官方APP下载:钱柜娱乐qg999全能特训(微信小程序版,支持苹果手机、安卓手机)
创办于2003年
UNSV记不住?那就记中文谐音“忧安思危”吧!
UNSV钱柜娱乐qg999学习频道 - Slow and steady wins the race!
报名“钱柜娱乐qg999口语慢成班”,三年拿下钱柜娱乐qg999口语!
手机微信学钱柜娱乐qg999
打开手机微信,扫描以下二维码,即可通过我们的微信小程序学钱柜娱乐qg999。
钱柜娱乐qg999全能特训(微信小程序)
UNSV钱柜娱乐qg999学习频道淘宝网店
淘宝网店购买咨询
客服短信:18913948480
客服邮箱:web@unsv.com
标准VIP会员
全站资料无限下载、手机APP免费使用。
¥598元/12个月
钱柜娱乐qg999口语慢成班
承诺3年拿下口语!

#132: Settlers Rush to Claim Western Land

阅读次数:

VIP会员专享下载:(非VIP会员无权下载!如果想下载,但还不是VIP会员,请点此订购
下载方式:使用鼠标右键(注意是鼠标右键!)点击下面的MP3音频/MP4视频链接,然后选择“另存为…”。
MP3节目录音(英文版) MP3节目录音(英文版)  MP3节目录音(中文版) MP3节目录音(中文版)  PDF节目文稿 PDF节目文稿 
文章正文
同步字幕
An 1889 photo of a sod home and farm built by settlers in Kansas
An 1889 photo of a sod home and farm built by settlers in Kansas

SHIRLEY GRIFFITH:  Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English.

In the late eighteen hundreds, white Americans expanded their settlements in the western part of the country. They claimed land traditionally used by American Indians. The Indians were hunters, and they struggled to keep control of their hunting lands.

十九世纪后期,美国白人不断向西部迁移,把原来属于印第安人的土地占为己有。印第安人祖祖辈辈以打猎为生,他们不断抗争,希望保住猎区。

The federal government supported the settlers' clhoaims. It fought, and won, several wars with Indian tribes. It forced the Indians to live on government-controlled reservations.

然而,联邦政府却支持白人对土地的占领。政府军与印第安部落进行了数次交战,都取得了胜利。结果,政府把印第安人赶到了政府控制的保留地。

This week in our series, Larry West and Steve Ember tell about the people who settled on the old Indian lands after the wars.

LARRY WEST:  After the Indians were defeated, thousands of settlers hurried west. Some hoped to find new, rich farmland. The soil they left behind was thin and overworked. Their crops were poor. Some simply hoped to buy any kind of farmland. They did not have enough money to buy farmland in the east.

在印第安人被打败之后,成千上万的定居者涌向西部。一些人希望能够找到新的肥沃的农田,因为他们原来的土地很贫瘠,而且已经被过度耕作,所以收成很差。还有一些人在东部根本买不起农地,所以他们只希望能在西部随便弄到一块地。

Others came from other countries and hoped to build new lives in the United States.

还有一些人从外国来,希望能够在美国开始新的生活。

All the settlers found it easy to get land in the West. In eighteen sixty-two, Congress had passed the Homestead Act. This law gave every citizen, and every foreigner who asked for citizenship, the right to claim government land. The law said each man could have sixty-five hectares. If he built a home on the land, and farmed it for five years, it would be his. He paid just ten dollars to record the deal.

所有这些定居者都能够在西部很轻易地获得土地。1862年,美国国会通过了《宅地法》,赋予所有的美国公民和申请成为公民的外国人获得政府土地的权利。该法规定,每个人可以获得六十五公顷的土地。如果在土地上盖间房子,并耕种五年,就可以获得土地的所有权,只需要交十美元办理手续就行了。

STEVE EMBER:  Claiming land on the Great Plains was easy. Building a farm there and working it was not so easy. The wide flat grasslands seemed strange to men who had lived among the hills and forests of the east.

在西部大平原上获得土地是很容易的,但在这里种地和干活就不那么轻松了。对那些长期生活在东部山地和森林的人们来说,西部广袤无垠的平原草地非常陌生。

Here there were few hills or trees. Without trees, settlers had no wood to build houses. Some built houses partly underground. Others built houses from blocks of earth cut out of the grassland. These houses were dark and dirty. They leaked and became muddy when it rained.

这里没有什么山岗和树木。没有树,定居者就没有盖房子用的木头。有些人只能把房子的一部分建在地下。还有些人把草皮整块切下来建房子,这种房子又黑又脏,下雨时还会漏水,变得泥泞不堪。

There were no fences on the Great Plains. So it was hard to keep animals away from crops.

