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#110: Lincoln's Gettysburg Address

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Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English.

In November of eighteen sixty-three, President Abraham Lincoln traveled to Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. He went there to make a speech at a ceremony establishing a military burial ground.

1863年11月,林肯总统前往宾夕法尼亚的葛底斯堡,准备在葛底斯堡阵亡将士公墓的落成典礼上讲话。

Five months earlier, Confederate General Robert E. Lee had marched his army up from Virginia to invade the North. The Union Army of the Potomac went after him. They met at Gettysburg in the bloodiest battle of the Civil War.

五个月前,南方邦联指挥官罗伯特·李率军从维吉尼亚出发,大举北上。北方联邦的波托马克军团尾随其后,在葛底斯堡爆发了美国南北战争中最惨烈的葛底斯堡战役。

This week in our series, Kay Gallant and Frank Oliver tell the story of Abraham Lincoln's speech -- the Gettysburg Address.

VOICE ONE:

The battle of Gettysburg lasted three days. General Lee threw his men against the Union Army. The northern soldiers refused to break. Lee, at last, had to stop fighting. Badly hurt, his army went back to Virginia.

葛底斯堡战役持续三天,罗伯特·李的部队全力出击,但是北方部队坚守阵地,绝不后撤。最后,罗伯特·李只好停战。南军部队在这次战役中遭受重大人员伤亡,只好返回维吉尼亚。

Union dead at Gettysburg
Union dead at Gettysburg

Lee left behind a battlefield covered with Confederate dead. More than three thousand Confederate soldiers had been killed. Union losses were almost as heavy. Two thousand five hundred Union soldiers had been killed.

南军撤退后,战场上尸横遍野,共有三万多名南军士兵在这场战役中被打死。北方损失同样惨重,两万五千人战死疆场。

The terrible job of clearing the battlefield fell to the Union soldiers who had won the battle. Many thousands on both sides had been wounded. The wounded were moved to medical centers for treatment. The dead were buried.

清理战场的任务由胜利一方--北军--承担。双方都有成千上万的伤员。伤员被送往医务中心治疗,死者就地掩埋。

Most of the bodies were buried where they fell. The Confederate dead generally were buried together in large, shallow graves. Union troops who fell were buried in separate graves all over the battlefield.

南军士兵大多被埋在挖得不深的集体墓穴里,北军士兵则被分散埋在战场的各个角落。

VOICE TWO:

A few weeks after the battle, the governor of Pennsylvania visited Gettysburg. As he walked over the battlefield, he saw where rains had washed away the earth covering many of the fallen soldiers.

战役结束几周后,宾夕法尼亚州州长前来视察。当时,雨水已经将很多掩盖墓穴的泥土冲走了。

He said men who died so bravely should have a better resting place than that. The governor said a new cemetery should be built for the bodies of the Union soldiers. He asked the governors of other northern states to help raise money for the cemetery.

宾夕法尼亚州州长看到这种情况后说,勇敢为国捐躯的阵亡将士应该有一个更好的地方安息,并宣布要为北方阵亡将士建立一个新的公墓。他联络北方其它州的州长,一起为公墓集资。

Within a month, there was money enough to buy a large area of the battlefield for a military cemetery. Work began almost immediately. The human remains were moved from other places on the battlefield and put into graves in the new cemetery.

短短一个月内,他就筹集到足够资金,购买了战场上很大一块地方修建公墓,并立即动工。阵亡将士的遗骨被陆续迁移到公墓里。

VOICE ONE:

Edward Everett
Edward Everett

The governor planned a ceremony in November, eighteen sixty-three, to dedicate the Gettysburg cemetery. He invited governors and congressmen from each state in the Union.

宾夕法尼亚州州长计划1863年11月为公墓举行落成典礼,邀请联邦各州的州长和国会议员参加。

He asked a former senator and governor of Massachusetts, Edward Everett, to give the dedication speech. An invitation was sent to the White House, too. The governor asked President Lincoln to come to the ceremony. He asked Lincoln to say a few words.

