. They said he would need campaign money from business if he expected to be elected president again. But Cleveland rejected their advice.

但这些政治人士警告他不要这样做。他们说,他这样做只会失去商界人士的支持,而如果克利夫兰还计划连任总统的话,他会需要商界提供的竞选资金。但是克利夫兰拒绝了他们的建议。

This week in our series, Shirley Griffith and Ray Freeman tell about the presidential election of eighteen eighty-eight.

SHIRLEY GRIFFITH:  President Cleveland believed that high tariffs hurt more Americans than they protected. High tariffs, he said, led to high prices on all products. He also opposed high tariffs because they brought in more money than the government needed. The extra money was kept in the public treasury. And this, Cleveland believed, slowed the American economy.

克利夫兰总统相信,高额关税给美国人民带来的伤害要超过所提供的保护。他说,高关税导致所有商品的高价。他反对高关税的另一个原因是这些关税带来的收入超过政府所需。额外的资金则存放在国库中。他认为,这个作法减慢了美国经济的发展。

The president's Democratic Party united to support his policy of lowering tariffs. When the party held its presidential nominating convention in eighteen eighty-eight, delegates quickly re-nominated Cleveland.

克利夫兰总统所在的民主党一致支持他降低关税的政策。在民主党召开1888年总统候选人提名大会时,代表们很快就再次推举克利夫兰为下一届总统的候选人。

RAY FREEMAN:  At the Republican Party convention, delegates were expected to nominate Senator James Blaine. Blaine had been the party's candidate four years earlier. He had lost to Cleveland in a very close election.

在共和党的总统候选人提名大会上,代表们原本要提名参议员詹姆士.布莱恩。布莱恩在四年前就是共和党的总统候选人,仅以微弱的劣势败给了克利夫兰。

Senator Blaine publicly criticized the president's policy on tariffs. He said he looked forward to a full debate on the issue. Republicans thought this meant that Blaine wanted to be nominated for president again. They told him he was sure to win. They said it would be such an easy victory that he would not have to campaign.

布莱恩参议员公开批评克利夫兰总统的关税政策,并说他期待就这一问题与总统进行全面辩论。共和党人认为,这表明布莱恩希望能够再次获得总统候选人提名。他们对布莱恩说,他肯定会胜选,而且会是一场轻松的胜仗,他甚至都不需要去竞选。

SHIRLEY GRIFFITH:  In fact, Blaine did not want the nomination. He asked that his name not be put before the convention. He met with reporters to talk about his decision. He said: "A man who has once been the candidate of his party -- and defeated -- owes it to his party not to be a candidate again."

而事实上,布莱恩并不想成为候选人。他请求不要在大会上提他的名。布莱恩与记者们见面,谈论他的这一决定。他说:"一个曾经获得本党提名却在总统选举中败选的人,出于对本党负责就不应该再次成为候选人。"

Many Republicans refused to accept Blaine's decision. They felt that if Blaine were nominated, he would run. Blaine replied: "If the presidential nomination is offered to me, I could not and would not accept it."

许多共和党人拒绝接受布莱恩的决定。他们觉得,如果布莱恩获得提名,他就会去竞选。但布莱恩回答说:"如果让我当总统候选人,我不能,也不愿意接受这一提名。"

That was final. Blaine's supporters had to find someone else to nominate for president.

一锤定音。布莱恩的支持者们只好另寻他人来当总统候选人。

(MUSIC)

RAY FREEMAN:  Fourteen men declared themselves to be candidates for the Republican nomination. A leading candidate was Senator John Sherman of Ohio. Another was former Senator Benjamin Harrison of Indiana.

有十四人宣布参加共和党总统候选人的角逐。最有希望的参选人之一是俄亥俄州参议员约翰.谢尔曼,还有一位是曾任印第安那州参议员的本杰明.哈里森。

Convention delegates voted several times. No man received enough votes to win the nomination. Then a message came from James Blaine. It said: "Nominate Harrison." On the eighth vote, the delegates did.

共和党代表们进行了数次投票,但没有一个参选人能获得足够多的票数而得到候选人提名。这时大会收到布莱恩的一封信,信中说:"提名哈里森。"于是,在第八轮投票中,代表们选择了哈里森。

Benjamin Harrison was the grandson of the ninth President of the United States, William Henry Harrison. Benjamin was a lawyer. He had been a General in the Union Army during America's Civil War of the eighteen sixties.

