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#114: Lincoln Defeats McClellan in 1864 Election

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Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.

In eighteen sixty-four the Union of northern states and the Confederacy of southern states were still fighting. The Civil War began in eighteen sixty-one.

Each side had its own constitution. Under the Union constitution, Americans were supposed to elect a president every four years. Eighteen sixty-four was such a year. And even though a great civil war was being fought, citizens of the North prepared to choose a leader.

This week in our series, Shep O'Neal and Maurice Joyce tell the story of the election of eighteen sixty-four.

VOICE ONE:

Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln

Abraham Lincoln was completing his first term as president. He hoped to lead the nation for another four years. He wanted to win the war between the states. He wanted to re-build the Union.

1864年,内战进行的同时,美国总统林肯也在为参选连任做准备。他希望打赢南北战争,重建联邦。

Lincoln's Republican Party was divided. Moderate Republicans wanted to re-build the Union as soon as the war ended. They believed southern states should be welcomed back with full rights. Radical Republicans disagreed strongly. They demanded severe punishment for the southern rebels.

林肯所在的共和党出现了分裂。温和派共和党人希望战争一结束立即着手重建,他们认为,应该张开双臂,欢迎南方各州的归来,让他们享受所有权利。但是激进派共和党人强烈反对。他们要求对南方反叛者进行严厉惩罚。

VOICE TWO:

For many months, President Lincoln worked to build a political majority. He formed a new group called the National Union Party. It included moderate Republicans and some Democrats.

林肯花了好几个月的时间,设法组建一个叫"国家统一党"的政治多数派,其中包括温和派共和党人和一些民主党人。

Lincoln succeeded in gaining the support of state and local political leaders. It soon became clear that Lincoln would be the party's presidential candidate in the election.

林肯得到了一些州和地方领导人的支持。形势很快就明朗化了,林肯将作为这个党的候选人参加选举。

VOICE ONE:

A political banner for the Radical Democracy party candidates John Freemont, right, and John Cochrane
A political banner for the Radical Democracy party candidates John Freemont, right, and John Cochrane

Several hundred radical Republicans held their own convention in Cleveland, Ohio. They formed a new political party called the Radical Democracy. They nominated explorer John Fremont as their candidate for the national election. Fremont had been the Republican presidential candidate eight years earlier.

几百名激进派共和党人在俄亥俄的克利夫兰召开了自己的代表大会,成立了一个叫激进民主的新政党。与会代表提名探险家约翰·弗里蒙特代表该党参加大选。弗里蒙特八年前曾经是共和党的总统候选人。

Most of the radical Republicans in Congress did not take part in the convention in Cleveland. They refused to support Fremont. They felt he had no chance to win the election.

美国国会大多数激进派共和党并没有参加在克利夫兰召开的代表大会,他们拒绝支持弗里蒙特,觉得他根本没有胜选的机会。

VOICE TWO:

President Lincoln's new National Union Party held its convention in Baltimore, Maryland. Convention delegates quickly approved a party statement. The statement supported the Union and the war. It opposed slavery.

与此同时,林肯新组建的国家统一党在马里兰的巴尔的摩召开代表大会。与会代表迅速批准了政党声明,支持联邦统一和战争,反对奴隶制度。

Delegates then were ready to nominate their candidates for president and vice president. On the first ballot, they chose Lincoln to run again. And they chose Democrat Andrew Johnson of Tennessee to run as vice president.

随后,代表们开始推举总统和副总统候选人。第一次投票,林肯就被提名为总统候选人,副总统候选人是田纳西的民主党人安德鲁·约翰逊。

VOICE ONE:

During the campaign, Lincoln was advised to begin peace talks with the South. End the war, he was told. Bring southern states back into the Union. Settle the question of slavery later.

竞选过程中,林肯的助手们建议他开始跟南方讲和,结束战争,让南方各州重返联邦,奴隶制度的问题以后再说。

Lincoln, however, believed his policies were right for the nation. He would not surrender them, even if they meant his defeat in the election.

然而,林肯坚信自己的政策是对的,就算是落选,也不言放弃。

Lincoln hated the war. But he would not end it until military victory ended slavery and guaranteed political union.

林肯痛恨这场战争,但是除非是通过军事胜利结束奴隶制度,保证国家统一,否则他绝不停战。

VOICE TWO:

In August, eighteen sixty-four, Lincoln wrote:

"For some days past, it seems that this administration probably will not be re-elected. Then it will be my duty to cooperate with the president-elect to save the Union. We must do this between election day and inauguration day. For he will have been elected on such ground that he cannot possibly save the Union afterwards."

