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#131: Indian Wars, Part 2

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General George George Custer at the Battle of Little Bighorn
General George George Custer at the Battle of Little Bighorn

BOB DOUGHTY: Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English.

During the eighteen hundreds, the federal government forced American Indians to live on lands called reservations. No longer could the Indians move freely over the Great Plains to hunt buffalo. White people were settling there. The situation resulted in violence.

19世纪,美国联邦政府迫使印第安人搬进保留地居住。他们不能再在大平原地区自由地猎杀野牛。而白人开始在这里定居。这种情况引发了暴力冲突。

This week in our series, Kay Gallant and Harry Monroe continue the story of the western wars.

KAY GALLANT: The government sent soldiers to force the Indians to move to reservations. But the soldiers could not keep them there. Groups of Indians would leave the reservations in the spring. They followed the buffalo across the plains.

联邦政府派军队强行将印第安人迁到保留地。但是,军队无法保证印第安人待在保留地里不出来。一到春天,一些印第安人就会离开保留地,到平原上去捕杀野牛。

Some raided the homes of white settlers. They stole horses and cattle. At the end of the summer, the Indians would return to the reservations. And the government would give them food for the winter.

有些印第安人袭击白人的房舍,偷白人的马和牛。夏末秋初,这些印第安人就回到保留地。然后,靠从联邦政府那里获得的食物过冬。

HARRY MONROE: As years passed, fewer Indians left the reservations to live the old life on the plains. It became difficult to find buffalo. The plains were becoming empty.

然而,随着时光流逝,越来越少的印第安人能离开保留地到平原上去捕杀野牛。因为平原的野牛越来越少,捕猎变得非常困难。

Only a few years before, millions of buffalo lived on the Great Plains. Then railroads were built across the country. White men came to claim the grasslands. They put up fences. Cowboys came up from Texas with huge groups of cattle. They forced the buffalo away or killed them.

仅仅几年以前,大平原地区还生活着数百万头野牛。可是,横穿全国的铁路建成,白人占据了草原,围起了栅栏。牛仔们从德克萨斯州赶大群的牛来到了这里。他们把野牛赶走或者杀死。

The Indians tried to prevent this killing. Angry groups of Indians often attacked white buffalo hunters. But the army was too strong. Soldiers killed or captured many Indians. Finally, most Indians gave up the struggle. They surrendered their guns and horses. They went back to the reservations and became farmers.

印第安人试图阻止白人杀野牛。一些愤怒的印第安人经常袭击那些捕杀野牛的白人。但是,军队的力量太强大了,军人杀死和逮捕了许多印第安人。最后,绝大多数印第安人放弃了这种斗争,交出了自己的武器和马。他们回到保留地,当起了农民。

KAY GALLANT: All this was taking place in what is now the south-central part of the United States. Far to the north, another struggle was taking place involving the great Sioux Indian tribe.

所有这一切都发生在美国现今的中南部地带,而在北方,印第安的苏族部落和美国政府爆发了另一场冲突。

The Sioux had signed a treaty with the government in eighteen sixty-eight. The treaty gave them a large reservation in what is now Nebraska, South Dakota and Wyoming.

苏族曾经在1868年与政府签署了一项条约,条约规定把目前内布拉斯加、南达科他和怀俄明州内的一大片土地给苏族部落作保留地。

The Black Hills in Dakota were part of the reservation. These hills were important to the Sioux. In their religion, the Black Hills were a holy place. They were the center of their world, where the gods lived. They were the place where Indian fighters went to speak with the Great Spirit.

达科他境内的布莱克山在苏族保留地境内,而且对苏族而言是一个重要的地方。根据苏族的宗教,布莱克山是一处圣地,是他们世界的中心,是他们的神居住的地方。苏族印第安人的战士都会到这里与神对话。

HARRY MONROE: In eighteen seventy-three, the Black Hills suddenly became important to white men, too. Gold was discovered there. Treaties and religion meant nothing to the white miners who rushed to the Black Hills to search for gold. At first, the Indians killed some of the miners. They chased others away. But more miners came.