那时,大平原地区没有栅栏,因此很难挡住动物,让它们不去毁坏庄稼。

LARRY WEST:  Settlers in the American west also had a problem faced by many people in the world today. They had little fuel for heating and cooking. With few trees to cut for fuel, they collected whatever they could find. Small woody plants. Dried grass. Cattle and buffalo wastes.

当时的西部原定居者也面临着今天世界许多地方的人们所面临的问题,那就是,他们几乎没有用来取暖和做饭的燃料。由于没有树木可供砍伐,定居者们只能把他们所能找到的一切东西用来作燃料。小灌木、干草、牛和野牛的粪便都被拿来用。

Water was hard to find, too. And although the land seemed rich, it was difficult to prepare for planting. The grass roots were thick and strong. They did not break apart easily. The weather also was a problem. Sometimes months would pass without rain, and the crops would die. Winters were bitterly cold.

水也很少。另外,尽管西部的土地看起来肥沃,但要为耕种做准备却很难。这里的草根又粗又硬,很难拔出。气候也很成问题,有时好几个月不下雨,庄稼都干死了。冬天又异常寒冷。

STEVE EMBER:  Most of the settlers, however, were strong people. They did not expect an easy life. And as time passed, they found solutions to most of the problems of farming on the Great Plains. Railroads were built across the west. They brought wood for homes. Wood and coal for fuel.

然而,绝大多数定居者都非常吃苦耐劳。他们并没有指望能生活得舒舒服服。随着时间的流逝,他们为在大平原耕种时遇到的许多问题找到了解决办法。而且,铁路已经贯穿西部,火车运来了盖房子用的木材以及可以烧火的木柴和煤。

Technology solved many of the problems. New equipment was invented for digging deep wells. Better pumps were built to raise the water to the surface. Some of the pumps used windmills for power.

新技术解决了许多问题。人们发明了打深井的设备,并且用更好的水泵把水抽到地面。有些水泵还是用风车做动力的。

LARRY WEST:  The fence problem was solved in eighteen seventy-four. That was the year "barbed wire" was invented. The sharp metal barbs tore the skin of the men who stretched it along fence tops. But they prevented cattle from pushing over the fences and destroying crops.

1874年,栅栏的问题也得到了解决。这一年,人们发明了"带刺铁丝网"。尽管这种锋利的金属铁丝网会把安网的人的皮肉划破,但它能够阻止牛冲过铁丝网,糟塌庄稼。

New farm equipment was invented. This included a plow that could break up the grassland of the plains. And farmers learned techniques for farming indry weather.

人们还发明了新的耕种设备,其中包括一种能够在草原上翻地的犁。另外,农民们还学会了在干旱季节耕种的技术。

STEVE EMBER:  Most of the problems on the plains could be solved. But solving them cost money.

平原上的大部分问题都可以得到解决,但需要花钱。

A farmer could get wood to build his house. But he had to buy the wood and pay the railroad to bring it west. To farm the plains, he needed barbed wire for fences, and plows and other new equipment. All these things cost money. So a plains farmer had to grow crops that were in big demand. He usually put all his efforts into producing just one or two crops.

农民可以得到建房子需要的木头,但他得掏钱买木材,付运费。要想种地,他需要铁丝网、犁和其它新的耕种设备。所有这一切都需要钱。为了赚钱,草原上的农民必须种植市场需求量大的农作物,他们通常会用全部精力种一到两种庄稼。

LARRY WEST:  The farmers of the plains did well at first. There was enough rain. Huge crops of wheat and corn were produced. Much of the grain was sold in Europe and farmers got good prices.

农民们刚开始时收成不错。因为雨水丰沛,小麦和玉米大获丰收。大部分的粮食销往欧洲,而且还卖出了好价钱。

The farmers, however, were not satisfied. They were angry about several things. One was the high cost of sending their crops to market. The only way to transport their grain was by railroad. And railroad prices were very high for farm products--higher than for anything else.

然而,农民们并不满意,他们对几件事感到很生气。一是把粮食运往市场的成本太高。当时,运粮食到只能靠铁路,而铁路对运粮食收取的费用比其它产品都高。

The railroads also owned the big buildings where grain was stored. Farmers had to pay to keep their grain there until it was sold. They said storage costs were too high.

铁路公司还拥有大型的粮仓,农民在粮食卖出之前必须交存粮食的钱,而这种仓储费也非常高。

STEVE EMBER:  The farmers were angry about the high cost of borrowing money, too. They opposed the import taxes -- tariffs -- they had to pay on foreign products. Some of the tariffs were as high as sixty percent. Congress had set the levels high to protect American industry from foreign competition. But farmers said they were the victims of this policy, because it increased their costs.

