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#119: The Final Surrender

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Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English.

President Abraham Lincoln
President Abraham Lincoln

Abraham Lincoln did not live to see the final surrender of the armies of the Confederacy. A Confederate sympathizer shot the president at Ford's Theatre in Washington on April fourteenth, eighteen sixty-five.

亚伯拉罕·林肯总统领导美国走过了四年内战,但最终却没能亲眼看到战争的结束。1865年4月14号,林肯在首都华盛顿的福特剧院看戏时,被一名同情南方的激进分子刺杀身亡。

By that time, however, the American Civil War really was over.

林肯遇刺时,美国南北战争其实已经见了分晓。

General Robert E. Lee surrendered in early April, bringing an end to four years of fighting. Several other Confederate armies were still in the field. But they were too small and too weak to continue the fight.

南军将领罗伯特·李将军4月初宣布投降,另外几股南军部队虽然尚未投降,但他们势单力薄,根本无力还击,内战事实上已经结束。

This week in our series, Maurice Joyce and Leo Scully tell the story of the final surrender of the Confederate armies.

VOICE ONE:

General William T. Sherman
General William T. Sherman

One army was in North Carolina, commanded by General Joe Johnston. Five days after Lee's surrender, Johnston asked for a meeting with General William Sherman, the commander of Union forces in North Carolina.

南方当中一股在北卡罗来纳的部队,由约翰斯顿将军指挥。罗伯特·李宣布投降五天后,约翰斯顿要求跟驻扎在北卡的北军将领谢尔曼会面。

Sherman met with Johnston a few days later. He offered him the same surrender terms that General Lee had accepted. He said the Confederates must give up their weapons and promise to fight no more. Then they would be free to return to their homes.

两人几天后见面时,谢尔曼提出跟罗伯特·李投降时同样的条件,要南军将士交出武器,保证不再参加战斗,做为交换,他们可以回家去。

Johnston said he could not accept these terms. Johnston said he had the power to surrender all the Confederate armies everywhere in the South he said he would do so if Sherman agreed on a political settlement.

然而,约翰斯顿拒绝接受。他表示,自己有权让南方的所有部队投降,但条件是,双方必须达成一项政治协定。

VOICE TWO:

The two generals met again the next day. Sherman listened as Johnston explained his demands. Most of them, Sherman accepted. He believed that President Lincoln wanted to help the South as much as possible. He had heard Lincoln say that he wanted to make it easy for the southern states to return to the Union.

两人次日再次谈判。谢尔曼耐心听取约翰斯顿提出南军的所有要求。谢尔曼同意接受约翰斯顿提出的大部分要求,因为他相信,林肯总统愿意尽最大可能帮助南方。他曾亲耳听林肯说过,他愿意为南方各州回归联邦提供方便。

When the agreement was completed, Sherman sent it immediately to Washington for approval by the new president, Andrew Johnson. The agreement seemed to give the South everything it wanted.

双方达成一致意见后,谢尔曼立即将协议送往华盛顿,请新总统安德鲁·约翰逊批准。协议似乎满足了南方提出的全部条件。

VOICE ONE:

General Joe Johnston
General Joe Johnston

Instead of surrendering to Sherman, the Confederate Armies would break up. The soldiers would return to their homes, taking their weapons with them. They would sign a promise not to fight again and to obey state and federal laws.

协议里规定,南军不用向谢尔曼投降,但是必须解散,南军士兵可以带着武器返回家园。他们要在保证书上签字,保证不再参加战斗,并且遵守联邦和各州法律。

In exchange for this, Sherman said the president would recognize state governments in the south which promised to support the Constitution. He said federal courts would be established in the south again. And he said the president -- as well as he could -- would protect the political rights promised to all people by the Constitution of the United States and the state constitutions.

谢尔曼说,做为交换条件,总统将承认那些保证支持宪法的州政府的合法性,南方各州恢复联邦法院,而且根据联邦和州宪法的规定,所有公民享受的政治权利都将受到总统和他本人的保护。

And Sherman said the United States government would not interfere with any of the southern people, if they remained peaceful and obeyed the laws.

谢尔曼还说,只要南方人和平地过日子,遵纪守法,就不会受到联邦政府的干预。

VOICE TWO:

President Johnson held a cabinet meeting to discuss the agreement Sherman had signed. War Secretary Stanton and the other members of the cabinet were violently opposed to it. They said Sherman had no power to make any kind of political settlement.

约翰逊总统召集内阁会议,商讨谢尔曼签署的协定书。战争部长斯坦顿和其他内阁成员坚决反对协定内容。他们认为,谢尔曼无权跟南方达成任何形式的政治协议。

President Johnson rejected the agreement. He said Johnston's army must surrender within forty-eight hours or be destroyed. He said the surrender terms could be no better than those given General Lee.