而在1873年,布莱克山突然对白人也重要起来。这是因为人们在这里发现了黄金。对于蜂拥而来寻找黄金的白人,印第安人和政府签订的条约以及他们的宗教信仰根本就不算什么。开始时,印第安人杀死了一些开矿者,并把其他开矿者赶走了。但是,更多的开矿者不断涌来。

The Sioux tribe asked the government to enforce the treaty. Tribal leaders asked the government to keep white men away from the reservation.

苏族部落要求政府确保条约的执行。部落首领们要求政府禁止白人进入印第安保留地。

The army sent soldiers to remove the miners. The soldiers ordered the miners to leave. But they made no effort to enforce the order. Again the Indians protested. This time, the government sent officials to negotiate a new treaty. It asked the Sioux Indians to give up the Black Hills.

军队派兵驱赶开矿的白人,士兵们命令开矿者离开。但是,他们只是嘴上说说,并没有真地去驱赶白人。印第安人再次表示抗议。这次,政府派官员与印第安人谈判,希望达成新的条约。而新条约要求苏族印第安人放弃布莱克山。

Sitting Bull
Sitting Bull

Some of the Indian leaders refused to negotiate. One who rejected the invitation was Sitting Bull. "I do not want to sell any land to the government," Chief Sitting Bull said. He held a little dust between his fingers. "Not even this much."

有些印第安首领拒绝与政府谈判,其中一人名叫西廷.博尔。他说:"我不想把任何土地卖给政府,"接着,他用两个手指捏起一撮土,说:"连这么一点都不卖。"

KAY GALLANT: This resistance did not stop government efforts to get the Black Hills for the miners. The War Department sent General George Crook to punish the Indians and force them back to their reservation. Crook led a large force into Sioux country. He surprised an Indian village, capturing hundreds of horses.

然而,这种反抗无法阻止政府把布莱克山划给开矿者。美国战争部派乔治.克鲁克将军去惩罚印第安人,把他们赶回到保留地。克鲁克率大军进驻苏族,突袭了一个印第安村庄,抢走了数百匹马。

There was another clash a few months later. This time, the result was very different. The Indians gave the army its worst defeat in almost a century.

几个月后,政府军和印第安部落又发生了冲突,而结果和以往大不相同。印第安人使美国政府军遭遇了近一个世纪以来最惨重的失败。

HARRY MONROE: The battle took place near the Little Bighorn River. General George Custer led two hundred twelve soldiers in search of the Indian leader, Crazy Horse. As General Custer moved through the river valley, he sent men ahead to explore the area. His men returned with reports that thousands of Indians were waiting to attack. Custer refused to listen. He pushed forward.

这次战斗发生在小比格霍恩河附近。乔治.卡斯特将军率领212名军人搜捕印第安首领克雷兹.霍尔瑟。卡斯特准备通过河谷地区,于是派人到前面去探查。他的人回来报告说,成千上万印第安人正准备发起攻击。卡斯特不听,继续率部队前进。

Soon, his forces were surrounded by Indians. In less than an hour, the Indians killed the general and every one of his men. The white soldiers lay dead at Little Bighorn. And Custer's name would go down in history as a symbol of foolish pride in battle.

很快,他的部队被印第安人包围了。不到一小时,印第安人杀死了卡斯特将军和他所率领的全部军人。白人士兵的尸体散落在小比格霍恩。而卡斯特也成了战斗中愚勇军人的代名词。

The battle at Little Bighorn was a serious defeat for the United States Army. But the Indians' victory did not last long. Within a year, the army forced most of the Sioux to surrender. It took the Black Hills for the miners. It moved the Indians to a new reservation.

小比格霍恩之战是美国政府军的一次重大失败,但印第安人的胜利并没有持续多久。在一年内,政府军迫使大多数苏族印第安人投降,把布莱克山给了开矿者,把印第安人驱赶到新的保留地。

KAY GALLANT: In the next few years, the same thing happened to other Indian tribes throughout the West. Under great pressure from white settlers, the government took land from the Indians and opened it to settlement. The size of Indian reservations was reduced again and again.