本杰明.哈里森是美国第九任总统威廉.哈里森的孙子。他是一位律师,也曾是美国内战期间北方联盟军的将军。

SHIRLEY GRIFFITH:  After nominating Harrison, the Republicans approved a strong policy statement on the tariff question. The statement said:

共和党人在提名哈里森为总统候选人后,批准了一份在关税问题上立场强硬的政策声明。该声明说:

"We fully support the American system of protection. President Cleveland and his party serve the interests of Europe. We would support the interests of America. We would see all other taxes ended before we surrender any part of the protective tariff system."

"我们完全支持美国的保护制度。克利夫兰总统和民主党是为欧洲的利益服务的,而我们支持美国的利益。我们在看到所有的其他税收停止之前,不会放弃关税保护制度的任何部分。"

RAY FREEMAN:  Benjamin Harrison's campaign was well-organized.

His campaign workers went to businessmen who had become rich because of high protective tariffs. They asked for support, and the businessmen gave millions of dollars to the campaign. The businessmen also put pressure on the people who worked for them. They warned workers that if Cleveland were re-elected, there might be no more jobs.

哈里森的竞选工作组织得很好,他的竞选团队走访那些因高保护关税而发财的商业人士,请求帮助。这些人为哈里森的竞选活动捐款数百万美元,还向那些为他们工作的人施压。他们警告那些工人说,如果克利夫兰竞选连任,工人们可能会失业。

Republican Party leaders took an active part in the campaign of eighteen eighty-eight. They made speeches and led parades across the country. The party also printed millions of pamphlets that warned against what it called "Cleveland's free trade policies."

共和党领袖们也积极参与了1888年的总统大选。他们在全国各地发表演讲,带头游行。共和党还印刷了数百万本小册子,攻击其所谓的"克利夫兰自由贸易政策"。

SHIRLEY GRIFFITH:  Grover Cleveland's campaign was not well-organized. It started slowly. It did not raise much money. No effort was made to answer Republican attacks on the tariff issue. And the president himself refused to campaign. He said he had more important things to do.

相比之下,克利夫兰的竞选活动组织得就不好。竞选活动启动慢,没有募集到太多资金。他们也没有设法对共和党在关税问题上的攻击作出回应。克利夫兰总统本人拒绝参加竞选活动。他说,他有更重要的事要做。

The Democrats also failed to stop the Republicans from buying votes on election day. In Indiana, for example, men were paid fifteen dollars to vote for the Republican candidate. The Democrats bought votes, too. But they had less money to spend than the Republicans.

民主党人也没能阻止共和党人在选举当天贿赂选民。比如在印第安那州,选民投票给共和党候选人就会得到15美元。民主党也花钱买选票,但他们的资金没有共和党雄厚。

When the popular votes were counted, Cleveland had about one hundred thousand more than Harrison. But Harrison had more electoral votes. He won the election.

当选票统计结果出来时,克利夫兰获得的票数比哈里森多大约10万张,但哈里森获得了更多的选举人票,从而赢得了选举。

An 1888 campaign poster for President Grover Cleveland supporting tariff reform
An 1888 campaign poster for President Grover Cleveland supporting tariff reform

RAY FREEMAN:  Grover Cleveland had mixed feelings about his defeat. He wanted to win, because he believed his policies were best for the country. He said he was not sorry that he had made tariffs the major issue in the campaign. "I do not regret it," he said. "It is better to be defeated battling for an honest idea, than to win by a cowardly trick."

克利夫兰对于他的失败百感交集。他希望能够获胜,因为他相信自己的政策对国家最有利。不过,他对于将关税问题弄成竞选中的重要话题并不后悔。他说:"我不感到遗憾,为一个诚实的想法而战,结果失败,比靠懦夫伎俩获胜要强。"

When President Cleveland and his wife left the White House, Missus Cleveland said goodbye to the servants. She told one of them: "I want you to take good care of all the furniture and other things in the house. I want to find everything the same when we come back...four years from now."

当克利夫兰总统夫妇离开白宫时,克利夫兰夫人向那里的工作人员告别。她对其中一位说:"我希望你们好好保管白宫里的所有家俱和其他物件,我希望我们四年后回来时,一切都没变样。"

(MUSIC)

SHIRLEY GRIFFITH:  The new president, Benjamin Harrison, had big political debts to re-pay. He understood this when he began organizing his administration. "When I came to power," Harrison said, "I found that my party's leaders had taken all the power for themselves. I could not name my own cabinet. They had sold every cabinet position to pay for the election."

