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#109: South Sees Protests in North as an Opening

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Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.

America's civil war in the eighteen sixties did not have the full support of the people. Many said they did not care who won -- North or South. They just wanted to be left alone.

十九世纪六十年代的美国南北战争没有得到人民的普遍支持。很多人表示,他们不关心谁输谁赢,只希望自己不要受到战火的波及。

General Robert E. Lee
General Robert E. Lee

In the North, many young men refused to be drafted into the Union army. Some of their protests turned violent.

在北方,很多年轻人拒绝应征入伍,并为此举行抗议示威,有些示威活动还发展成为暴力冲突。

Southern leaders were pleased with the anti-war movement in the North. Confederate General Robert E. Lee saw it as a sign of weakness in the northern war effort. He also saw it as an opening for a military victory. Lee hoped for a final, decisive blow that would bring the war to an end.

北方的反战运动正中南方领导人下怀。南方邦联部队最高指挥官罗伯特·李将军觉得,种种迹象显示,北方斗志日益削弱,为南方的军事胜利提供了突破口。罗伯特·李将军希望借此良机,一举打败北方,结束这场内战。

This week in our series, Kay Gallant and Harry Monroe talk about General Lee's campaign north to Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.

这就是美国历史上著名的葛底斯堡战役。

VOICE ONE:

Gettysburg was a small town. Many roads came together there. Robert E. Lee needed those roads to pull his army together quickly. He had seventy thousand men in all. But they were spread over a wide area of southern Pennsylvania.

葛底斯堡是一个小城镇,地处交通要道。罗伯特·李将军手下一共有七万人马,分散在宾夕法尼亚南部的广大地区,因此需要一个象葛底斯堡这样的交通要道,便于部队迅速集结。

Some were at York, to the east. Some were at Carlisle, to the north. And most were at Chambersburg, to the west. All of them were ordered to move against the Union force at Gettysburg.

当时,南军人马一些在东面的约克,一些在北面的卡莱尔,大多数在西面的钱伯斯堡。所有部队都得到命令,赶往葛底斯堡对付北方军。

General Robert E. Lee had not planned to go to Gettysburg. He had planned to capture Harrisburg, the state capital, and then Philadelphia. If successful, he would turn south to seize Baltimore and Washington.

葛底斯堡本来并不是罗伯特·李的目标,他原计划打下宾夕法尼亚首府哈里斯堡,然后攻占费城。如果成功,再向南夺取巴尔的摩和华盛顿。

Lee had not worried about the large Union Army of the Potomac. He believed it was far behind him, in Virginia. But Lee was wrong. The Union Army had followed him. And it had reached Gettysburg first.

罗伯特·李将军并不担心北方庞大的波托马克军团。他以为,波托马克军团还在维吉尼亚离他很远的敌方,但是他错了,波托马克军团一直尾随其后,而且首先抵达了葛底斯堡。

VOICE TWO:

The first group of northern soldiers formed a thin line of defense outside Gettysburg. The first group of southern soldiers attacked this line. It was the morning of July first, eighteen sixty-three.

第一批抵达葛底斯堡的北军士兵在城外建了一道薄弱防线。1863年7月1号,南军对北军防线发动进攻。

When the guns began to roar, both sides hurried more men to the front.

战斗打响后,双方纷纷派兵增援。

After hours of fighting, the Confederates had pushed the Union soldiers back through the town. The Union soldiers formed a new line along a place called Cemetery Hill.

经过几小时的激战,南军迫使北军后撤,在一个叫墓园岭的地方建立起一道新防线。

General Robert E. Lee decided not to attack the hill immediately. He would wait for more men. But as he waited, more and more Union soldiers arrived. By sunrise the next day, Lee's seventy thousand men faced a Union army of ninety thousand men.

罗伯特·李将军决定暂时按兵不动,等待援兵。然而,与此同时,北军的增援力量也陆续抵达。到第二天日出的时候,罗伯特·李将军率领的七万人马,面对的已经是九万人的北方大军了。

VOICE ONE:

General George Meade
General George Meade

The Confederates attacked both sides of the Union line. They moved the Union soldiers a little. But then the Union soldiers came back again. The Confederates could not hold the line.

