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#112: The Battle of Cold Harbor

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Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English.

On July fourth, eighteen sixty-three, a huge Confederate army surrendered at Vicksburg, Mississippi. Union forces had surrounded the city for forty-seven days. Food was gone. The situation was hopeless. The Confederate commander gave up.

1863年7月4号,南方一支庞大的部队在密西西比的维克斯堡投降。当时,北方军围城整整四十七天,城里的食物已经全部吃光,南军指挥官看到毫无希望,只好宣布投降。

The terms of surrender were simple. The Confederate soldiers promised not to fight anymore. In return for this promise, they were released on parole and sent home to their families.

投降的条件很简单。南军被俘将士保证不再参加任何战斗,作为交换条件,北方军同意让他们假释回家。

Never had Union forces won such a victory. Thirty thousand Confederate soldiers were now out of the war. Sixty thousand guns and one hundred seventy cannon were now in Union hands. The Mississippi River was now under Union control.

这是北方军自南北战争开始以来获得的最大一场胜利。他们不仅让三万名南军士兵退出了战场,而且还缴获了六万条枪、170门大炮,同时将密西西比河流域牢牢地控制在自己手中。

This week in our series, Larry West and Maurice Joyce continue our story of the American Civil War.

VOICE ONE:

General Ulysses Grant
General Ulysses Grant

The victory at Vicksburg went to General Ulysses Grant. He was named commander of all Union armies in the west. Then he was sent to Chattanooga, Tennessee.

格兰特将军是维克斯堡胜利的功臣,晋升北方军西部战区总指挥,并被派往田纳西的查塔努加。

The Union army there had just been defeated in a battle along a little river called the Chickamauga. Now the Union soldiers were resting and re-organizing in Chattanooga. The Confederate line stretched halfway around the city.

那里的北方军在奇克莫加河沿岸打了败仗,在查塔努加休整,南方军在城外呈半圆形拉开。

The Confederates had artillery on Lookout Mountain. They controlled every road into the city except a rough one through the mountains. They had blocked the Tennessee River above and below the city. And they had cut the railroad. The Confederate general said he would let hunger force the Union Army to surrender.

南方军在卢考特山部署了炮火,除了一条崎岖山路外,进城的所有道路都被南方军控制。南方军还封锁了查塔努加周围的田纳西河水路,切断了铁路线。南方军将领说,他们打算让饥饿逼迫北方军投降。

VOICE TWO:

Grant arrived in Chattanooga late in October. The city was full of hungry Union soldiers. They had been without supplies for almost a month.

格兰特将军10月下旬抵达查塔努加时,城里到处都是饥肠辘辘的北军士兵,他们的供给已经中断快一个月了。

Grant wasted no time. He quickly sent troops to fight the Confederate force blocking the Tennessee River. He sent others to fight the Confederates blocking the road to the nearest Union supply center. Within one week, supply wagons were rolling into Chattanooga. Within a few weeks, the defeated Union army was ready to fight again.

格兰特没有浪费时间,立即派兵向封锁田纳西河的南方军发动进攻;同时派兵进攻封锁连通北军供给中心道路的南方军。不到一个星期,供给车辆就源源不断地驶往查塔努加了。几个星期后,被击败的北方军做好了重新战斗的准备。

VOICE ONE:

Fighting on Lookout Mountain in Tennessee
Fighting on Lookout Mountain in Tennessee

General Grant sent his men against the middle and ends of the Confederate line at the same time.

格兰特将军派兵对南军战线的中间和两翼同时发动进攻。

There were few Confederate soldiers at Lookout Mountain. That end of the line fell easily. The center of the line was along a low hill called Missionary Ridge. It held for a while. Then Union soldiers -- acting without orders -- forced their way to the top of the hill. The Confederate line broke. Southern soldiers threw down their guns and ran for their lives.

卢考特山上的南军人数很少,轻而易举就被北方军攻陷。南军战线中段沿着一条名叫传教士岭的低矮山岭部署,久攻不下,最后北军士兵擅自决定抢占山头,结果终于攻破了南军阵线。

The Confederate army withdrew south into the state of Georgia. Tennessee was completely in Union hands. The way was now open for the armies of the North to march into the heart of the Confederacy.

南军士兵弃枪逃命。南方军撤退进入乔治亚州。田纳西彻底落入北方军的手中,北方军也由此打开了通往南方邦联心脏的大门。

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

It was clear that the South could not win the war. Too many Confederate soldiers had fallen in battle. None were left to take their place. Supplies were very low. There was not enough food to eat, no shoes to wear, and little left to fight with.

