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#127: President Hayes Promises Only One Term in Office

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A Portrait of Rutherford Hayes
A Portrait of Rutherford Hayes

BARBARA KLEIN: Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English.

Rutherford Hayes was sworn into office as the nineteenth president of the United States in eighteen seventy-seven. Hayes, a Republican, became president after a disputed election.

共和党人拉瑟弗德.海斯赢得了一场有争议的总统选举。1877年,他宣誓就任第19任美国总统。

Representatives of his party and the Democrats met secretly to work out a compromise.

此前,共和党和民主党的代表召开秘密会议,达成了妥协。

The Democrats agreed to let Hayes be sworn in. In return, he agreed to end federal support of radical Republican governments in the South.

民主党同意让海斯出任总统,作为回报,海斯同意联邦政府不再支持南方各州的激进共和党政府。

He promised to name southerners to his cabinet and other important jobs. And he said he would provide more federal aid for schools and railroads in the South.

他还答应让南方政客在内阁和政府中担任要职, 并为南方的学校和铁路提供更多的联邦拨款。

As part of the agreement, Hayes promised not to act aggressively to support the civil rights of black southerners.

作为协议的一部分,海斯还承诺,不会积极支持南方黑人的民权运动。

This week in our series, Steve Ember and Richard Rael tell the story of Rutherford Hayes.

STEVE EMBER: Rutherford Hayes was born in Ohio in eighteen twenty-two. He was a good student at Kenyon College and at Harvard Law School. He opened a law office in Cincinnati. When he was thirty years old, he married Lucy Webb. Later, he served as an officer in the Union army during America's Civil War. He was elected to the United States House of Representatives. He also served as governor of Ohio. In this job, he helped establish the college that became Ohio State University.

海斯1822年出生在俄亥俄州。他以优异的成绩毕业于凯尼恩学院和哈佛法学院。后来,他在辛辛那提开了一家律师事务所。30岁时,他与露西.韦伯结婚。在美国内战期间,他是北方联军的一名军官,后来又当选国会众议员。海斯还当过俄亥俄州州长,并在任职期间帮助创办了俄亥俄州立大学的前身。

RICHARD RAEL: Hayes was a Republican. In eighteen seventy-six, he was the party's compromise candidate for president. His opponent in the national election was Democrat Samuel Tilden. Tilden won more popular votes than Hayes. In the American political system, whoever wins the most popular votes in a state usually gets all the electoral votes of that state.

海斯是共和党人。1876年,共和党内各派势力经过妥协,同意推举海斯为总统候选人。在全国大选中,他的对手是民主党的萨缪尔.蒂尔登。蒂尔登获得的选民票数超过了海斯。根据美国的政治制度,在某个州赢得多数选民票的候选人通常就获得该州所有的选举人票。

In eighteen seventy-six, both the Republicans and Democrats claimed the electoral votes of three southern states: Florida, Louisiana, and South Carolina. So it was not clear at first who had won the presidential election.

可是,在1876年,共和党和民主党都声称本党候选人赢得了佛罗里达、路易斯安那和南卡罗莱纳州的选举人票。人们当时搞不清楚究竟谁赢得了总统选举。

STEVE EMBER: Congress appointed a committee to decide the issue. The committee had a Republican majority. It gave the disputed electoral votes to Hayes. He won the election by just one electoral vote. The results came just a few days before the inauguration.

国会指定了一个委员会来决定此事。在这个委员会中,共和党人占多数,所以委员会就把有争议的选举人票判给了海斯。最后,在离总统就职仪式还有几天时,海斯以一张选举人票的优势当选总统。

The swearing in of Rutherford Hayes in 1877
The swearing in of Rutherford Hayes in 1877

Democrats protested that the Republicans had stolen the election. Yet they agreed to accept Hayes as president. In exchange, Hayes and the Republicans agreed to accept Democratic Party policies on several issues. Hayes's administration would deal mainly with national -- not international -- problems.

民主党提出抗议,说共和党人窃取了这次选举。不过,他们还是同意让海斯就任总统。作为交换,海斯和共和党同意在一些问题上采纳民主党的政策。海斯政府将重点解决国内问题,而不是国际问题。

RICHARD RAEL: At first, people wondered: would President Hayes keep the promises that were made to help him win the election. Most thought he would not. Hayes surprised everyone. In his inaugural speech, he promised to put the country ahead of the party. He said, "He serves his party best who serves his country best."

刚开始,人们都犯嘀咕:到底海斯是否会履行那些使他得以当选的诺言?绝大多数人认为,他不会这么做。然而,海斯让所有人吃了一惊。他在就职演说中承诺,要把国家利益放在党派利益之上,他说:"尽最大努力为国家服务,才是对本党的最好服务。"

Party leaders told Hayes which men to appoint to his cabinet. He refused and made his own choices. He ordered federal troops to withdraw from South Carolina and Louisiana. The troops had been there since the end of the Civil War. He also helped southern Democrats establish new governments in their states.