约翰逊总统因此否决了谢尔曼签署的协定,并表示,约翰斯顿的部队必须在48小时内投降,否则就要被彻底消灭,投降条件不能比给罗伯特·李将军的条件更优惠。

VOICE ONE:

Johnston decided to surrender. On April twenty-sixth, his army laid down its weapons. One by one, the remaining armies surrendered. The soldiers began returning home.

约翰斯顿最后还是决定投降。他的部队4月26号放下武器。接下来,南军其它部队也纷纷投降,士兵们开始返回家园。

General Nathan Bedford Forrest
General Nathan Bedford Forrest

Many of them were bitter. They wanted to continue to fight. They spoke of guerrilla war against the Yankees. But most of the Confederate commanders opposed this. Many, like cavalry General Nathan Bedford Forrest, urged their men to accept defeat.

他们当中很多人怨气十足,他们想继续打下去,跟北方佬打游击战,但是南军大部分指挥官不同意。很多军官劝说部下认输。

Said Forrest in a farewell speech to his men:

骑兵将军弗里斯特在告别讲话中说:

"It is a clear fact that we are beaten. We would be foolish to try to fight further. The government which we tried to establish is at an end. Civil War -- such as you have just passed through -- naturally causes feelings of bitterness and hatred. We must put these feelings aside. Whatever your responsibilities may be, meet them like men. You have been good soldiers. You can be good citizens."

"现实很清楚,我们输了。继续打下去是愚蠢的。我们试图建立的政府已经跨了。刚刚过去的内战,势必引起仇视和怨恨,我们必须把这种情绪放在一边,不论你们的责任是什么,都应该像男人一样去面对。你们都是好战士,也一定会是好公民。"

VOICE TWO:

Confederate President Jefferson Davis fled south after the fall of his government. He hoped to get across the Mississippi River. He believed that he could form a new Confederate army. If this failed, he planned to escape to Mexico.

邦联政府垮台后,邦联总统戴维斯逃往南方,准备跨过密西西比河,重组一支邦联部队,如果失败,就逃往墨西哥。

President Lincoln had hoped that Davis would escape. He felt that punishing Davis would only create more bitterness and make reconstruction -- the rebuilding of the South -- more difficult. But President Johnson did not share Lincoln's feelings. He believed Davis had a part in the plot to kill Lincoln. He said Davis must be captured.

戴维斯逃跑正是林肯希望看到的。林肯觉得,惩罚戴维斯只会加剧仇恨情绪,让南方的重建工作更加困难。但是约翰逊总统跟林肯的看法不一样。他认为,戴维斯肯定参与了刺杀林肯的阴谋,所以一定要将他缉拿归案。

On May tenth, Union forces found the Confederate president's camp in southern Georgia. They seized him and took him to Fort Monroe, Virginia. He remained there for many months under close guard. His trial was never held. And finally, in eighteen sixty-seven, he was freed.

5月10号,联邦士兵在乔治亚南部抓到戴维斯,将他押送回维吉尼亚的门罗城堡。戴维斯被关在那里好几个月,重兵把守,但是始终没有出庭受审,最后于1867年获得了释放。

VOICE ONE:

Union soldiers march in the Grand Review in Washington in May 1865
Union soldiers march in the Grand Review in Washington in May 1865

Late in May, one hundred fifty thousand Union soldiers, representing every one of the Union armies, came to Washington. They came to take part in a big parade -- a victory march through the city.

5月下旬,15万名联邦士兵来到首都华盛顿,代表北军全体官兵,参加大规模游行,庆祝胜利。

For two days, the soldiers marched past the White House. Many of the marching men had fought at Bull Run, at Fredericksburg, Antietam, Gettysburg, Petersburg, and Appomattox. Sherman's western army was there from battles at Shiloh, Vicksburg, Murfreesboro, Chickamauga and Atlanta.

游行持续了两天,士兵中很多人都参加过在布尔溪、弗雷德里克斯堡、安蒂特姆、葛底斯堡和阿普马托克斯的战斗;谢尔曼的手下则经历过在西部的夏洛、维克斯伯格、亚特兰大等战役。

The soldiers marched proudly past the president and other government leaders.

游行士兵骄傲地从总统和政府官员面前走过。

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

All along the way, from the Capitol building to the White House, were huge crowds of cheering people. Hour after hour, the soldiers passed. Never had the city seen such a celebration. Each group of soldiers had its band and carried its own battle flags. Some proudly carried flags that had been torn in fierce fighting.

