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#122: Rebuilding the South

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Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION - American history in VOA Special English.

In March of eighteen sixty-eight, Congress tried to remove President Andrew Johnson from office. But the Senate failed in the effort by one vote. Andrew Johnson was a Democrat. Congress was controlled by radical members of the Republican Party.

1868年3月,国会试图弹劾安德鲁·约翰逊总统。弹劾案在参议院以一票之差,没有通过。安德鲁·约翰逊总统是民主党人,而当时的国会处于共和党激进派的控制之下。

Most of the charges at Johnson's trial were based on his dismissal of the secretary of war. A new law said the president could not remove a cabinet officer without Senate approval. Johnson said the law was unconstitutional.

对约翰逊总统弹劾指控的大部分罪名都跟他解除战争部长的职务有关。一项新法律规定,未经参议院批准,总统不得解除内阁成员的职务。但是约翰逊总统认为,这项立法违宪。

The impeachment trial of President Andrew Johnson
The impeachment trial of President Andrew Johnson

The trial was an important turning point in the making of the nation. Removal from office would have established the idea that the president could serve only with the approval of Congress. The president would have become, in effect, a prime minister, requiring the support of Congress to remain in office. Andrew Johnson's victory kept alive the idea of an independent presidency.

安德鲁·约翰逊总统的弹劾案是美国建国史上的一个重要转折点。约翰逊如果真的遭到弹劾,那就意味着,总统必须得到国会的认可才能工作,总统也就变成了首相,要做下去,就一定要有国会支持。安德鲁·约翰逊的胜利,等于是巩固了总统的独立地位。

Although Congress failed to remove him, the vote did not end a conflict with the White House over the future of the South. But it did have an effect on efforts to rebuild the South following the war.

总统弹劾案的结束,虽然没能让国会和白宫在南方前途问题上的冲突消失,但却对战后南方的重建努力带来了影响。

Radical Republicans wanted to punish the South for starting the war. They also wanted to be sure new governments in the southern states would support the Republican Party.

激进派共和党人认为,南方必须为挑起战火受到惩罚,他们还希望确保南方各州新政府支持共和党。

This week in our series, Doug Johnson and Frank Oliver tell about the reconstruction of the South.

DOUG JOHNSON:

One way radical Republicans gained support was by helping give blacks the right to vote. They knew former slaves would vote for the party which had freed them.

激进派共和党人寻求支持的途径之一是帮助黑人争取投票权。他们知道,原来的这些奴隶一定会投票支持给他们自由的党派。

Another way Republicans kept control in the South was by preventing whites from voting there. They passed a law saying no southerner could vote if he had taken part in the rebellion against the Union. This prevented the majority of southern whites from voting for Democrats and against Republicans.

共和党人控制南方的另外一个办法是,防止南方白人投票。他们通过了一项法律,规定凡是参加过份裂联邦的反叛活动的南方人,一律不得投票,这就有效阻止了南方大多数白人把票投给民主党人。

FRANK OLIVER:

Thomas Nast made this wood engraving of a carpetbagger
Thomas Nast made this wood engraving of a carpetbagger

Congress also made strong rules about what southern states had to do to re-enter the Union. It said each of the states needed a new constitution that protected the voting rights of all black men. And it said each southern state must approve an amendment to the United States Constitution that gave citizenship to blacks.

激进派共和党控制的国会通过了很多强硬规定,对南方各州重返联邦提出严格条件,要求它们制定新宪法,保护所有黑人的投票权,而且必须批准宪法修正案,让黑人成为美国公民。

The radicals did not rest with changes in the law. They also sent their supporters south to organize blacks for the Republican Party. Many southern whites hated these men from the North. They had a special name for them: carpetbaggers.

激进派共和党不仅修改了法律,而且还派自己的支持者到南方去,把黑人组织起来,支持共和党。很多南方白人都恨透了这些北方佬,给这些人起了个外号,叫carpetbaggers。

The name arose because many of the northerners who went south arrived with all their possessions in a carpet handbag. Southerners also had a name for their own people who cooperated with the carpetbaggers. They called them scalawags. Neither name was friendly.

