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#137: Cleveland Opposes Anti-Immigration Laws and High Tariffs

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A drawing of Chinese immigrants in New York City
A drawing of Chinese immigrants in New York City

BARBARA KLEIN:  Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION - American history in VOA Special English.

In our last program, we told you how the flow of immigration to the United States began to change in the eighteen eighties. Before then, most of the immigrants came from central and northern Europe. From Britain, Ireland, Germany and the Scandinavian countries.

在十九世纪八十年代赴美移民潮发生变化前,大多数到美国的移民来自中欧和北欧,如英国、爱尔兰、德国和斯堪的纳维亚半岛诸国。

The largest number came from Britain. They found it easy to settle in a country that, until seventeen seventy-six, was a collection of British colonies. The newcomers from Britain shared the same language with the Americans and many of the same traditions. Some of these early immigrants were skilled workers who found good jobs in American industry. Others were farmers who came to America for free land.

其中最多的是英国人,他们发现在美国安家比较容易,毕竟,1776年之前,美国还是英国的殖民地。英国新移民和美国人说同样的语言,有许多相同的传统。早期移民中有一些是技术工人,他们很容易在美国企业中找到好工作,而其他一些移民则是农民,来美国是为了免费获得土地。

This week in our series, Robert Bostic and Jack Weitzel continue the story of immigration in the United States.

ROBERT BOSTIC:  After eighteen eighty, the flood of immigration from northern and central Europe began to fall. Now, most immigrants were coming from eastern and southern Europe. From Russia, Poland, Romania, Italy, Greece.

1880年之后,从中欧和北欧来的移民开始减少。代之而起的是东欧和南欧移民,如来自俄罗斯、波兰、意大利和希腊的移民。

These new immigrants were different from those who came earlier. Most did not speak English. Most were poor farmers who had few special skills. Most had little or no education.

这些新移民与先前的移民有很大的不同,他们大多不会说钱柜娱乐qg999,很多人是贫穷的农民,没什么特别技能,也没受过什么教育。

They were, however, good workers. They did not protest working long hours for low pay. They did not demand better working conditions. They usually refused to join labor unions or take part in strikes.

然而,这些人却是极好的劳工,他们不会抗议长工时和低报酬,不会要求改善工作环境,通常拒绝参加工会或罢工。

JACK WEITZEL:  American factory owners were pleased with the new immigrants. They gave them jobs formerly held by higher-paid American workers. The owners asked the new workers to write letters to friends still in the old country, urging them to come to America.

美国的工厂主对这些新来的移民非常满意,他们把原本由高工资的美国人所拥有的工作岗位给了这些新移民。他们还让这些新移民给家乡的亲戚朋友写信,叫他们也来美国。

And they came by the hundreds of thousands to take jobs in steel factories in Pennsylvania and the coal mines of West Virginia. They worked in the lumber camps of Michigan and in the stockyards and the meat-packing plants of Chicago.

结果,数十万移民涌向美国,他们在宾夕法尼亚的钢铁厂、西维吉尼亚的煤矿、密西根的伐木厂和芝加哥的养殖场和肉食加工厂干活。

American workers then began to protest, as their jobs were filled by immigrants who were happy to work for less money.

美国人的工作岗位被这些愿意接受更低工资的新移民夺走了,于是美国的工人开始抗议。

ROBERT BOSTIC:  The protests were especially bitter on the pacific coast where thousands of Chinese immigrants were settling in California.

这种抗议在太平洋沿岸的加利福尼亚异常激烈,那里居住着成千上万的中国移民。

The Chinese arrived there after eighteen fifty to help build western railroads. After the railroads were completed, these Chinese new-comers turned to other jobs. More came every year. By the eighteen seventies, California's political leaders were demanding an end to further immigration from China.

中国人是1850年后移民到加州的,当时是为了帮助修建西部铁路。铁路建成之后,这些中国移民转而寻找其它工作。每年又有更多中国人移民到此。到十九世纪七十年代,加利福尼亚的一些政界领导人要求停止接纳中国移民。

In eighteen eighty-two, Congress passed a law that barred Chinese immigration for ten years. The law was extended for another ten years then made permanent.

1882年,美国国会通过了一项法律,禁止在十年内接纳任何中国移民。此后这项法律又延长了十年,后来干脆成了永久性法律。

JACK WEITZEL:  The immigration law of eighteen eighty-two put other limits on immigration. It closed the country to criminals, the mentally ill, and persons who could not support themselves. Later, others were added to this list. Persons with diseases. Anarchists. Alcoholics.

1882年的这项移民法还对其它国家的移民提出了限制,不允许罪犯、精神病人和不能自食其力的人移民美国。后来,又把病人、无政府主义者和酗酒者增补到被限对象中。

This, however, did not greatly reduce immigration from eastern and southern Europe. And opponents of immigration demanded stronger action.

然而,这一切并没有大幅度减少东欧和南欧移民的数量。于是,反移民者要求政府采取更强硬的手段。

Some proposed a literacy test. Immigrants would have to show that they could read and write. An immigrant who could not, would not be permitted to enter the country.

