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#107: Lee and His Army Cross Into the North

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Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English.

Two years of a bitter, bloody civil war started to show their effects on both the Confederate states of the South and the Union states of the North. Both sides began to feel the pressure of the costly struggle. The South, however, felt the pressure more severely, because it was weaker in troop strength and industrial strength.

两年激烈的血腥冲突,给美国南北交战双方都造成了创伤,内战的惨重代价让他们感到沉重的压力,尤其是兵力和工业都相对薄弱的南方。

This week in our series, Maurice Joyce and Jack Moyles discuss the early summer of eighteen sixty-three in the American Civil War.

VOICE ONE:

General Robert E. Lee
General Robert E. Lee

In eighteen-sixty-three, the Confederate states were becoming short of supplies. Food and guns were difficult to find to keep the Confederate armies in the field.

1863年,南方邦联开始出现物资短缺,食物和枪支都跟不上部队的需要。

Men were also needed. More and more men. There seemed to be no end to the demand for men to fill the places left empty by dead and wounded soldiers.

与此同时,战场上的人员伤亡,也使补充兵源成为燃眉之急。

Many in the South were heavy of heart. And the hope among them slowly started to sink. The war was tiring. Its suffering was more than they could bear. And the situation in the West made matters worse.

南方很多人心情沉重,逐渐开始失去希望。战争让人疲惫不堪,带来的伤痛让大家感到难以承受。与此同时,西部的局势更是雪上加霜。

Union Armies were on the move in the states of Mississippi and Tennessee. Their successes were becoming a serious threat. They might soon win control of the whole Mississippi river. This would split the states of the Confederacy and might end its very existence.

北方联邦部队已经在密西西比和田纳西地区展开行动,构成严重威胁。整个密西西比河流域眼看就可能被北方军全盘控制,从而将南方邦联一分为二,甚至可能让邦联就此终结。

Something was needed to raise up the spirits of the South to break the pressure of Union armies.

南方急需振作士气,突破北军的压力。

VOICE TWO:

General Robert E. Lee believed he had the answer: an invasion of the north. This, he felt, would throw fear into the people of the north and weaken the Union war effort.

罗伯特·李将军相信,进攻北方将是一剂强心针。他觉得,这会给北方人带去恐惧,削弱他们的斗志。

Lee had organized an army of seventy-five-thousand men at Fredericksburg, Virginia, halfway between Washington and Richmond. Lee began moving his men June third. They marched northwest into the Shenandoah Valley. The valley led north to the Potomac River. Across the river was the narrow neck of western Maryland, then Pennsylvania.

罗伯特·李将军在位于华盛顿和里士满中间的弗雷德里克斯堡集合了一支七万五千人的队伍,6月3号下令行动,目标是西北面的雪兰多山谷。雪兰多山谷往北是波托马克河,过河是马里兰州西部狭长地带,然后进入宾夕法尼亚。

Pennsylvania was the target. Its rich farmland produced plenty of food -- enough to feed Lee's hungry army for the summer.

宾夕法尼亚是罗伯特·李的目标,那里土地肥沃,出产的粮食足够饥肠辘辘的南军度过夏天。

VOICE ONE:

Standing in the way of Lee's army was a small Union force at Winchester, in northern Virginia. There were only seven-thousand Union soldiers. And they had no idea that the Confederate army was nearby. The Confederates easily defeated them. More than half of the Union troops were captured. The others fled.

罗伯特·李在维吉尼亚北部的温切斯特遭遇了一股只有七千人的北军部队。北军没想到敌人近在咫尺,南军因此轻而易举地打了胜仗,北军一半以上人被俘,其他人逃得无影无踪。

Now there was nothing to stop Lee from marching into Pennsylvania. The huge Army of the Potomac was behind him, near Washington. The Union commander, General Hooker, had to keep his army between Lee and Washington to prevent the Confederates from seizing the national capital.

南军接下来没有遇到任何阻碍。北军强大的波托马克军团留守在华盛顿附近,北军指挥官胡克将军这样做,是为了防止南军突袭。

VOICE TWO:

A painting of a Confederate attack near the town of Greencastle in the northern state of Pennsylvania
A painting of a Confederate attack near the town of Greencastle in the northern state of Pennsylvania

Lee's army crossed western Maryland and entered Pennsylvania. His soldiers found the Pennsylvania countryside very different from Virginia's. Virginia had been a battleground for two years, and the land showed it. Many of its farms had been destroyed. Its stores were empty.

