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#108: As the Civil War Grows, So Does Opposition

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Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English.

By eighteen sixty-three, America's northern states and southern states had been fighting a bitter civil war for two years. Both sides felt the pressure of the costly struggle.

到1863年,美国内战已经持续两年。这场战争代价惨重,交战双方都感到沉重压力。

The South was beginning to suffer from a lack of supplies and men for its armies. The North was beginning to suffer from a lack of fighting spirit.

南方的物资和兵源出现短缺,北方人也开始意志消沉。

This week in our series, Larry West and Tony Riggs describe an anti-war movement that was growing.

VOICE ONE:

Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln

Many Americans in northern states did not support the war policies of Union President Abraham Lincoln. Some said openly that they did not care who won the war. They just wanted to be left alone.

北方各州的很多美国人并不支持林肯的战争政策。一些人甚至公开表示,他们不在乎谁输谁赢,只希望自己不要受到战火的波及。

Coal miners in Pennsylvania protested against a law drafting men into the Union army. They rioted and attacked officials who tried to take them. Soldiers were sent to Pennsylvania to put down the riots.

新的征兵法引起了宾夕法尼亚矿工的愤怒,他们举行暴动,跟强行征兵的官员发生冲突,政府不得不出兵镇暴。

Farmers in Ohio also protested. They refused to be drafted. They attacked soldiers who were sent to arrest them. The worst anti-war riots, however, took place in New York City.

俄亥俄地区的农民也以同样的方式抵制征兵,对前来抓他们的士兵发动袭击。最严重的反战暴动发生在纽约市。

VOICE TWO:

On July thirteenth, eighteen sixty-three, a crowd formed outside a New York draft office. Inside, army officials were choosing the names of men who would be taken into the army. Each name was written on a separate piece of paper. The papers were mixed together in a big box. The officials then began to remove the papers one at a time. They made a list of the names. These were the men of New York who must go off to fight.

1863年7月13号,征兵官员在征兵办公室里挑选下一批征兵人员名单,与此同时,办公室外面围了一大群人。征兵官员把人名写在小纸条上,团成一团,放在一个大盒子里,抽到谁,谁就要应征入伍,代表纽约去前线。

On that day, however, the list was never completed. The crowd outside the draft office became louder. There were shouts of protest against the draft and against the Civil War.

7月13号那天,征兵办公室外面的声浪越来越大,有人高声抵制征兵,反对内战。

VOICE ONE:

Police struggling to control rioters in New York
Police struggling to control rioters in New York

Suddenly, a stone crashed through the office window. Then another. And another. The army officials escaped. But a policeman inside could not get away. The rioters beat him badly. Then they set fire to the draft office and several buildings nearby. The riot spread across the city.

突然,一块石头从窗户飞了进来,然后又是两块,征兵官员侥幸逃走,但当时在场的一个警察没走了,被抗议者打得很惨,他们还在征兵办公室和附近几处建筑放火,暴动席卷整个城市。

The riot began as a political protest against the draft. Poor men opposed the draft, because it permitted rich men to escape military service.

这是反对征兵的政治暴动。穷人反对征兵法,因为有钱就不用服兵役。

The law said a man who was drafted could stay out of the army by doing one of two things. He could pay the government three hundred dollars. Or he could pay another man to serve in his place. If a drafted man could not do either thing, then he must join the army or be shot as a deserter.

征兵法规定,如果被召入伍,但是不想去,有两条出路:一是缴纳三百美元;二是花钱雇人代替。如果两点都做不到的话,就必须应征入伍,否则按逃兵被枪毙。

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

In the wartime economy of the North, prices were rising much faster than wages. Even a man with a good job had a difficult time feeding his family. It was impossible for him to pay the government three hundred dollars or pay someone else to serve for him in the army.

战争时期,北方物价比工资长得快得多。即使有不错的工作,也只能勉强养家糊口,根本不可能缴纳三百美元的罚款,或是花钱找人替自己应征入伍。

Poor men protested against the law. They said it was unfair. "It's a rich man's war," they cried, "but a poor man's fight. The rich man's money against the poor man's blood."