1864年8月,林肯写道:"从最近这些日子看来,现任政府似乎不会再度当选。如果真是那样的话,我有职责协助当选总统,共同挽救联邦统一。我们一定要在总统大选日和总统就职日期间完成这项工作,因为新总统当选所基于的理由,使他不可能在就职后再去做这件事情。"

VOICE ONE:

The Democratic Party held its nominating convention in Chicago, Illinois. Peace Democrats were in firm control.

民主党在伊利诺伊的芝加哥举行总统提名大会。和平民主党人牢牢掌控局势。

Peace Democrats demanded an immediate end to the Civil War. They did not care if the North and South remained apart permanently.

他们要求立即结束内战,不在乎南北方是否永远分裂下去。

The party's statement contained these words: "After four years of failure to restore the Union by war...justice, humanity, liberty, and the public welfare demand that immediate efforts be made to end the fighting. Let us look to a convention of states -- or other peaceable means -- to restore the Union."

民主党的声明中说,"四年来,战争未能恢复联邦统一。公正、人道、自由和公众福祉要求立即努力,设法结束冲突。让我们试试通过召开各州大会等和平手段,来恢复联邦的统一。"

VOICE TWO:

General George McClellan
General George McClellan

The democratic statement did not discuss slavery. It did say, however, that any state wishing to return to the Union could do so without losing any of its constitutional rights. This was believed to include the right to own slaves.

民主党的声明中没有提到奴隶制度的问题,但表示,凡是愿意重返联邦的州都不会损失任何宪法赋予的权利。人们相信,这当然也包括拥有奴隶的权利。

Convention delegates approved the statement. Then they nominated General George McClellan as their candidate for president.

大会代表批准了声明,并提名乔治·麦克莱伦作为他们的总统候选人。

VOICE ONE:

Three days after the Democratic Party convention closed, the Union won an important military victory. Union troops captured Atlanta, Georgia. Atlanta was one of the last remaining industrial cities of the South. Its loss seriously hurt the Confederacy.

民主党大会结束三天后,北方军赢得了一场重大胜利,攻占了乔治亚的亚特兰大。亚特兰大是南方仅存的工业城市之一,亚特兰大的陷落是对南方邦联的沉重打击。

A political banner for President Lincoln and Andrew Johnson
A political banner for President Lincoln and Andrew Johnson

Now the people of the North could understand their side was winning the war. Public opinion began to change. The Peace Democrats lost popular support. President Lincoln and his National Union Party gained popular support. Even some supporters of Radical Republican candidate John Fremont turned to Lincoln. Fremont withdrew from the race.

北方人清楚地看到,胜利的曙光就在前面,公众舆论因此开始转变。主张和平的民主党人开始失去民众支持。林肯总统和他的国家统一党得到越来越多的支持,就连激进派共和党人弗里蒙特的一些支持者也开始转而支持林肯,弗里蒙特宣布退出竞选。

VOICE TWO:

When the people voted in November, their choice was between Abraham Lincoln and George McClellan.

11月的总统大选,是林肯跟麦克莱伦之间的较量。

A vote for Lincoln meant a vote for continuing the Civil War until it was won. Until the Union was saved. A vote for McClellan meant a vote for stopping the war. Stopping short of victory.

投林肯的票就是主张把内战继续下去,直到胜利的那一天。投麦克莱伦的票就是支持在取得胜利前停止战争。

By midnight of election day, it was clear that Lincoln had won. He got only about a half-million more popular votes than McClellan. But when electoral votes were counted, he got two hundred twelve to McClellan's twenty-one.

总统大选日当晚午夜前,情况已经很明朗,林肯胜选了。虽然林肯赢得的选民票只比麦克莱伦多出大约50万张,但是如果按照选举人票计算的话,林肯得212票,麦克莱伦只得21票。

VOICE ONE:

Before Lincoln's second inaugural, he agreed to hold peace talks with representatives of the Confederacy. The talks would be held at a Union fort on the Chesapeake Bay.

林肯宣誓就职前,同意跟南方代表举行和平会谈。和谈在北方位于切萨皮克湾的一个城堡举行。

Lincoln was very firm in one demand. The talks, he said, must discuss peace for "our one common country." There could be no talk, he said, of Confederate independence.

林肯在一个问题上态度十分坚决。他说:"和谈必须在一个国家的前提下进行,如果要谈邦联独立,那就没什么好说的了。"

The Confederate representatives said they could not accept those terms. The peace talks ended in failure.