在随后的几年里,西部的各个印第安部落都经历了同样的命运。在白人定居者强大的压力下,联邦政府不断把本属于印第安人的土地拿来,交给白人定居者去开发。印第安人保留地越变越小。

One by one, the Indian tribes of the West changed. Their fierce fighters became farmers who needed government help. They were weak and broken in spirit.

西部的印第安部落一个接一个彻底改变了。勇猛的斗士变成了需要政府资助的农民。他们变得无力,精神不振。

One Indian leader named Black Elk described the situation best. He was a survivor of a battle at a place called Wounded Knee. Many Indian women and children had died there. Years later, Black Elk said:

一位印第安首领布莱克.艾科生动地描述了这种情形。艾科曾经参加过在伤膝谷发生的战斗,很多的印第安妇女和儿童在那里遭到屠杀。几年后,艾科说道:

"I did not know then how much was ended. When I look back now from this high hill of my old age, I can still see the dead lying all over the ground. And I can see that something else died there in the bloody mud, and was buried. A people's dream died there."

"我不知道有多少东西在这里终结了。现在我已经老了,但当我站在这山冈上,回顾过去所发生的一切时,我依然可以看到遍地的尸体。而除了这些尸体外,我还看到,在被鲜血浸透的泥土中,还有一样东西死去了,被掩埋了。那就是印第安人的梦想。"

HARRY MONROE: Some Indians turned to religion during this difficult time. An Indian religious leader named Wavoka gained influence.

在绝望中,有些人印第安人开始信仰宗教。一位名叫瓦维卡的印第安宗教领袖逐渐获得了巨大的影响力。

Wavoka declared that the Great Spirit had chosen him to prepare the Indians for a new world. He said the new world would arrive soon. And it would be a wonderful world. There would be no white men, he said. And all dead Indians would come back to life.

瓦维卡声称,天神选择他带领印第安人进入新世界。他说,新世界很快就要来到,这将是一个非常美妙的世界。那里没有白人,所有死去的印第安人将复活。

Wavoka warned that new soil would rise up and cover the world like a flood. He said Indians could escape destruction by dancing a special dance. It was called the Ghost Dance. Wavoka said the Ghost Dance would make Indians powerful. He said it would even protect them from bullets fired by the white men's guns.

瓦维卡警告说,新的土地即将崛起,将像洪水一样淹没全世界。他说,印第安人可以通过跳一种特殊的舞蹈而逃过这场劫难,这种舞叫鬼魂舞。瓦维卡说,这种舞能给印第安人力量,甚至在面对白人的武器时,也能刀枪不入。

KAY GALLANT: Thousands of Indians in the American west listened to Wavoka's message. They believed him. And they began to dance for long hours every day. On the Sioux reservations, all other activities stopped. Children no longer went to school. No one did anything but dance.

在美国西部,成千上万的印第安人聆听瓦维卡传教,相信他的话,每天都要跳好长时间的鬼魂舞。在苏族保留地,其它所有的活动都停止了,孩子们不再上学,所有人除了跳舞,什么也不做。

All this frightened white officials. They tried to arrest some Indian leaders to stop the dancing. The arrests led to fighting. And the fighting led to a final battle in which the army defeated the Indians completely. The Indian wars were over.

这种情形吓坏了白人官员,他们试图逮捕一些印第安首领,以阻止印第安人继续跳鬼魂舞。这又引发了交战,而在最后的决战中,白人彻底打败了印第安人。白人与印第安人的战争从此划上了句号。

Wavoka himself told his followers: "Our trails are covered with grass and sand. We cannot find them. Today I call upon you to travel a new trail. It is the only trail now open -- the White man's road."

瓦维卡对他的信徒说:"我们祖辈所走的路布满了荒草和黄沙。我们再也无法找到它们。今天,我希望你们去走一条新路,这也是我们唯一可走的路,那就是,白人的路。"

(MUSIC)

BOB DOUGHTY: Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Kay Gallant and Harry Monroe. You can find our series online with transcripts, MP3s, podcasts and images at www.unsv.com. You can also get our programs on Twitter and at our new fan page on Facebook. Find us at VOA Learning English (Special English). Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

___

This is program #131

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