罗伯特·李将军率部穿过马里兰,进入宾夕法尼亚。南军士兵发现,宾夕法尼亚乡村跟维吉尼亚迥然不同。维吉尼亚经历了两年战乱,伤痕累累,农场受到严重破坏,商店里空空荡荡。

Pennsylvania had not been touched by the war. Its big farms were rich. Its towns and villages were full of food and goods of all kinds.

与此相反,宾夕法尼亚没有遭到战火的波及,那里的大农场都很富有,城镇和村庄有各种丰富的物资和商品。

The hungry, poorly-clothed soldiers could not believe their eyes. This was the land of the enemy, they cried, and they could take whatever they wished.

饥肠辘辘、衣衫褴褛的南军士兵简直不敢相信自己的眼睛。他们大喊,这是敌军的土地,我们想拿什么就可以拿什么。

But General Lee said "No." He said supplies could be taken only by Confederate supply officers. And he said they must pay -- in Confederate money -- for everything they took.

但是罗伯特·李将军下令,绝对禁止随意劫掠,只有负责供给的南军指挥官可以购买物资,而且必须给钱。

VOICE ONE:

Lee did not want to anger these people in Pennsylvania. Many of them did not support the Union war effort. Some of the rich farmers said openly that they did not care who won the war. They said they only wanted to be left alone.

李将军不想激怒宾夕法尼亚人,因为他们当中的很多人并不支持北方联邦,一些有钱的农场主还公开表示,他们不关心谁输谁赢,只是希望交战双方都不要去打扰他们。

Lee was sure that many in the north felt the same way. There had been signs that people were growing tired of the war.

罗伯特·李将军相信,很多北方人其实并不关心战争,不少迹象显示,人们已经厌倦了战争。

Coal miners in eastern Pennsylvania had shown their feelings toward the war a few months earlier.

宾夕法尼亚西部的矿工几个月前就用行动表示了他们对战争的态度。

They rose up against a new law drafting men into the Union army. The miners did not want to fight. They refused to join the army. They rioted and attacked officials who tried to take them. Soldiers were sent to the mining areas to put down the riots.

他们不想打仗,拒绝参军,面对一项新的征兵法令,他们奋起反抗,跟强行征兵的官员发生冲突,政府不得不派部队前去镇暴。

VOICE TWO:

A cartoon in the magazine Harper's Weekly showing anti-war Copperheads as snakes threatening the Union
A cartoon in the magazine Harper's Weekly showing anti-war Copperheads as snakes threatening the Union

Farmers in nearby Ohio also rebelled against the draft law. They refused to be drafted. Instead, they took guns and battled soldiers who came to arrest them.

附近俄亥俄地区的农民也对征兵法案采取了类似的反抗行动,他们拿起枪支,跟前来抓他们的士兵发生枪战。

Feelings against the war were growing stronger, not only in Pennsylvania and Ohio, but also in several other farm states of the north. These areas saw a growing support for a peace party -- a political party opposed to the war.

北方的反战情绪日益高涨,不只是在宾夕法尼亚和俄亥俄,北方其它几个农业州也是一样。与此同时,一个主张和平、反对战争的政党在这些地区也开始得到越来越多的人的支持。

Leaders of this movement were Democrats called "Copperheads." They got this name because they wore on their coats a copper penny with the head of an Indian.

这个反战政党的领袖们是民主党人,因为外衣上佩戴着一分钱的铜制硬币,上面是印第安人头像,被称为“铜头”。

VOICE ONE:

The chief Copperhead was a former Ohio congressman. His name was Clement Vallandigham.

他们领头的是前俄亥俄州的国会众议员,名叫克莱门特·伐兰狄甘。

As a member of Congress, Vallandigham criticized the war and the Republicans. He told them:

伐兰狄甘还在担任国会议员的时候就对共和党人和这场战争提出过批判。

"The war for the Union is, in your hands, a most bloody and costly failure. War for the Union was abandoned. And war for the Negro was openly begun with stronger effort than before. With what success." Vallandigham asked. "Let the dead at Fredericksburg and Vicksburg answer."

他说,“为联邦进行的这场战争在你们手里,成了最为血腥、代价最惨重的失败。为联邦进行的战斗已经被抛弃,为黑奴而进行的战争越来越公开。结果呢?让弗雷德里克斯堡和维克斯堡战死的将士回答吧。”

Vallandigham said he wanted peace, and he wanted it immediately. He offered a simple program: stop the fighting. Make a ceasefire. And let some friendly foreign nation negotiate peace between North and South.