他邀请国会前参议员和麻萨诸塞州州长爱德华·埃弗里特致悼词,同时致函白宫,邀请林肯总统参加公墓的落成典礼,讲几句话。

Lincoln agreed to do so. He felt it was his duty to go. He wanted to honor the brave men who had died at Gettysburg. Lincoln hoped his words might ease the sorrow over the loss of these men and lift the spirit of the nation.

林肯欣然接受。他觉得,自己有责任向葛底斯堡的阵亡将士致敬。林肯同时希望,自己的话能抚平将士阵亡带来的伤痛,鼓舞北方的战斗士气。

VOICE TWO:

Lincoln was advised to talk about democracy. He recently had received a letter from a man in Massachusetts. The man had just returned from a visit to Europe.

有人建议林肯谈民主。他最近收到麻萨诸塞州一位选民的来信,此人刚从欧洲回来。

The man told Lincoln that Europeans saw the war more clearly than Americans, who were in the middle of it. He said they saw it as a war between the people and an aristocracy. The South, he said, was ruled by a small group of aristocrats. He said once the people understood that it was a war for democracy, they would win it quickly.

他在信中告诉林肯说,欧洲人看这场战争,比身在其中的美国人自己看得还要清楚。他说,欧洲人认为,这是人民跟贵族之间的战争,因为南方由一小群贵族统治。一旦大家明白,他们是在为民主而战,战争就会马上胜利。

The man urged Lincoln to explain to the common people that the war was not the North against the South, but democracy against the enemies of democracy.

他敦促林肯向普通民众解释,这场战争不是北方针对南方,而是民主针对民主的敌人。

VOICE ONE:

Lincoln was busy during the two weeks before the ceremony at Gettysburg. He did not have much time to work on his speech. He decided what to say. But he did not choose the exact words he would use.

葛底斯堡公墓落成典礼前两周,林肯公务十分繁忙,没有多少时间准备讲话。他已经决定了演讲的内容,但是没有具体选择用词。

Lincoln left Washington November eighteenth for the train ride to Gettysburg. The train stopped in Baltimore. A crowd waited to see him.

11月18号,林肯启程,坐火车前往葛底斯堡。火车中途在巴尔的摩停下,很多群众在那里迎接他。

An old man came up and shook Lincoln's hand. He told the president that he had lost a son in the fighting at Gettysburg. Lincoln said he understood the man's sorrow.

一位老人走上前来,握住林肯的手,说自己的儿子死在了葛底斯堡。林肯告诉老人,他理解他的痛苦。

Lincoln said to the old man: "When I think of the sacrifices of life still to be offered, and the hearts and homes to be made lonely before this terrible war is over, my heart is like lead. I feel at times like hiding in a deep darkness."

林肯说:“每当想到这场可怕的战争结束前,我们还要付出的生命的代价,以及由此造成的家庭破碎,和心灵的孤独,我的心就像灌了铅一样沉重。我有时真想躲到黑暗中去。”

VOICE TWO:

Lincoln arrived at Gettysburg at sundown. He had dinner. Then he went to his room to complete the speech he would give the next day. He worked for several hours. Finally, it was done.

11月18号傍晚,林肯抵达葛底斯堡,吃完晚饭,林肯就一头钻进房间,准备第二天的演讲稿。几个小时后,讲稿终于写好了。

The next morning, Lincoln -- on horseback -- led a slow parade to the new cemetery. A huge crowd waited before the place where Lincoln and the other important visitors would sit. Military bands played. Soldiers saluted.

第二天早上,林肯骑马带着游行队伍,缓缓前往公墓,那里已经有很多人等候林肯和其他重要宾客落座。军乐队开始演奏,士兵行军礼致敬。

VOICE ONE:

The ceremonies began with a prayer. Then Edward Everett rose to speak.

祷告过后,前国会参议员埃弗里特起身发言。

Everett stood silent for a moment. He looked out across the battlefield and the crowds that now covered it. He began to talk about the Civil War and what had caused it. He spoke about Lee's invasion of the North. He told how northern cities would have fallen had Lee not been stopped at Gettysburg. He praised the men who had given their lives in the great battle.