南军对北军防线两端发动进攻,迫使北军少许后撤,但是南军无法守住阵地,北军不久又反扑回来。

The fighting stopped at sunset. Union commander George Meade met with his generals. He said he was sure General Lee would attack again the next day. The next attack, Meade said, would be against the center of the Union line.

日落时战斗结束。北军指挥官乔治·米德召集手下将领开会。米德说,他敢肯定,罗伯特·李次日一定会发动进攻,进攻目标一定是北军防线的中段。

Meade was right. Lee planned to send fifteen thousand men against the Union center. They would be under the command of General George Pickett.

果不其然,罗伯特·李计划派遣乔治·皮克特将军率领一万五千人,攻打北军中段防线。

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

The Battle of Gettysburg
The Battle of Gettysburg

When the sun rose on July third, the Union troops were ready. They watched as the Confederate troops set up their cannon. More than one hundred thirty of these big guns were aimed at the center of the Union line.

7月3号早上,北军做好了战斗准备。从他们所在的位置,可以看到南军部队架设火炮,一百三十多门火炮全部指向北军中段防线。

The morning passed. The day grew hotter. A little past one o'clock in the afternoon, a Confederate gun fired, once. Then again. That was the signal to attack.

上午过去了,天气越来越热。下午一点钟刚过,南军大炮打响了,一下,又是一下,这是行动的信号。

All at once, the Confederate artillery thundered with a deafening roar. The cannon sent iron and smoke into the Union soldiers on Cemetery Hill. Within minutes, hundreds lay dead or dying.

突然之间,南方大炮震耳欲聋,在墓园岭北军阵线附近爆炸,到处都是弹片和浓烟,短短几分钟内,就有数以百计的北军士兵被炸死炸伤。

Union artillery on the hill answered the Confederate cannon. Men lay flat on the ground. They prayed for the shelling to stop. Finally, it did. And the smoke of battle began to clear.

山上北军的炮火立即发动反击。南军阵地也是尸横遍野。最后,炮声停了,烟雾开始消散。

VOICE ONE:

Now the Union soldiers could see across the valley. They watched as the Confederate soldiers formed a long line. It was a sight to take your breath away.

北军战士从山上望下去,不禁倒吸一口冷气。

Facing Cemetery Hill, the Confederates stood shoulder to shoulder in a line almost two kilometers long. Sunlight shone from their guns. Their battle flags waved. Slowly, the line began to move. It seemed more like a parade than an attack.

山脚下,南军士兵肩并肩一字排开,排成了一条几乎两公里长的阵线。阳光照在他们的枪上,格外晃眼。他们挥舞着战旗,开始前进,不像是在进攻,反而更象是在游行。

Shouts went up and down the Union line. "Here they come! Here come the rebels!"

山上的北军大喊,“他们来了!叛匪冲上来了。”

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

Action at the Battle of Gettysburg
Action at the Battle of Gettysburg

Thousands of Confederate soldiers moved across the valley outside Gettysburg. Union artillery opened fire. The guns tore open big holes in the Confederate battle line. But the southerners kept moving forward up the hill.

北军开炮,把南军阵线打得七零八散,但是南军还是继续向山上推进。

Union soldiers rose up from behind stone walls and fallen trees. They poured even more gunfire into the Confederate line. More and more bodies fell to the ground. Still, the line moved forward.

北军士兵从藏身的石墙和大树后面站出来,拼命向南军阵线射击,很多人应声倒下,但是南军还是继续前进。

A few Confederates reached the Union line, but not enough to seize it. They were shot down. Suddenly, the Confederates began racing down the hill. Many raised their hands in surrender. Fifteen thousand began the attack. Only half returned.

少数南军士兵冲上山来,但是因为人数太少,无法夺取阵地,纷纷被北军打死。顷刻之间,南军开始往山下撤退,很多人举手投降。开始参加进攻的一万五千人,最后回来的只有一半人。

The battle of Gettysburg was over.

葛底斯堡战役结束了。

The Union commander, General Meade, was told that the Confederate attack had been broken. He said, simply: "Thank God." The Confederate commander, General Lee, said: "This has been a sad day for us, a sad day."