南方显然已无力赢得这场战争的胜利。南方军伤亡惨重,却没有兵源补充,军备物资也出现短缺,没有粮食吃,没有鞋穿,没有武器打仗。

No one held any hope of getting supplies from outside the Confederacy. The South was circled by Union troops and warships. All seemed lost.

人们对得到供给不抱希望,南方已经被北军的部队和战舰团团包围,似乎一切都完了。

Yet Confederate soldiers refused to stop fighting. They would not surrender. The war would not end until the Confederate armies were defeated by military force.

然而,南军士兵还是拒绝放弃,拒绝投降,除非南方军被彻底打败,否则战争不会结束。

VOICE ONE:

There was no question that the North had the military strength. Supplies were no problem. Factories were producing more than ever before. Manpower was no problem. Men continued to join the Union army. Fewer than before, but still enough to make it a powerful force.

毫无疑问,北方的军事实力要比南方强大,不仅军备物资源源不断,而且兵源也十分充足。

The problem with the Union army was its generals. Some were too careful. Some were unwilling to fight. Some did not know how to fight.

北方军的问题在于,他们的军事将领要么是过于谨小慎微、要么是不愿意打仗,还有些人根本不会打仗。

The only general who seemed able to win victories was Ulysses Grant. That is why President Abraham Lincoln named Grant commander of all Union armies. Lincoln depended on him to end the Civil War.

唯一能征善战的北军将领就是格兰特,这也就是为什么林肯总统任命格兰特担任北军总指挥,林肯希望格兰特能结束这场内战。

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

Grant went east in March eighteen sixty-four, five months after the battle at Chattanooga. He decided to make his headquarters in the field with the Army of the Potomac. He said he would not command from an office in Washington. But he went to the city to explain his plans to President Lincoln.

1864年3月,查塔努加战役结束五个月后,格兰特向东进发。他决定把总部设在波托马克军团的战场上,而不是在华盛顿的办公室里。格兰特前往华盛顿向林肯解释自己的计划。

Grant noted that, in the past, the separate Union armies had moved and fought independently. He said they were like a poorly trained team of horses. No two of them ever pulled at the same time in the same direction.

格兰特说,北军各部以前都是单打独斗,就像缺乏训练的马匹,从来不会同时向一个方向拉。

Under his command, Grant said, the Union armies would pull together. They would hit the Confederates with so much strength in so many places that the rebels could not stop them.

Grant said all the armies would attack at the same time.

格兰特说,他要领导北军部队协同作战,在不同地点同时对南军发起攻击,让他们没有还手之力。

VOICE ONE:

Grant spent the month of April preparing for the big campaign. The main target, once again, was the Confederate capital at Richmond, Virginia.

4月整整一个月,格兰特埋头制定作战方案。这次战役的目标依旧是南方邦联首都里士满。

The Army of the Potomac had one hundred twenty thousand men. It would move against Richmond from the north. General Ben Butler had fifty thousand men. He would move against Richmond from the east. General Franz Sigel would bring thousands more through the Shenandoah Valley to the northwest.

波托马克军团12万人从北面直逼里士满,巴特勒将军率领5万人从东面进攻,西格尔将军也率领数以千计的人马从雪兰多山谷出发,向西北进发。

These forces were three times the size of Robert E. Lee's army near Richmond.

这些部队的人数是里士满附近罗伯特·李将军率领的南军人数的三倍。

In the west, William Sherman had three armies with more than one hundred thousand men. His opponent, Joe Johnston, had just sixty thousand.

在西面,北军将领威廉·谢尔曼手下的三股人马共有10万多人,他的对手、南军将领约翰斯顿只有6万人。

VOICE TWO:

General Grant kept details of the campaign as secret as possible. Reporters asked President Lincoln when Grant would move.

The president answered, "Ask General Grant."

格兰特对行动计划严格保密。有记者问林肯,格兰特打算什么时候出发,林肯回答说,这你要去问格兰特将军本人。

"General Grant will not tell us," said the reporters. Said Lincoln, "He will not tell me, either."

记者说,可是格兰特不告诉我们。林肯回答说,"他也不告诉我。"

The final Union campaign of the Civil War began on May third, eighteen sixty-four.

1864年5月3号,美国南北战争北方军的最后一场战役开始了。

After two days of marching, the Army of the Potomac reached the wilderness. It was a thickly wooded area west of Fredericksburg, Virginia. That was where the Union army had lost a battle to the Confederates one year before. That was where the two armies would fight again.