他沉默片刻,环视战场上站满的人,然后从内战和内战的起因讲起。他谈到了罗伯特·李将军攻打北方,谈到了如果南军没有被拦在葛底斯堡,会有多少北方城市沦陷,他高度赞扬在这场重大战役中英勇献身的阵亡将士。

Everett spoke for almost two hours. He closed his speech with the hope that the nation would come out of the war with greater unity than ever before.

埃弗里特讲了将近两小时。他在结束前表示,希望美国走出这场战争后,能够比已往任何时候都更加团结。

Then Lincoln stood up. He looked out over the valley, then down at the papers in his hand. He began to read:

随后,林肯总统站起身来,他眺望峡谷后,目光回到手中的演讲稿上,开始宣读。

VOICE THREE:

The only known photograph of President Lincoln, center, at the Civil War cemetery at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania
The only known photograph of President Lincoln, center, at the Civil War cemetery at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania

"Four score and seven years ago, our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.

“八十七年前,我们的祖先在这大陆上建立了一个新的国家,它孕育于自由,并且献身给一种理念,即所有人都是生来平等的。

"Now we are engaged in a great civil war testing whether that nation or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battlefield of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this.

当前,我们正在从事一次伟大的内战,我们在考验,究竟这个国家,或任何一个有这种主张和这种信仰的国家,是否能长久存在。我们在那次战争的一个伟大的战场上集合。我们来到这里,奉献那个战场上的一部分土地,作为在此地为那个国家的生存而牺牲了自己生命的人永久眠息之所。我们这样做,是十分合情合理的。

"But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate -- we cannot consecrate -- we cannot hallow this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract.

可是,就更深一层意义而言,我们是无从奉献这片土地的--无从使它成为圣地--也不可能把它变为人们景仰之所。那些在这里战斗的勇士,活着的和死去的,已使这块土地神圣化了,远非我们的菲薄能力所能左右。

"The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work for which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced.

“世人会不大注意,更不会长久记得我们在此地所说的话,然而他们将永远忘不了这些人在这里所做的事。相反,我们活着的人应该献身于那些曾在此作战的人们所英勇推动而尚未完成的工作。

It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us - that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion - that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom - and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth."

我们应该在此献身于我们面前所留存的伟大工作--由于他们的光荣牺牲,我们要更坚定地致力于他们曾作最后全部贡献的那个事业---我们在此立志誓愿,不能让他们白白死去--要使这个国家在上帝庇佑之下,得到新生的自由--要使那民有、民治、民享的政府不致从地球上消失。”

VOICE TWO:

The crowd applauded for several minutes. Then the people began to leave.

林肯讲话结束后,听众热烈的掌声经久不息,然后人群开始慢慢散去。

Lincoln turned to a friend. He said he feared his speech had been a failure. He said he should have prepared it more carefully.

林肯转身告诉朋友说,他担心讲话失败了,他本应准备得更充分才对。

Edward Everett did not agree with Lincoln. He said the president's speech was perfect. He said the president had said more in two minutes than he, Everett, had said in two hours.

但是埃弗里特不这么看。他说,林肯的讲话非常完美,林肯在两分钟里讲的内容,比他在两小时里说的还要多。

Newspapers and other publications praised Lincoln's Gettysburg address. Said one: "The few words of the president were from the heart, to the heart. They cannot be read without emotion."

各大报刊也对林肯的葛底斯堡讲话赞誉有加。其中一份报纸说,“总统几句肺腑之言,触动人心,读起来不可能不被打动。”

Abraham Lincoln went back to Washington that night. He was very tired. Within a week, his secretary announced that the president was sick. He was suffering from smallpox.

林肯总统当晚返回华盛顿。他疲惫不堪。不到一周后,林肯的秘书宣布,总统得了天花。

(MUSIC)

ANNOUNCER:

Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Kay Gallant and Frank Oliver. You can find transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our programs, along with historical images, at www.unsv.com. You can also comment on our programs and read what other people are saying. And you can follow us on Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION - an American history series in VOA Special English.

___

This is program #110 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

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