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#113: Sherman Burns Atlanta in March to the Sea

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Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English.

In eighteen sixty-four, the battle at Cold Harbor in Virginia ended a month of fighting by the Union Army of the Potomac. The campaign had brought the army almost to the edge of Richmond, the Confederate capital.

波托马克军团发动了长达一个月的攻势。他们几乎一直打到南方邦联首府里士满的大门口。

But General Ulysses Grant had paid a terrible price: more than fifty thousand Union dead and wounded. Confederate losses were much lighter -- about twenty thousand.

不过,北军将领格兰特也为此付出了惨重的代价。冷港战役北军共有五万多人伤亡,而南方邦联的损失只有大约两万人。

Grant was beginning to learn an important lesson of the war. The methods of defense had improved much more than the methods of attack.

这场战役给格兰特将军上了重要的一课,那就是,防御战术的改进已经大大超过了进攻战术的改进。

This week in our series, Harry Monroe and Kay Gallant continue the story of the American Civil War.

VOICE ONE:

By the autumn of eighteen sixty-four, it appeared that the North would defeat the South in the American Civil War. The southern army needed men and supplies. There was little hope of getting enough of either to win.

到1864年秋天的时候,南北战争的形势日趋明朗。南方军的兵源和军备都出现短缺,而得到补充的希望又十分渺茫,北方似乎已经胜券在握。

The northern army was stronger and better-equipped. But it, too, had suffered. Much of the death and destruction was the result of new military technology.

与南方相比,北方军的兵源更为充沛,装备也更为精良。不过,北军的伤亡和损失也很惨重,这主要归咎于一种新型子弹的发明。

VOICE TWO:

Example of a minie ball
Example of a minie ball

A new kind of bullet had been invented. It was called the minie ball. It made the gun a much more deadly weapon.

这种被称为"米尼弹"的子弹极大增加了枪支的杀伤力。

Before the minie ball, few soldiers could hit a target more than thirty meters away. With the new bullet, they could hit targets more than one hundred fifty meters away. Soldiers with such weapons could be put into position behind stone or earth walls. Then it was almost impossible to defeat them.

米尼弹出现前,没人能打中三十米以外的目标;有了米尼弹,一百五十多米以外的目标都不在话下。配备了这种子弹的士兵,躲在石墙或土墙后面向敌人射击,对方根本不是对手。

VOICE ONE:

Most American generals, however, seemed unable to accept this. They continued to use the old methods of attack that had worked before the minie ball was invented.

Hundreds or thousands of men were put in long lines across the front of the enemy position. A signal was given. The men began to march forward. When they got close, they fired their guns. Then they ran at the enemy and struck with their knives or hands.

然而,南北战争时期的大多数将领似乎无法接受米尼弹。他们继续延用米尼弹出现以前的进攻方式。那就是,成百成千人在敌人前面一字排开,听到进攻的信号后,向前推进,到足够近的地方时,向敌人开枪,然后发起冲锋,用刀子、或是索性用拳脚跟敌人展开搏斗。

The idea was to shock the enemy, frighten him, and make him run away.

这样做目的是要震撼敌人,吓倒敌人,让他们抱头鼠窜。

As generals on both sides learned, this method no longer worked. The attackers were shot down before they could get close enough to hurt the defenders.

不过,南北战争双方将领都逐渐意识到,这种办法越来越行不通了。进攻部队还没靠近,就已经被防守部队的子弹击中了。

VOICE TWO:

After three and a half years of fighting, hundreds of thousands of Union and Confederate soldiers had been killed or wounded. Still the war continued.

在三年半的冲突中,南北双方都有成千上万人伤亡,但是战争还在继续。

In the East, Union armies were slowly pushing forward toward their main target. That was the Confederate capital at Richmond, Virginia. In the West, Union armies were slowly pushing deeper into Confederate territory. The western armies were led by General William Sherman.

在东部,北方军越来越逼近南方邦联首都里士满。在西部,北方军也在谢尔曼将军的率领下逐渐深入南方腹地。

VOICE ONE:

General Joe Johnston
General Joe Johnston

Sherman had two goals. One was to capture the city of Atlanta, Georgia. Atlanta was one of the few remaining industrial cities of the Confederacy. The other goal was to destroy the Confederate army led by General Joe Johnston.

谢尔曼的目标有两个,一是要占领乔治亚首府亚特兰大,这也是南方剩下的为数不多的工业城市之一,二是要摧毁约翰斯顿统领的南军。

Sherman's army was stronger than Johnston's army. But the Confederates usually got into better defensive positions. Sherman refused to attack in such situations. It was easier to march around the Confederates and force them to withdraw. This happened again and again.

谢尔曼比约翰斯顿人多,但是南方军往往能占据更有利的防守位置。遇到这种情况,谢尔曼从来不会正面袭击,而是绕到南军身后,逼他们撤退。谢尔曼的这种战术屡试不爽。

VOICE TWO:

Confederate President Jefferson Davis began to believe that General Johnston was afraid to fight. He replaced him with another general. Within two days, that general attacked the Union Army. The attack began without enough planning. It was based on false information. It was a disaster.