新总统本杰明·哈里森有一大笔政治人情债要还。他开始组阁时明白了这一点。哈里森说:"当我接掌权力时,我发现我们共和党的领导人已经拿走了所有的权力。我无法提名我自己的内阁人选,共和党的大佬们已经卖掉了所有的内阁职位,来为这场选举付帐。"

RAY FREEMAN:  The position of Secretary of State went to James Blaine, who had refused his party's requests to run for president. Blaine had served as Secretary of State under Presidents James Garfield and Chester Arthur.

国务卿的职务给了曾经拒绝成为共和党总统候选人的詹姆士.布莱恩。布莱恩曾经在加菲尔德总统和亚瑟总统执政期间担任国务卿。

The position of Postmaster General went to John Wanamaker. Wanamaker had raised most of the money for Harrison's campaign. He had given fifty thousand dollars of his own money. He planned to re-pay party supporters with jobs in the post office department.

邮政局局长的职位给了约翰.沃纳梅克。他为哈里森筹集了大部分竞选资金,他还自掏腰包捐了五万美元。他打算把邮政局的工作作为偿还,留给共和党的支持者。

SHIRLEY GRIFFITH:  During the campaign, Harrison had promised to enforce the civil service law that protected the job rights of government workers. He promised that workers would be removed only in the interests of better government.

在竞选期间,哈里森曾许诺要落实保护政府雇员工作权益的公务员法。他许诺说,政府公务员只有在有利于改进政府的情况下才会被开除。

Wanamaker and other party leaders criticized Harrison. They said they could not build a strong party organization without promising government jobs to voters.

沃纳梅克和其他共和党领导人批评哈里森。他们说,如果不答应将政府部门的工作给那些选民,他们就无法建立起一个强有力的政党。

So, President Harrison suspended the civil service laws that protected postal workers. Within a year, thirty thousand Democrats were removed from the department. Their jobs went to Republicans. The president then announced that the post office would, once again, be protected by the civil service laws.

所以,哈里森总统暂停了保护邮局工作人员利益的公务员法。在一年内,有三万名民主党人被调离邮政局,共和党人得到了他们的职位。之后哈里森总统才宣布,邮政局重又受到公务员法的保障。

RAY FREEMAN:  Former President Cleveland had been troubled by the extra money in the federal treasury. This was tax money the government collected, but did not use. Most of the extra money came from high protective tariffs on imported products. Cleveland wanted to reduce the surplus by reducing the tariffs.

前总统克利夫兰曾经为国库中多余的资金而头疼。这些资金是政府通过税收得来却没有花掉的钱。大部分多余收入来自针对进口产品的保护性高额关税。克利夫兰想通过降低关税来减少财政盈余。

President Harrison decided to reduce the surplus, too. But he would do it by increasing government spending, not by cutting taxes. Congress agreed. It became the first Congress to spend one thousand million dollars.

哈里森总统也决定要减少财政盈余,但他要通过增加政府开支,而不是削减税收来实现。当时的国会同意这么做,结果成为美国有史以来第一个批准十亿美元预算的国会。

SHIRLEY GRIFFITH:

Much of the money was spent on payments to men who had fought in the Union Army during the Civil War. These payments cost the government more than one hundred million dollars a year.

这笔钱的绝大部分被发放给那些在美国内战期间为北方联盟军而战的人。政府付给他们的钱每年超过一亿美元。

Congress also approved millions of dollars for government projects in the home states of important congressmen. This was called "pork barrel" spending. It paid for new roads, bridges, and government buildings -- for almost anything the congressmen wanted.

国会还批准了几百万美元用于政府建设项目,这些项目都在一些重要国会议员所代表的州。这就是所谓的"猪肉桶"开支,用来为新的道路、桥梁、政府大楼以及那些国会议员们想要的几乎一切买单。

Congress reduced the surplus even more by approving money to build coastal defenses and to buy warships for the Navy.

国会还批准修建海岸防御设施和为海军购买战舰,来进一步减少财政盈余。

RAY FREEMAN:  The American Congress passed several historic pieces of legislation during Benjamin Harrison's administration: The Sherman Anti-Trust Act. The Sherman Silver Purchase Act. And the McKinley Tariff.

美国国会在哈里森总统执政期间通过了几项具有历史意义的立法,包括谢尔曼反托拉斯法、谢尔曼白银收购法和麦金利关税法。

That will be our story next week.

(MUSIC)

FAITH LAPIDUS:  Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Shirley Griffith and Ray Freeman. You can find our series online with transcripts, MP3s, podcasts and images at www.unsv.com. You can also follow us on Facebook and Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

网友的学习评论(0条):
版权所有©2003-2015 南京通享科技有限公司,保留所有权利。未经书面许可,严禁转载本站内容,违者追究法律责任。 中国互联网经营ICP证:苏B2-20120186
广播台