这些人被叫做 carpetbaggers,是因为很多到南方来的北方人,全部家当就装在一个毯子做的手提包里,这种手提包叫 carpet bag,这些人自然也就成了 carpetbaggers. 南方人还很不友好地把跟这些北方佬合作的南方人叫做 scalawags,南方佬。

DOUG JOHNSON:

Southern whites had a reason to be bitter. They had lost the Civil War. Now much of their power was gone, and they were suffering. But there was another side to the story, as well.

南方白人之所以耿耿于怀,是因为他们打输了内战,失去了权力,日子很不好过。

Southern whites had held black people in slavery for many years. Now, the former slaves were getting to enjoy a small taste of freedom. Also, the South had started the Civil War which had caused so much death and destruction. It was not surprising that the North showed little sympathy when the fighting stopped and the South lay in ruins.

与此同时,多年来一直被南方白人当作奴隶的黑人,如今开始尝到了自由的甜头。 南方挑起内战,给交战双方都带来了巨大的人员伤亡和沉重的财产损失。战争结束后,南方一片废墟,而北方却毫不同情,这也不难理解。

Southern states organized conventions to form new governments. Soon, all but three southern states had new legislatures.

南方各州召集会议,成立新政府,没过多久,南方除了三个州以外,都有了自己的新议会。

Not surprisingly, radical Republicans held firm control in every one of the new governments. Many of the new governors and state officials were carpetbaggers from outside the state. Others were southern scalawags.

毫不奇怪,南方每个州的新政府都在激进派共和党人的牢牢控制之下。很多新当选的州长和政府官员都是外州来的 carpetbaggers 投机者,或是跟他们一个鼻孔出气的南方佬,scalawags。

FRANK OLIVER:

Many of these new state officials were dishonest. They began using their power to become rich.

州政府里的很多官员开始贪赃枉法,滥用职权,中饱私囊。

In South Carolina, for example, the new governor was a former army officer from the state of Ohio. He gave government jobs to many dishonest men, including some who were wanted for crimes in other states.

以南卡罗来纳州为例,那里的新州长原来是俄亥俄州的军队指挥官,他任用了很多不正派的人,甚至包括一些在其它州受到通缉的罪犯。

The same situation existed in other state governments in the South. In Louisiana, for example, the governor was a carpetbagger from the state of Illinois. He left office after four years with one million dollars. His official pay during that time was only thirty-two thousand dollars.

这种情况在南方很多州政府里都存在。比如,路易斯安那的州长就是从伊利诺伊来的投机者。他四年后离任时,带走了一百万美元,而他在这四年里每年的薪酬只有三万两千美元。

DOUG JOHNSON:

The South was not the only place where public officials were dishonest.

腐败并不局限于南方。

The period after the Civil War in the United States was marked by several famous incidents involving violations of the public trust. Some of these incidents took place in the North, even in the White House. They were among the worst examples of dishonesty and poor government ever to take place in American history.

内战结束后的那段时间里,美国发生了好几起臭名昭著的贪赃枉法案,其中一些发生在北方,甚至发生在白宫里。这些贪赃枉法的事件是美国历史上最骇人听闻的。

It also is important to note that not everyone in the South was dishonest. The new state governments did many good things.

不过,南方人也不全都腐败,新政府也做了不少好事。

They built roads and bridges, schools and hospitals. They improved transportation and education. They loaned money to companies to build railroads. Most important, they helped give hope to former slaves. These people were struggling to create a new life in the land of their former owners.

他们修筑公路、桥梁、学校和医院,改善交通和教育,还给私人公司提供贷款,修建铁路。最重要的是,他们让刚刚获得自由、努力重建新生活的奴隶看到了希望。

FRANK OLIVER:

So, the record of reconstruction in the South was mixed. Many southerners believe, even today, that reconstruction was a bitter time of defeat. But others now say this period after the Civil War was a necessary step in creating a different kind of South from the one which had existed before.