南方邦联总统戴维斯以为是约翰斯顿害怕打仗,于是派另外一名将领取代他。此人新官上任,两天内就对北方军发动进攻。但是进攻没有充分准备,而且情报又是错的,结果惨败。

In eleven days of fighting, one-third of the Confederate Army in Georgia was destroyed. The remaining force was too weak to defend Atlanta. The city fell.

十一天的战斗,南方驻守乔治亚的部队死伤三分之一,剩下的人无力保卫亚特兰大,亚特兰大被北军攻陷。

VOICE ONE:

The Battle of Atlanta
The Battle of Atlanta

After capturing Atlanta, General Sherman fought a series of small battles with a Confederate force across northern Georgia. Then he decided to march to Savannah, a city on the Atlantic coast.

攻占亚特兰大后,谢尔曼又在乔治亚北部地区跟南方军打了几场小仗,然后决定向大西洋沿岸的萨凡纳进军。

Before leaving, his men set fire to the city. Almost all of Atlanta was destroyed. Sherman's army would continue to do this all the way to Savannah, Georgia, three hundred fifty kilometers away. It cut a path of destruction more than one hundred kilometers wide.

出发前,谢尔曼下令火烧亚特兰大。亚特兰大几乎被夷为平地。谢尔曼的部队在前往三百五十公里以外的萨凡纳的途中,边走边烧,开辟出一条一百多公里宽的毁灭之路。

This campaign would be known as Sherman's March to the Sea.

这也就是美国历史上著名的"谢尔曼远征"。

VOICE TWO:

Sherman's march to the sea
Sherman's march to the sea

Sherman said he wanted to make the people of Georgia suffer. He said he wanted to show the people of the Confederacy that their government could not protect them.

谢尔曼说,他要让乔治亚人受折磨,要让南方邦联的人知道,他们的政府保护不了他们。

Union soldiers stopped at every farm and village. They took food and clothing. They took horses, cows, and other farm animals. What they could not take, or did not want, they destroyed.

北方军士兵在每个农场和乡村停下,抢粮食、抢衣服,抢牲口,带不走和不想要的,就索性毁掉。

They set fire to houses and farm buildings. They burned crops. They destroyed stores and factories. They burned bridges and pulled up railroad tracks.

他们纵火烧民宅、粮仓、牲口棚、粮食,捣毁店铺和工厂,还放火焚烧桥梁,拆掉铁轨。

Day by day, the Union army of General William Sherman cut and burned its way across Georgia.

日复一日,谢尔曼手下的人在前往萨凡纳的途中,活活用火焰烧出了一条通道。

VOICE ONE:

The army faced little opposition. Small groups of Confederate horse soldiers struck at the edges of the army. But they did little damage. On December twenty-second, eighteen sixty-four, Sherman reached Savannah. He sent a message to President Abraham Lincoln in Washington. He said: "I beg to present you, as a Christmas holiday gift, the city of Savannah."

谢尔曼的部队一路上几乎没有遇到抵抗,南方小股骑兵在这支大军的边缘骚扰,但是没有造成什么伤害。1864年12月22号,谢尔曼到达萨凡纳,他传话给首都华盛顿的林肯总统说,请允许我把萨凡纳做为圣诞节礼物送给你。

Sherman's campaign had cut a great wound in the heart of the Confederacy. All that remained were the states of South Carolina, North Carolina, and Virginia.

谢尔曼远征重创了南方邦联,最后只剩下南卡罗来纳、北卡罗来纳和维吉尼亚。

His march to the sea had a great, destructive effect on the spirit of the South.

谢尔曼远征给南方士气带来了毁灭性的打击。

VOICE TWO:

General William Sherman
General William Sherman

Sherman's army rested in Savannah for a month. Then, on February first, eighteen sixty-five, it began to move north. The goal was to join General Ulysses Grant outside the Confederate capital at Richmond, Virginia.

谢尔曼在萨凡纳休整一个月后,1865年2月1号开始挥师北上,目标是跟南方邦联首都里士满城外的格兰特将军会合。

As Sherman's army moved across South Carolina, it destroyed almost everything in sight.

谢尔曼的部队途经南卡罗来纳,凡是能看到的东西,一律摧毁。

The soldiers remembered that South Carolina had been the first state to rebel and leave the Union. They remembered that South Carolina had fired the first shots of the war. This time -- against orders -- they destroyed the land they left behind. Confederate forces could not stop them.

北军士兵记得,南卡罗来纳是第一个退出联邦的州,是打响南北战争第一枪的州,所以这次,他们一路走一路烧,南方军根本无法阻止。

VOICE ONE:

The same thing happened in the Shenandoah River Valley northwest of Richmond.