此外,借钱的成本太高,也令农民不满。他们反对政府征收关税,因为这使他们不得不为购买外国产品而付税。有些关税率高达百分之60。美国国会设定这么高的进口关税,是为了保护美国的工业免遭外国产品的冲击。但农民说,他们是这项政策的受害者,因为这增加了他们的成本。

Farmers as individuals could do nothing to change the situation. But if they united in a group, they thought, perhaps they could influence government policy.

一家一户的农民是无法改变这种状况的,但他们想,如果联合起来,进行抗争,他们也许就能够影响政府的政策。

LARRY WEST:  Farmers began to unite in local social and cultural groups called "granges." As more and more farmers joined granges, the groups began to act on economic problems.

于是,农民们通过建立地方性的社会和文化组织联合起来,这种组织叫"农庄"。当越来越多的农民加入到农庄时,农庄就开始在经济问题上采取行动了。

Farmers organized cooperatives to buy equipment and supplies in large amounts directly from factories. The cost of goods was lower when bought in large amounts. The granges also began to organize for political action. Local granges became part of the national grange movement.

农民们组织起合作社,直接到工厂购买大量的农用设备和供给,因为购买量大,所以价格会便宜一些。农庄还开始组织一些政治活动。地方农庄逐渐成为全国农庄运动的一部分。

Grange supporters won control of state legislatures in a number of middle western states. They passed laws to limit the cost of railroad transportation and crop storage.

在美国中西部的许多州,农庄运动的支持者控制了州议会。他们通过立法,限制铁路运费和粮食仓储费。

Railroads refused to obey these laws. They fought the measures in the courts. They did not win. Finally, they appealed to the United States Supreme Court.

铁路公司拒绝遵守这样的法律。它们告上法院,要求取消这些措施,结果败诉了。它们仍旧不服,最终把官司打到了美国最高法院。

STEVE EMBER:  The railroads said the laws were not constitutional, because they interfered with the right of Congress to control trade between the states. The railroads said states could not control transportation costs. To do so would reduce profits for the railroad. And that would be the same as taking property from the railroad without legal approval.

铁路公司说,这样的法律是违犯宪法的,因为这干涉了国会控制各州之间贸易的权利。铁路公司还说,各州没有权利控制运输成本,这样做会减少铁路公司的盈利,这等于是非法剥夺铁路公司的财产。

The Supreme Court rejected this argument. In a decision in eighteen seventy-six, the Supreme Court said states had a legal right to control costs of railroad transportation. It said owners of property in which the public has an interest must accept public control for the common good.

最高法院驳回了这种说法。1876年,最高法院裁决,各州有权控制铁路运费。法院还表示,如果某项财产涉及公众利益,财产的拥有者必须为了社会大众的利益而接受公众的控制。

The farmers seemed to have won. But the powerful railroad companies continued to struggle against controls. They reduced some transportation costs, but only after long court fights.

农民似乎在与铁路公司的斗争中赢了,但强大的铁路公司仍然竭力要摆脱控制。在经过一系列官司后,铁路公司才降低了一些运输费。

LARRY WEST:  The granges tried to get Congress to pass laws giving the federal government power to control the railroads. Congress refused to act.

农庄组织试图游说国会通过法律,赋予联邦政府控制铁路的权力。但国会拒绝这么做。

Many farmers lost hope that the granges could force the railroads to make any real cuts in their costs. They began to leave the organization. Others left because the economy had improved. They no longer felt a need to protest. Within a few years, the national grange had lost most of its members. Some local groups continued to meet. But they took no part in politics.

许多农民不再指望农庄组织能迫使铁路公司真正降低运费。他们开始退出农庄。还有些人因为经济情况改善而退出了农庄,他们觉得自己不需要再抗议了。在短短的几年内,全国农庄组织就失去了大部分成员。一些地方上的农庄组织继续集会,但不再参与政治活动。

New protests groups would be formed in a few years when farmers once again faced hard times. But for now -- in the late eighteen seventies -- times were good. Most people were satisfied.

几年后,农民们又遇到了新的困难,他们又成立了新的抗议组织。但在十九世纪七十年代后期,农民的日子还不错。大多数人是满意的。

We will continue this story next week.

(MUSIC)

SHIRLEY GRIFFITH:  Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Larry West and Steve Ember.  You can find our series online with transcripts, MP3s, podcasts and images at www.unsv.com. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

___

This is program #132

网友的学习评论(3条):
作者:郑烈波
people living only one
作者:perfect100
it is difficult for farmes to live in the USA in the late 18 century.
作者:hliu
clever farmers
版权所有©2003-2015 南京通享科技有限公司,保留所有权利。未经书面许可,严禁转载本站内容,违者追究法律责任。 中国互联网经营ICP证:苏B2-20120186
广播台