穷人因此提出抗议,说征兵法不公平。他们高喊,“这是有钱人的战争,但却是穷人的战斗,是富有者的钱,和穷人的血。”

VOICE ONE:

There was something else that deeply troubled working men in the North. Anti-war activists told them that the war was not being fought to save the Union, but to free Negro slaves.

除此之外,让北方工薪阶层深感疑惑的是,反战积极分子说,这场战争的目的不是维护联邦的完整,而是要给黑奴自由。

The activists said the freed Negroes would move north and take jobs away from whites. Many men believed this. They said they would not fight.

他们还说,获得自由的黑人会跑到北方来,跟白人抢工作。很多人信以为真,拒绝参加战斗。

VOICE TWO:

An orphanage for black children burns during the riots in New York
An orphanage for black children burns during the riots in New York

Then, on July thirteenth, the angers and fears of working men in New York exploded. Their attack on the draft office that day was just the beginning. The violence lasted three days.

在这种背景下,纽约市普通民众的愤怒和恐慌终于爆发。他们攻击征兵办公室只是一个起点,暴动迅速蔓延,整整持续了三天。

The rioters beat many policemen to death. They beat, burned, and hanged every Negro they could find. They also killed many whites who tried to protect the Negroes. By the time soldiers stopped the rioting, one thousand persons had been killed.

暴民不仅活活打死很多警察,而且所有被他们抓住的黑人都被殴打、火烧、吊死,很多试图保护黑人的白人也被杀死。暴动平息时,已经有一千人死去。

VOICE ONE:

The leaders of the anti-war movement in the north were members of the opposition Democratic Party. They wore on their coats a copper penny showing the head of a Native American Indian. This gave them the name "Copperheads." One important Copperhead was a former congressman from Ohio, Clement Vallandigham.

北方反战运动的领袖都是反对党民主党的成员。他们因为在外衣上佩戴着一枚刻有印第安人头像的铜制硬币,被称为铜头。他们的头领是俄亥俄地区的前国会众议员伐兰狄甘。

Vallandigham made a speech criticizing the Union government. He was charged with violating a military law that banned such criticism. He was arrested. The former congressman was taken before a military court. He objected. He said if he had broken a law, he should be tried by a civilian court. He demanded this as his constitutional right.

伐兰狄甘因为发表批评联邦政府的讲话被捕,罪名是违反了禁止批评政府政策的军事法令,要接受军事法庭的审判。伐兰狄甘拒绝。他表示,就算他真的违反了法律,按照宪法赋予的权利,也应该在民事法庭受审。

VOICE TWO:

Clement Vallandigham
Clement Vallandigham

The military judges rejected his argument. They found him guilty. And they sentenced him to remain in a Union military prison until the end of the war.

军事法院法官驳回了他的申诉,判定他罪名成立,直到战争结束才能刑满释放。

People throughout the north were angry. Many did not support Clement Vallandigham's ideas. But they supported his right to speak freely.

这一判决让北方人群情激昂。他们当中很多人虽然并不赞成伐兰狄甘的看法,但是支持他自由发表言论的权利。

President Lincoln could approve or reject Vallandigham's sentence. His decision would show which issue was more important: the citizens' right to free speech, or national security.

林肯总统有权批准或是否决伐兰狄甘的判决。他的决定至关重要,因为由此可以看出,公民言论自由和国家安全,孰重孰轻。

VOICE ONE:

Lincoln was a good politician and a smart lawyer. He found an unexpected way to deal with the problem. He neither approved nor rejected the sentence. He changed it.

林肯是卓越的政治家,也是聪明的律师,他找到了一个意想不到的解决办法,既不批准、也不否决,而是改变了伐兰狄甘的判决。

Lincoln ordered Vallandigham to be turned over to the Confederate army. Then he explained that Vallandigham had not been arrested for criticizing the government.

林肯下令将伐兰狄甘交给南军部队。林肯随后解释说,伐兰狄甘被捕,不是因为批评政府。

"His arrest was made," Lincoln said, "because he was trying -- with some success -- to prevent men from entering the army. He was urging soldiers already in the army to leave it. Mister Vallandigham was not arrested because he was damaging the political chances of the administration, or the interests of the commanding general, but because he was damaging the army, upon which the life of the nation depends."