共和党领袖们告诉海斯,应该提名哪些人进入内阁。但是,海斯拒绝了,他按照自己的意愿选择内阁成员。他还命令联邦军队撤出南卡罗莱纳和路易斯安那。自从内战结束后,这些部队就一直驻扎在这些地方。此外,海斯还帮助南方的民主党人在他们所控制的州里建立起新政府。

STEVE EMBER: Republican Party leaders criticized President Hayes. Anti-slavery groups also criticized him. They said former black slaves in the south had gained a lot under Republican rule. Now, they said, these black Americans would lose everything.

共和党领导人批评海斯,反奴隶制的组织也批评他。他们说,以前在南方做奴隶的黑人本来已经在共和党当权的时候争到了许多权利,而现在,这些黑人有可能会失去一切。

Hayes did not agree. He had received promises that the new democratic state governments would protect the rights of black Americans. It was not to be. White Democrats kept political control in some southern states for many years. They often denied civil rights to black citizens. Only with the rise of the civil rights movement in the nineteen fifties would the situation begin to change.

对此,海斯并不认同,因为民主党掌权的州政府已经向他承诺,会保护黑人的权利。可惜,这些承诺并没有兑现。白人民主党在后来的许多年里一直控制着南方一些州,他们几乎没有给黑人任何民权。直到20纪50代民权运动兴起后,这种状况才开始改变。

RICHARD RAEL: After becoming president, Rutherford Hayes announced that he would serve just one term. He wanted to make serious reforms in the federal government. This would be easier to do if he did not have to worry about getting re-elected. Hayes started by changing the system that employed people in government jobs.

海斯就选总统后宣布将只当一届总统,因为他想对联邦政府进行重要的改革,如果他不用担心连任的问题,改革就能进行得顺利一些。海斯首先要改革政府的用人制度。

Party leaders usually had great power to fill government jobs. They used the jobs to reward loyal party workers and to increase their own political strength. President Hayes demanded that federal jobs be given to people because of their abilities, not because they supported a politician.

当时,各党派的大佬们在政府用人问题上拥有很大的权力。他们把政府的工作职位奖励给那些对自己忠心耿耿的人,并以此增强自己的政治力量。而海斯总统要求联邦政府用人要根据一个人的能力,而不是看他支持哪个政客。

STEVE EMBER: At that time, the best jobs were with the customs service of the Treasury Department. The people who collected customs -- taxes on imports -- could keep part of the money they collected.

那个时候,最肥的政府工作是财政部下面的海关。海关工作人员收取进口关税,而他们可以把其中的一部分钱留在自己腰包里。

President Hayes took action against the customs service office in New York City. One of the men removed from the job there was James Garfield. Garfield would later become president of the United States.

海斯总统对纽约市的海关采取行动,把一些官员撤职。其中一个人叫詹姆士.加菲尔德,他后来成为了美国总统。

Hayes also banned all federal workers from taking part in political organizations, conventions, and campaigns. And he said politicians no longer could demand campaign money from federal workers.

海斯还禁止所有联邦政府雇员参加政治组织、集会和选举活动。他说,政客们不能再向联邦政府雇员募集竞选资金。

RICHARD RAEL: Rutherford Hayes showed more political strength during a nationwide railroad strike. The strike began during his first summer as president.

在海斯当总统后的第一年夏天,美国发生了全国铁路大罢工,在此期间,人们看到了一个更加果敢的海斯。

For several years, the nation had suffered from a serious economic depression. Three million people were out of work. Factories and businesses reduced the pay of those who still had jobs. Workers with the Baltimore and Ohio railroad protested. They took control of many areas along the railroad. They refused to let the trains move. The strike spread to other railroads. In some places, the strikes turned into riots, and the riots became violent.

几年来,美国一直遭受严重的经济衰退。300万人失业,工厂和企业也给在职员工减薪。巴尔的摩和俄亥俄州的铁路工人展开抗议活动,他们控制了许多铁路沿线地区,不让火车通过。这两个地方的铁路工人罢工很快蔓延到其它路段。在一些地方,罢工变成了骚乱,而骚乱又进一步演变成了暴力冲突。

Some governors ordered their state armed forces to intervene. The state forces were not strong enough, however. So the governors asked President Hayes for help. He immediately sent federal troops to troubled cities. The troops stopped the riots and ended the strikes.

一些州长下令武装部队进行干涉,但州里的武装力量不够强大。于是,州长们向海斯总统求援。海斯立即派联邦军队进入动乱城市。军队阻止了骚乱,结束了铁路工人的罢工。

STEVE EMBER: Another issue during Hayes's administration involved a railroad in the western United States. It was both a labor problem and an immigration problem thousands of Chinese workers had been brought to America to help build the Central Pacific Railroad. After the railroad was built, many of them remained. Most settled in California. Others came from China to join them. These immigrants competed with white workers for jobs. Whites protested, because the Chinese agreed to work for less money. They said this kept wages down for all workers.