里士满西北面的雪兰多河谷也发生了同样的情况。

In the early years of the war, Confederate forces had moved through the valley to strike northern territory. They had invaded Maryland and Pennsylvania, and had threatened Washington, from there.

战争之初,南方军就是穿过这条河谷,对北方发动袭击的,他们从这里入侵马里兰和宾夕法尼亚,甚至威胁到了首都华盛顿的安全。

General Grant decided that the Confederates had used the Shenandoah Valley long enough. He sent some of his men into the valley. He ordered them to destroy everything that might be of use to the enemy. "Eat up Virginia," he said, "clear and clean as far as you can go."

格兰特将军觉得,这条河谷被南方军霸占得已经够久了。格兰特派兵进入雪兰多河谷,命令他们摧毁所有可能对敌人有用的东西。他告诉手下,"吃光维吉尼亚,凡是能到的地方,清除掉一切。"

Farms were burned. Crops were destroyed. Farm animals were taken away or killed. Nothing was left that could feed a man or animal. Nothing but blackened earth.

结果农庄被烧毁,粮食被烧光,牲口被带走或杀掉,粮食一粒不剩,留下的只有烧焦了的土地。

VOICE TWO:

General Philip Sheridan
General Philip Sheridan

Then General Grant sent General Philip Sheridan into the Shenandoah Valley. Sheridan's army battled its way through the valley in the autumn of eighteen sixty-four. It gained victory after victory against a smaller, weaker Confederate force.

格兰特将军随后下令谢里登进军雪兰多河谷。1864年秋天,谢里登率兵击败弱小的南军部队,在雪兰多河谷一个胜仗接一个胜仗。

By the end of the year, Union troops had complete control of the valley. The only Confederate power that remained was the army of General Robert E. Lee.

到1864年年底,整个河谷已经在北军的控制之下,南方唯一剩下的就是罗伯特·李领导的部队了。

VOICE ONE:

With the Shenandoah Valley closed to the Confederates, food supplies fell very low. There was almost nothing to feed the soldiers in Lee's army. Wagons would go out each day in search of food. They returned almost empty.

痛失雪兰多河谷后,南军失去了粮食来源,南军士兵几乎断了口粮。出去找粮食的大车每天都是空手而归。

More and more Confederate soldiers were running away. Some returned to their homes. Others surrendered to Union forces.

南军士兵开小差儿的越来越多,有人回了老家,也有人投奔了北方军。

Confederate leaders no longer could find soldiers to take the places of those who left. Men would not answer the army's call. There was, however, a huge labor force in the South that the army had not called: slaves.

南方领袖找不到人来补缺,根本没人响应入伍的号召。然而,南方还有一支劳动力大军没有派上用场,那就是黑奴。

VOICE TWO:

A black Union soldier
A black Union soldier

Slaves had been used to do non-military work for the army. They had built roads and bridges. They had driven wagons. But they had not served as soldiers. In the North, thousands of free Negroes served in the Union army. But they received less pay than white soldiers.

在这以前,奴隶只为军队做些跟打仗无关的工作,修路、架桥、赶大车,但是没有人当兵。在北方,数以千计获得自由的黑人应征入伍,但是报酬不如白人士兵多。

Confederate lawmakers finally began to discuss the idea of using slaves as soldiers. A bill was proposed that would free any slave who joined the army to fight.

南方邦联议会最后没办法,开始商量让奴隶充军。有人提出议案,建议凡是愿意参军打仗的奴隶一律可以获得自由。

Many southern leaders opposed the bill, even if it would save the Confederacy. Said one: "Do not arm the slaves. The day you make them soldiers is the beginning of the end of the revolution. If slaves make good soldiers, our whole idea of slavery is wrong."

这项议案遭到了很多南方领袖的反对。就算这样做可以挽救邦联,他们也不同意。其中一个人说,"绝对不能武装奴隶,你让他们扛枪打仗的那一天,就是这场革命结束的开端。如果奴隶能是优秀的士兵,那就证明,我们关于奴隶制度的整个理念都错了。"

VOICE ONE:

General Robert E. Lee did not agree. He believed slaves could be made into good soldiers if they believed they had an interest in Confederate victory.

罗伯特·李将军不同意这种看法。他认为,只要让奴隶相信,邦联的胜利对他们有好处,他们就能成为好士兵。

He proposed giving immediate freedom to any slave who joined the army. The Confederate Congress passed a bill in March of eighteen sixty-five to accept Negroes as soldiers. The bill did not promise to free them. By then, however, it was too late. An army of freed slaves could not be trained in time to save the Confederacy.

他建议,立即给参军的奴隶自由。南方邦联议会1865年3月通过法案,接受黑人入伍,但是没有保证给他们自由。然而,一切都晚了,由黑人组成的军队已经没有足够的时间接受训练,挽救南方邦联的命运了。

(MUSIC)

ANNOUNCER:

Our program was written by Frank Beardsley and Christine Johnson. The narrators were Harry Monroe and Kay Gallant. Transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our programs are online, along with historical images, at www.unsv.com. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

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