林肯说,“他被捕,是因为他阻止大家参军,而且取得了成效。他敦促士兵离开部队。伐兰狄甘被捕,不是因为他损害了政府的政治前途,也不是因为他损害了指挥官的利益,而是因为他损害的军队,而军队的成败关系到国家的命运。”

The Confederates welcomed the anti-war leader. They helped him get to Canada. Vallandigham continued his anti-war campaign from there.

南方邦联热烈欢迎反战领袖伐兰狄甘的到来。他们帮助他前往加拿大,伐兰狄甘在那里继续他的反战活动。

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

President Lincoln was troubled by the anti-war movement and violent opposition to the draft laws. He felt he had to make citizens understand why such laws were necessary. He prepared a speech which explained his thoughts.

反战运动和征兵法引发的暴力反抗让林肯深感不安。他觉得,有必要让民众了解这些法律的重要性。他为此准备了一篇讲话。

"There can be no army without men," Lincoln wrote. "Men can be had only with their permission or without it. We can no longer get enough men willingly, so there is a draft. If you dispute this, and declare that men are still willing to serve in the army, then prove it by volunteering yourselves in large numbers. Then I will give up the draft."

林肯在讲话中是这样写的:“没有军人就没有军队,参军可以是自愿的,也可以是非自愿的。我们现在没有足够人自愿参军,所以才会征兵。如果谁提出异议,说有人愿意参军,报效国家,可以成群结队地自愿去参军,那我就放弃征兵。”

VOICE ONE:

Lincoln never gave this speech. He felt it was too direct. Instead, he gave a different kind of speech to the people of the Union.

林肯觉得这篇讲话过于直接,所以没有公布,而是发表了另外一篇截然不同的讲话。

"You want peace," Lincoln said, "and you blame me that we do not have it. But how can we get it. There are but three ways possible."

"First, to put down the southern rebellion by force of arms. This I am trying to do. Are you for it? If you are, then we are so far agreed. If you are not for it, a second way is to give up the Union. I am against this. Are you for the Union? If you are, you should say so clearly. If you are not for force, and not for dissolving the Union, there only remains some kind of compromise. I do not believe any such compromise is possible."

林肯在讲话中说,“你们要和平,因为没有和平而怪罪于我。如何才能得到和平呢?有三种路可以走。第一条路是武力镇压南方反叛。这正是我在做的。你们赞成吗?如果赞成的话,我们到现在为止意见还是一致的。如果你不赞成的话,第二条路是放弃联邦。我反对这样做。你们希望维护联邦统一吗?如果是,就要明确说出来。如果你不支持武力,也不赞成联邦解体,唯一的可能就是达成某种妥协。我认为这是不可能的。”

VOICE TWO:

Politicians urged President Lincoln to investigate the anti-war protests in New York to learn who had led them. He refused.

政界人物要求林肯对纽约的反战抗议活动进行调查,查出闹事的主谋。林肯不同意。

Lincoln believed that starting an investigation would be like lighting a barrel of gunpowder. He already was fighting a bitter struggle against rebels in the South. He did not want to fight the people of the North, too.

他相信,对此展开调查无异于点燃一个火药桶,他已经在跟南方叛军战斗了,不要跟北方人也打起来。

Southern leaders were pleased with the Copperheads' anti-war movement. Confederate General Robert E. Lee saw it as a sign of weakness in the northern war effort. He also saw it as an opening for a military victory.

南方领袖对“铜头”领导的反战运动十分满意。南军总指挥罗伯特·李将军认为这显示了北方战斗士气的削弱,也是他打个大胜仗的好机会。

That will be our story next week.

(MUSIC)

ANNOUNCER:

Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Larry West and Tony Riggs. Transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our programs are online, along with historical images, at www.unsv.com. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION - an American history series in VOA Special English.

___

This is program #108 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

网友的学习评论(2条):
作者:houjunying
l love Lincoln .he was very clever and brave
作者:Alumni
we demand justice but unjustness is everywhere. there is an example in this section of American civil war. the north made a wartime law, it said: if anyone doenst want to be drafted, he should pay 300 dollars to the government. it is hard to general people for that time except those rich. so people say: it was the rich man's money against the poor man's blood. maybe fairness is just permanent demand only. man is created equal really?
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