在海斯执政期间,还有一个涉及西部铁路的问题,这个问题既是劳工问题,又是移民问题。成千上万的中国劳工被招到美国,参加了美国中央太平洋铁路的建设。铁路建成后,许多中国劳工留在了美国,大部分人住在加利福尼亚。另外一些中国人也陆续依亲来到美国定居。这些移民自然会和当地的白人争夺就业机会。白人对此表示抗议,因为华人愿意接受比白人更低廉的工资。白人说,这种做法拉低了所有工人的工资水平。

RICHARD RAEL: The white workers asked Congress for a law to stop Chinese workers from coming to the United States. Members of Congress from both parties wanted the support of these voters. So they quickly passed a bill that made it much more difficult for Chinese citizens to come to live in the United States.

白人工人要求要求国会出台一项法律,禁止中国人移民到美国。国会两党议员都需要得到这些白人的选票,所以他们就很快通过了一项提案,大大增加了中国人移民到美国的难度。

The bill said the president must cancel part of a treaty between the United States and China. That part of the treaty permitted citizens of each country to settle in the other country.

该提案规定,总统必须删除美国与中国签定的一项条约的部分内容。这部分内容允许两国的公民在对方国家定居。

STEVE EMBER: President Hayes vetoed the bill. He said the United States had proposed the treaty. So, he said, the United States could not change it without agreement from China. Hayes did agree, however, that some action was necessary. So he opened negotiations with the Chinese government. He won an agreement to limit the number of Chinese who could enter the United States.

海斯总统否决了这项提案。他说,是美国主动提出的这项条约,所以,在没有与中国政府达成协议之前不能改变条约内容。不过,他也同意,必须就白人的抱怨采取一些措施。于是,他和中国政府展开谈判。双方达成协议,美国可以限制中国移民的数量。

RICHARD RAEL: During the administrations of Andrew Johnson and Ulysses Grant, Congress had weakened many powers of the president. Congress had become the strongest of the three branches of the American government. Throughout his administration, Rutherford Hayes worked hard to strengthen presidential powers.

在安德鲁.约翰逊和尤利塞斯.格兰特执政期间,国会削弱了总统的许多权力,成为了美国政府三个分支中最强大的一支。而在海斯执政期间,他积极努力,强化总统权力。

For example, the United States Constitution gives the president power to veto bills passed by Congress. In the eighteen hundreds, Congress tried to prevent presidential vetoes. It used a method of attaching "riders" to legislative proposals. This is how the method works:

例如,美国宪法允许总统否决国会通过的法案。而在十九世纪,国会试图阻止总统行使这项否决权。为此,国会采取了一种做法,就是所谓的"搭车"。

STEVE EMBER: Congress considers a bill the president believes is necessary. Then it joins that bill to a measure the president would veto if passed separately. The extra measure is called a "rider" to the first bill. To get the bill he wants, the president must accept the "rider," too.

也就是说,在国会考虑总统认为有必要通过的某项法案时,会把一个如果单独通过可能会遭总统否决的条款以附加的方式加入主法案。这种附加条款就搭上了主法案的车。

President Hayes refused to sign any bills with riders. So the Congress during his administration stopped using the method. Congresses since then have used it successfully.

为了让主法案通过,总统也必须接受这个"搭车"的条款。不过,海斯总统拒绝签署任何有"搭车"条款的法案。所以,在海斯执政期间,国会就无法再使用"搭车"手段。而在海斯离任后,国会又恢复了这一做法。

RICHARD RAEL: Rutherford Hayes kept his promise to serve only four years. He did not regret his decision. After leaving office in eighteen eighty-one, he said he was satisfied with what he had done. He looked back on his administration and wrote:

海斯遵守承诺,只干了一任总统。他并不后悔自己的这个决定。1881年离任后,他说,他对自己在任期内的表现感到满意,他回顾执政的四年,这样写道:

"I left this great country prosperous and happy. I left the party of my choice strong, victorious, and united. In serving the country, I served my party. "He died in eighteen ninety-three.

"我让这个伟大的国家繁荣昌盛,充满欢乐,我让我所选择的党强大、胜利和团结。在为国家服务的过程中,我也服务了我的党。" 拉瑟弗德.海斯于1893年逝世。

STEVE EMBER: Hayes was right in saying that the United States was strong and prosperous. The late eighteen-hundreds were a time of growth for the nation. They also were a time of expansion into new territory.

美国正如他生前所说的那样,成为了一个强大、繁荣的国家。十九世纪晚期,美国经历了高速发展,并开辟了新的疆域。

That will be our story next week.

(MUSIC)

BARBARA KLEIN: Our program was written by David Jarmul. The narrators were Steve Ember and Richard Rael. Our programs can be found online with transcripts, MP3s, podcasts and historical images at www.unsv.com. You can also follow us on Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

___

This is program #127 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

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