联邦指挥官米德将军听说南军被打退的消息后,只是简单地说了一句,“感谢上帝”。南军指挥官罗伯特·李说,“对我们来说,这是难过的一天,难过的一天。”

VOICE ONE:

Lee's invasion of the North had failed. There was only one thing he could do now: retreat. He must get his army back to Virginia. He could only hope that the Union Army was hurt too badly to chase him.

罗伯特·李进攻北方的计划失败了,他只剩下一条路可走:那就是撤退。他必须率领部下返回维吉尼亚。他只能寄希望于,北军也受到了沉重打击,无法乘胜追击。

The line of wagons carrying wounded soldiers was twenty-five kilometers long. Many of the wounded needed treatment. But the wagons were not permitted to stop for any reason.

南军运载伤员的马车绵延25公里,很多伤员尚未接受治疗,但是罗伯特·李下令,无论出于什么原因,车辆一律不许停下。

Suffering was terrible. An officer who led the wagon train said he learned more about the horrors of war on that one trip than he had learned in all of his battles.

伤员们痛苦不堪。一位负责运送伤员的指挥官说,他这一路体会到的战争的可怕,比已往任何一次战役都要深刻。

Twenty thousand Confederate soldiers were killed, wounded, or listed as missing in the battle of Gettysburg. Twenty-three thousand Union soldiers were killed, wounded or missing.

葛底斯堡一战,南军共有两万人伤亡,或是下落不明。北军损失也有两万三千人。

VOICE TWO:

General Meade lost so many men that he was in no hurry to chase General Lee. He believed it might be best to let Lee escape than to take a chance on losing what remained of the Army of the Potomac.

米德将军决定不急着追剿南军。他觉得,与其冒险让波托马克军团的余部进一步受挫,不如放南军撤退。

Meade waited for a week until his army was stronger. But by then, Lee and his men had crossed safely back into Virginia.

米德用了一个星期,让波托马克军团恢复元气。与此同时,罗伯特·李已经率部返回维吉尼亚。

President Abraham Lincoln was angry. He had told General Meade that driving the Confederates out of the North was not enough. The southern army must be destroyed.

林肯总统火冒三丈。他早就告诉过米德,光把南军赶出北方是不够的,要将南军全部消灭。

"We had them," Lincoln said. "We had only to stretch out our hands and take them. And nothing I could do or say could make the army move."

林肯说,“本来已经是唾手可得了,我们只要再加把劲,就能消灭他们。但是不管我说什么,做什么,部队就是不动。”

VOICE ONE:

President Lincoln believed that General Meade had made a mistake. But he felt that the general had ability. Lincoln was thankful for what Meade had done at Gettysburg. He said Meade would continue to command the Army of the Potomac.

林肯认为,这是米德将军的失策,但他同时又觉得,米德很有能力。他对米德在葛底斯堡的战果十分满意,所以宣布,由米德继续担任波托马克军团的总指挥。

In November of eighteen sixty-three, President Lincoln went to Gettysburg. He attended the opening of a new burial place for the Union soldiers who had died in the great battle there.

1863年11月,林肯前往葛底斯堡,参加葛底斯堡阵亡将士墓地的落成。

VOICE TWO:

The governor of Pennsylvania had asked the president to say a few words at the ceremony. Lincoln agreed. He felt it was his duty to go to honor the brave men who lost their lives to save the Union. Lincoln hoped his words might help lift the spirit of the nation.

宾夕法尼亚州长请林肯在落成仪式上讲话,林肯欣然接受。他觉得,自己有义务向保卫联邦献出生命的勇士们表达敬意,也希望自己的讲话能重振北方的士气。

Lincoln did not have much time to prepare his speech. He wrote it down the night before the ceremony. Lincoln was sure the speech was not a good one. But it came to be one of the most famous speeches in American history.

林肯没有多少时间准备,赶在仪式头一天晚上写完了发言稿。他觉得,这篇讲话写得不好,但结果,葛底斯堡讲话却成了美国历史上最著名的演讲之一。

We will tell the story of Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address next week.

(MUSIC)

ANNOUNCER:

Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Kay Gallant and Harry Monroe. Transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our programs are online, along with historical images, at www.unsv.com. And you can follow our weekly programs on Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

___

This is program #109 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

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