从国会大厦到白宫,沿途挤满了欢呼的人群,一个小时接着一个小时,游行士兵陆续走过,华盛顿从来没有举行过规模如此盛大的庆祝活动。每个游行方队都有自己的鼓乐队,都举着自己的战旗,一些方队骄傲地举着在激战中撕得七零八落的旗帜。

Finally, late on the second day, the final group of soldiers passed the White House. The grand parade was over. The battle flags were put away, and the marching bands fell silent. The war was ended. Now, men could look about them and count the cost of the war.

直到第二天下午,最后一队士兵从白宫前走过,这次胜利大游行才宣告结束。战旗被收藏起来,鼓乐声也安静下来。战争终于结束了。现在,人们可以来清点一下这场战争的代价了。

VOICE ONE:

Four years of bloody fighting had saved the Union of states. The northern victory had settled for all time the question of whether states could leave the Union. And it had put to rest the great problem of slavery, which had troubled the nation for so many years.

四年内战挽救了美国联邦,北方的胜利回答了各州是否有权退出联邦的问题,也让困扰美国多年的奴隶制度的问题有了最终结论。

But the costs were great. More than six hundred thousand men of the North and South lost their lives. Hundreds of thousands more were wounded. Many had lost their arms or legs.

但是与此同时,这场战争也带来了惨重代价。南北双方共有六十多万人战死疆场,还有几十万人受伤,很多人落下了残疾。

VOICE TWO:

The war cost the North almost three-and-one-half thousand million dollars. It was almost as costly to the Confederates. Most of the war was fought in the southern states. And most of the war damage was there.

北方的战争开支几乎多达35亿美元,南方损失也相差无几。由于南北战争的主要战场在南方,所以战争造成的伤害也集中在那里。

Hundreds of cities and towns suffered damage. Some -- like Atlanta -- were completely destroyed by Union forces. The damage outside the populated areas was almost as great. Union armies had marched across the South leaving behind them widespread destruction. Farm houses and buildings had been burned; animals and crops seized or destroyed.

数以百计的大小城镇遭受创伤。亚特兰大等城市还被北方军彻底摧毁。 人烟稀少的地区同样受到了战火的蹂躏。北方军横扫南方地区,所到之处,一片狼藉。农舍和房屋被一把火夷为平地,牲口和粮食能拿走的拿走,拿不走的一律烧毁。

VOICE ONE:

Transport in the South was especially hard hit. Union soldiers had destroyed most of the railroads. The few Confederate trains that escaped capture were worn out from heavy use. River boats had been destroyed. And roads and bridges were in terrible condition.

南方的交通系统受到的破坏最为严重。北军士兵摧毁了大部分铁路。南方为数不多的几列没有被缴获的火车也都使用过度。渡船全部被毁,道路和桥梁也都破烂不堪。

The South had no money to rebuild. Businessmen and rich landowners had put their money in Confederate bonds, now completely worthless. Confederate war debts would never be paid.

南方没有重建的资金。商人和富裕的地主把钱买了南方邦联的债券,如今已经一文不值,南方的战争债务根本无法偿还。

There was also the question of the four million former slaves. They were free now. But few could take care of themselves. They needed jobs and training.

除此以外,还有四百万获得解放的奴隶的问题。他们自由了,但却无法生活,需要工作机会和技能培训。

VOICE TWO:

The people of the South faced a difficult future. They had been defeated in battle. Their economy was destroyed. In many areas, there was little food and the people were hungry. Farmers could not plant crops, because they had no seed and no animals to break the ground. There was no money for rebuilding.

南方人面对未来,困难重重。他们打了败仗,经济遭到破坏。很多地方没有吃的,人们饥肠辘辘。农民没有种子和牲口,无法播种。南方没有钱用于重建。

President Andrew Johnson
President Andrew Johnson

To add to all these problems, radical Republicans in Washington were demanding severe punishment for the South. Instead of offering aid, they demanded that the government sell the property of southerners to pay Union war debts.

与此同时,华盛顿的共和党激进派还要求严惩南方,无异于雪上加霜。激进派共和党人不仅不愿意给南方援助,反而要求政府把南方人的财产卖掉,用来偿还北方的战争债务。

VOICE ONE:

President Andrew Johnson, himself a southerner from Tennessee, opposed the radical plans. He had his own program of reconstruction for the South.

本来就是南方人的安德鲁·约翰逊总统反对这种过激的计划。在重建南方的问题上,他有自己的计划。

(MUSIC)

ANNOUNCER:

Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Maurice Joyce and Leo Scully. Transcripts, podcasts and historical images from our series are at www.unsv.com. You can also comment on our programs. And we invite you to follow us on Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

___

This is program #119 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

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