有些人建议对移民进行文化水平测试,移民必须证明他们具备读写的能力,否则就不能移民到美国。

Henry Cabot Lodge
Henry Cabot Lodge

ROBERT BOSTIC:  Senator Henry Cabot Lodge of Massachusetts urged Congress to pass such a law. In a Senate speech, lodge said:

麻萨诸塞州的参议员亨利.卡伯特.洛奇极力敦促国会通过这样的法律,他在参议院的一次演讲中说:

"If we care for the welfare, the wages, or the standard of life of American workingmen, we should take immediate steps to limit foreign immigration. There is no danger to our working men from the coming of skilled workers or of trained and educated men. But there is a serious danger from the flood of unskilled, ignorant foreign labor.

"如果我们关心美国工人的福利、工资和生活水平,我们就应立即采取措施限制外国移民。那些具有良好的技能、受过训练或教育的移民对美国工人不构成威胁,但那些什么技能也没有、无知的外国劳工则会给美国工人带来很大的危险。"

"This labor not only takes lower wages, but accepts a standard of living so low that the American working man cannot compete with it."

他还说:"这些劳工愿意接受更低的工资和很差的生活水平,因此美国工人无法与他们竞争。"

Senator Lodge continued.

"A literacy test will bear very lightly, if at all, upon English-speaking immigrants or Germans, Scandinavians and French. The races which would suffer most under a literacy test would be those with which the English-speaking people have never united, and who are most different from the great majority of the people of the United States."

对于会说钱柜娱乐qg999的移民,或者是德国、斯堪的纳维亚半岛的移民和法国移民来说,这种文化水平测试是非常轻松的。而对那些与我们绝大多数美国人非常不同,和钱柜娱乐qg999民族没什么关联的人来说,这种文化水平测试才是最困难的。

Congress passed the proposal. President Cleveland, however, vetoed it. He said the nation had nothing to fear from immigrants who could not read or write. He said there was greater danger from some of the educated immigrants who urged violence and anarchy.

国会通过了这项建议,然而,克利夫兰总统否决了它。他说,美国不必害怕那些不会读书写字的移民,对美国而言,更大的危险来在于那些接受过教育却鼓吹暴力和无政府主义的移民。

It took a number of years before Congress was able to pass a law demanding a literacy test for immigrants.

结果,直到很多年以后,美国国会才通过法律,要求对移民进行文化水平测试。

Grover Cleveland
Grover Cleveland

JACK WEITZEL:  Another problem troubled President Cleveland. High tariffs -- taxes on imports.

Soon after his election, Cleveland decided to learn what he could about the tariff. "I'm sorry to say," said Cleveland, "but the truth is, I know nothing about the tariff."

Cleveland studied all the information he could find about the tariff. He found that the tariff was used not only to get money for the government, but to protect American industry from foreign competition. The tariffs had been raised so high that they were producing more money than the government needed.

Cleveland decided that high tariffs were wrong. He told other democratic leaders that he would try to get them reduced.

The politicians warned him not to try. They said he would only lose the support of businessmen. They said he would need campaign money from business if he expected to be elected president again. But Cleveland rejected their advice. He said, "What is the use of being elected or re-elected, if you don't stand for something."

ROBERT BOSTIC:  So, late in eighteen eighty-seven, Cleveland sent a tariff message to Congress.

He said it was wrong to raise more tax money than the government needed. When this happens, he said, money is withdrawn from the people's use and kept in the public treasury, where it does no good. It threatens the economy and invites dishonest attempts to use the money for private interests.

The government, he said, received most of this unnecessary tax money from tariffs. He said the present tariff laws were vicious, unfair, and illogical. He said they raised the prices of all imported goods which could be taxed. They also led American manufacturers to raise their prices as high as those charged for imported goods.

Cleveland said some men had become rich, because protective tariffs let them charge high prices. He noted that American businessmen like to talk about the strength and success of American industry. But he said that when the question of the tariff is raised, businessmen claim that industry is weak. They say they cannot compete with low-priced foreign products.

JACK WEITZEL:  Cleveland said he did not propose that all tariffs be ended. He said some were needed to raise money for the government. And he said some industries could not exist unless they were protected by tariffs. But he said tariffs should not let some industries make huge profits.

Cleveland warned that it would be far better to make safe, careful, and intelligent changes in the tariff laws now. Otherwise, he said, there might come a time when an angry public would demand radical and sweeping changes.

ROBERT BOSTIC:  The House of Representatives moved quickly to pass a moderate bill that would reduce many of the tariffs. The legislation -- called the Mills Bill -- was exactly what Cleveland wanted. But the bill ran into trouble in the Senate, where Republicans had control.

Senator William Allison, a Republican from Iowa, proposed a different tariff bill. It was one that would increase tariffs...not reduce them.

The Senate debated the tariff question for months. And since it was eighteen eighty-eight -- a presidential election year -- the tariff became an important election issue.

The Democrats promised low tariffs that would mean lower prices for the people. The Republicans defended high tariffs, which they said were necessary to protect American industry and labor.

The Democrats nominated Grover Cleveland for another four-year term. The Republicans held their nominating convention two weeks later.

That will be our story next week.

(MUSIC)

BARBARA KLEIN:  Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Robert Bostic and Jack Weitzel. You can find our series online with transcripts, MP3s, podcasts and images at www.unsv.com. You can also follow us on Facebook and Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

网友的学习评论(2条):
作者:perfect100
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作者:郑烈波
many man want to go american
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