波托马克军团行军两天,来到维吉尼亚弗雷德里克斯堡以西一处树木丛生的荒芜地带。北方军一年前曾在那里打过一场败仗,如今,南北双方又要在这里决一雌雄。

VOICE ONE:

The battle quickly became a blind struggle. The woods were thick. The smoke was heavy. The soldiers could not see each other until they were very close. Shells set the trees on fire. The wounded could not escape the flames. Their screams filled the air.

这场战斗很快就变成了一场混战。茂密的丛林烟雾弥漫。交战双方要到很近的地方才能看见对方,弹药引起树林起火,伤兵无法逃身,困在火焰之中,他们的哀号声响彻天空。

After two days, General Grant decided that the wilderness was not the place to fight Robert E. Lee. He wanted to get around the end of Lee's army. He wanted to fight in the open, where he could use his artillery. So he began to march his men toward a place called Spotsylvania Court House.

经过两天战斗,格兰特将军意识到,这里不是跟罗伯特·李交战的理想地点,他想绕到罗伯特·李的身后,在开阔地带交手,好让他的炮火派上用场,因此下令向一个叫作斯波特斯凡尼亚法院的地方前进。

VOICE TWO:

General Grant at his headquarters in Cold Harbor
General Grant at his headquarters in Cold Harbor

Lee moved his men as fast as Grant. When the Union army got to Spotsylvania, the Confederates were waiting behind walls of earth and stone.

罗伯特·李的行动速度同样迅速。北军士兵抵达斯波特斯凡尼亚的时候,南军已经在泥石墙后面等着了。

For several more days, the two armies fought. At times, they were so close they had no time to load and fire their guns. So they used their guns to hit each other.

双方激战数日,有时彼此距离太近,根本来不及上子弹,只好近身肉搏。

The Confederate line bent. But it never broke. Once again, Lee had stopped the Union army.

南军防线受挫,但始终没有被攻破,罗伯特·李再一次成功挡住了北军的攻势。

Grant refused to accept defeat. He said he would fight to the finish, if it took all summer. Once again, he ordered his men to march around the end of Lee's line. Lee quickly pulled his men back to a place called Cold Harbor, not far from Richmond. There they waited.

格兰特不肯罢休。他发誓说,即使要花整整一夏天,他也要打下去。他再次下令部队绕到敌军身后。罗伯特·李将军则迅速把人马调集到距离里士满不远处一个叫冷港的地方,在那里守候。

VOICE ONE:

The Battle of Cold Harbor
The Battle of Cold Harbor

As he had done in the wilderness and at Spotsylvania, Grant ordered his men to attack hard. It was a slaughter. In less than an hour, seven thousand Union soldiers fell dead or wounded.

格兰特再次下令发动最猛烈的攻击。这简直就是一场屠杀,不到一个小时的时间内,北军就死伤七千人。

Grant finally stopped the attack. The Union soldiers returned to their lines. They left behind hundreds of wounded men.

格兰特最后只好下令停火,北军士兵撤回防线,将数千名伤员留在了战场上。

For four days, the wounded lay on the battlefield crying for help, for water. Men who tried to rescue them were shot down. Finally, Grant and Lee agreed on a ceasefire to take care of the wounded and bury the dead. It was too late for most of the wounded. They had died.

整整四天,战场上的伤员哭喊着寻求帮助,要水喝。但是,任何试图去营救他们的人都被射杀。格兰特和罗伯特·李最后同意停火,救治伤员,掩埋死者,但是对于大多数伤员来说,已经太晚了,他们已经命丧黄泉。

VOICE TWO:

The battle at Cold Harbor ended one month of fighting for the Army of the Potomac. The campaign had brought it almost to the edge of Richmond, the Confederate capital. But Grant had paid a terrible price: more than fifty thousand dead and wounded.

Confederate losses were much lighter: about twenty thousand.

冷港战役结束了波托马克军团长达一个月的攻势,他们几乎打到了邦联首都里士满的边缘,但是格兰特将军也为此付出了惨重的代价,共有5万多人伤亡,而南方邦联损失只有大约两万人。

General Grant was beginning to learn an important lesson of the war. The methods of defense had improved much more than the methods of attack.

这场战役也给格兰特将军上了重要的一课,那就是,防御战术的改进大大超过了进攻战术的改进。

(MUSIC)

ANNOUNCER:

Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Larry West and Maurice Joyce. You can find transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our programs, along with historical images, at www.unsv.com. And you can follow us on Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

___

This is program #112 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

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