邦联代表拒绝接受这个条件,和谈最后以失败告终。

VOICE TWO:

Lincoln returned to Washington. He prepared a message that he wished to send to Congress. It contained a program he felt could end the war within a few weeks.

林肯返回华盛顿,为在国会讲话做准备,讲话中包括一项计划,林肯觉得这项计划能够在几周内结束战争。

Lincoln proposed four hundred million dollars in economic aid to the southern states. The money could be used to pay slave owners for freeing their slaves.

林肯建议,向南方各州提供四亿美元的经济援助,这笔钱可以用来付给奴隶主,做为他们释放奴隶的报酬。

Half the money would be paid if the southern states gave up their struggle by April first. The other half would be paid if they approved -- by July first -- a constitutional amendment ending slavery.

如果南方各州同意在4月1号前放弃战争,就可以先拿到一半的钱,剩下一半要等他们在7月1号之前批准结束奴隶制度的宪法修正案后,再行支付。

As part of the program, Lincoln would pardon all political crimes resulting from the southern rebellion. He also would return all property seized by Union forces.

根据计划,林肯还会特赦一切由南方反叛引起的政治罪,并归还北方军没收的所有财产。

VOICE ONE:

Lincoln's cabinet officers rejected the program. They urged him not to send it to Congress. They said it would be seen as a sign of weakness.

林肯的内阁成员反对这项计划,敦促林肯不要递交国会。他们认为,这是软弱的表现。

Lincoln was surprised by the reaction. He thought his cabinet would gladly end the war...a war that was costing the government three million dollars a day and the lives of the nation's young men. But he accepted the cabinet's advice. He did not send his message to Congress.

内阁的这种反应让林肯感到十分惊讶。林肯原以为,能结束这场每天耗资三百万美元、并造成众多年轻人伤亡的战争,应该是内阁十分高兴看到的。但他还是接受了内阁的建议,没有将讲话提交国会。

VOICE TWO:

On March fourth, eighteen sixty-five, Abraham Lincoln was sworn-in as president for a second term. This is part of what he said:

1865年3月4号,林肯宣誓就职,开始第二个总统任期。他在就职讲话中说道:

Abraham Lincoln's inauguration in 1864
Abraham Lincoln's inauguration in 1864

"On this occasion four years ago, all thoughts were directed to a coming Civil War. All feared it. All tried to prevent it. Both parties opposed war. But one of them would make war rather than let the nation live. And the other would accept war, rather than let it die. And the war came.

"四年前的这个时候,所有人都在关心即将爆发的内战。所有人都害怕内战,所有人都希望避免内战。争议双方都反对战争。其中一方宁可挑起战争,也不愿让国家存活,另一方宁可接受战争,也不愿看到国家灭亡。结果战争爆发了。

"We hope -- and we pray -- that this terrible war may pass away quickly. But God may wish it otherwise. He may have it continue until the riches earned from two hundred fifty years of slavery are gone. It may continue until every drop of blood made by the slaveowner's whip is paid for by another made by the soldier's sword.

我们希望,我们祈祷,这场可怕的战争能迅速过去。但是上帝可能另有安排。上帝可能会一直让战争延续下去,直到250年奴隶制度创造的财富全部耗尽为止。这场战争可能会继续到奴隶主的皮鞭抽出的每一滴鲜血都被士兵刀剑划出的鲜血抵销为止。

"With malice toward none; with charity for all; with firmness in the right -- as God gives us to see the right -- let us strive on to finish the work we are in. Let us heal the nation's wounds. Let us do all possible to get and keep a just and lasting peace among ourselves and with all nations."

让我们按照上帝指引的正确方向,不带对任何人的恶意、带着对所有人的善心,秉持对正义的坚定,努力完成眼前的工作。让我们治愈国家的伤口。让我们竭尽全力,在我们中间和所有国家间实现并保持公正、持久的和平。"

VOICE ONE:

That night, the White House was open to the public. Thousands of people went to see the President. Poet Walt Whitman gave this description:

那天晚上,白宫对外开放,数以千计的人来看总统。诗人惠特曼描述说:

"I saw Mr. Lincoln, dressed all in black. He was shaking hands...looking very sad...as if he would give anything to be somewhere else."

"我看到林肯先生,身穿黑衣。他跟大家握手,显得十分悲伤,好像只要能离开这里,他愿意拿一切来交换似的。"

(MUSIC)

ANNOUNCER:

Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Shep O'Neal and Maurice Joyce. You can find transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our programs along with historical images at www.unsv.com. You can also follow us on Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

___

This is program #114 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

网友的学习评论(1条):
作者:郑烈波
peace is right and war is going.
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