伐兰狄甘说,他要求和平,而且马上就要。他提出简单的解决办法:停止战斗。达成停火。由友好的第三国出面,为南北双方调解和平。

VOICE TWO:

Clement Vallandigham
Clement Vallandigham

After he lost his seat in Congress, Vallandigham opened a campaign to become governor of Ohio. He traveled all across the state speaking out against the war. He said Republicans did not want peace. He said they wanted to fight until every black man was free.

伐兰狄甘落选国会议员后,决定参选俄亥俄州长。他在俄亥俄各地发表巡回反战演讲。伐兰狄甘说,共和党人不是要和平。他们要一直打下去,直到所有黑人都得到自由。

The Union military commander for Ohio was General Ambrose Burnside, a former commander of the Army of the Potomac. After losing the battle of Fredericksburg, Lincoln removed Burnside as army commander and sent him to Ohio.

俄亥俄的联邦部队指挥官是伯恩赛德。伯恩赛德以前曾担任波托马克军团总指挥,后来因为在弗雷德里克斯堡战败,被林肯解除职务,派到俄亥俄。

Burnside was worried. Too many people in Ohio opposed the war. He believed that much of what was being said and done in Ohio was close to the crime of treason.

俄亥俄州反战的人数太多,让伯恩赛德十分担心。他觉得,俄亥俄州这些人的言行,已经离叛国不远了。

VOICE ONE:

Burnside announced several new measures to quiet the opponents of the war.

伯恩赛德因此宣布了几项新措施,希望借此平息反战呼声。

One of these orders limited the right of citizens to criticize government military policy. Another declared that statements of support for the enemy would be punished as treason.

其中一项措施限制民众批评政府军事政策的权利。另外一项措施规定,凡是发表支持敌方言论的人,一律按叛国处置。

Vallandigham refused to recognize Burnside's right to give such orders to civilians. On May first, he made a campaign speech to a big crowd at Mount Vernon, Ohio. He denounced Burnside's orders and spoke of the President as "King Lincoln."

伐兰狄甘不承认伯恩赛德有权发表上述限制人民权利的命令。伐兰狄甘5月1号在俄亥俄芒特弗农举行的一次大规模集会上发表竞选演说,对伯恩赛德的命令提出批评,还称林肯是“林肯国王”。

Vallandigham claimed that Lincoln was using the war to become a dictator. He said Lincoln did not want peace, that the president had rejected peace offers from the South. Once again, he said the war was not a struggle for the Union, but a fight to free the slaves of the south. And he said men of Ohio who let themselves be drafted into the Union army were no better than slaves themselves.

伐兰狄甘说,林肯是在利用这场战争实现独裁。他说,林肯要的不是和平,林肯拒绝接受南方提出的和平提案。伐兰狄甘再次重申,这场战争不是为联邦统一,而是为解放南方黑奴。他说,应征加入联邦部队的人比奴隶好不到哪去。

VOICE TWO:

General Ambrose Burnside
General Ambrose Burnside

Burnside had sent several army officers to listen to the speech. When they reported what Vallandigham said, Burnside ordered his arrest. Without question, the man had violated the General's orders. Late the next night, soldiers went to Vallandigham's home in Dayton. They knocked on the door and said they had come to arrest him.

听众里就有伯恩赛德派来的军官。他们把伐兰狄甘的话报告给伯恩赛德后,伯恩赛德下令逮捕伐兰狄甘。

Vallandigham called for help and refused to let the soldiers enter. They broke down the door, seized him and took him to a military prison in Cincinnati.

伐兰狄甘拒绝开门,但是士兵们最后还是将门撞开,把伐兰狄甘抓走,送往辛辛那提的一个军事监狱。

A few days later, Vallandigham went on trial before a military court in Cincinnati. That will be our story in the next program of THE MAKING OF A NATION.

伐兰狄甘几天后在那里接受了军事法庭的裁判。

(MUSIC)

ANNOUNCER:

Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Maurice Joyce and Jack Moyles. Transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our programs are online, along with historical images, at www.unsv.com. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

___

This is program #107 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

网友的学习评论(1条):
作者:Alumni
Clement Vallandigham was arrested because of his open speech against president and his war policy. he was prisoned in military prison in Cincinnati-- a war machinery ,and it is needed at war time.
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