因此,人们对南方重建存在不同看法。即使是今天,很多南方人还是觉得,重建是战败后的痛苦时期,但是也有很多人认为,内战结束后的重建期,是建立一个新南方的必要步骤。

Historians do agree that reconstruction changed the United States in several important ways. One of the most important changes was in the Constitution. Congress passed three historic amendments to the Constitution during this period.

历史学家一致认为,南方重建给美国带来了好几方面的重要变化。其中最重要的变化之一就是宪法修正。在这段时间里,美国国会通过了三项具有历史意义的宪法修正案。

DOUG JOHNSON:

The first was the Thirteenth Amendment. It ended slavery in the United States.

首先是宪法第十三修正案,结束了美国的奴隶制度。

The next was the Fourteenth Amendment. It said all persons born or naturalized in the United States were citizens of the United States and of the state in which they lived. It said no state could limit the rights of these citizens.

接下来是第十四修正案,规定凡是在美国出生、或是入籍归化的人都是美国公民,都是他们所在州的公民,任何人都无权限制他们的公民权。

Finally, there was the Fifteenth Amendment. It said a citizen of the United States could not be prevented from voting because of his color.

最后是宪法第十五修正案,规定任何美国公民都不能因为肤色被剥夺投票权。

The Thirteenth Amendment freed all Negro slaves. The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments were supposed to protect their rights. These laws alone, however, did not succeed in doing this. It would take another century -- until Martin Luther King and other civil rights leaders -- to make these rights a reality.

第十三修正案解放了黑奴。第十四和十五两项修正案保护了他们的权利。光靠这三项修正案,并未让黑人真正获得这些权利,直到一百年后,马丁·路德金等民权领袖才让这些权利真正变为现实。

Yet the passage of these three amendments to the Constitution was still a historic step in making blacks full and equal citizens.

尽管如此,这三项宪法修正案在让黑人成为享受所有权利的公民方面,还是具有历史性意义。

FRANK OLIVER:

These same laws and other actions of the radical Republicans changed the South in other -- less desirable, ways. They helped cause angry whites to form the Ku Klux Klan and other groups that terrorized blacks for years to come.

激进派共和党人通过的这些法律和采取的行动也给南方带来了一些负面影响,它们促使愤怒的白人成立三K党等团体,不断骚扰黑人。

The laws also increased bitterness between the North and South that lasted many years.

这些法律引起的南北间的相互怨恨也持续了很多年。

Reconstruction changed the economy of the South, too. White landowners broke up their big farms into smaller pieces of land. They rented these to black farmers. With the land came seed, tools and enough supplies for a year. In exchange for this, the owner would get a large share of the crop raised by the tenant farmer.

战后重建还改变了南方的经济体系。白人地主将自己的大农场分成小块儿,出租给黑人耕种。黑人承租土地,就可以得到种子、农具和足够一年用的供给;做为交换,地里收获的粮食,一大部分归土地主所有。

This system, called share-cropping, spread through the South. It lasted for almost one hundred years.

这种收益分成的系统在南方各地推广使用,延续了将近一百年。

Share-cropping made it possible for blacks to work the land for themselves for the first time in their lives. But it also made it difficult for them to earn enough money to improve their condition. As a result, the majority of southern blacks remained in poverty. The system helped cause the South to be the poorest part of the United States for many years.

收益分成让黑人有史以来第一次为自己种地,但同时又让他们很难赚到足够的钱,提高生活水平。结果是,南方的大多数黑人依然无法摆脱贫困。收益分成系统使南方变成了美国最穷的地区,持续了很多年。

DOUG JOHNSON:

The reconstruction period changed the face of the South and of the United States. The events of reconstruction also were central to one of the nation's most interesting presidential elections.

战后重建改变了南方、乃至美国的面貌,也在接下来美国历史上最有意思的总统大选中发挥了重要影响。

That will be our story next week.

(MUSIC)

BOB DOUGHTY:

Our program was written by David Jarmul. The narrators were Doug Johnson and Frank Oliver. Transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our programs are online, along with historical images, at www.unsv.com. And you can follow us on Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION - an American history series in VOA Special English.

___

This is program #122 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

网友的学习评论(1条):
作者:hliu
racial difference is always an severe issue in America,even today the president is black.
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