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#106: The South Wins a Battle, but Loses Stonewall Jackson

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Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English.

In the early weeks of eighteen sixty-three, the American Civil War took a new political direction. President Abraham Lincoln had announced the Emancipation Proclamation. That measure freed the slaves in the rebel states of the South, though Lincoln's words fell on deaf ears.

1863年初,美国南北战争改变了政治方向。美国总统林肯发布解放奴隶宣言,让南方叛州奴隶成为自由人,但是南方奴隶主对此置若罔闻。

Yet no longer was the Civil War a struggle just to save the Union. It had become a struggle for human freedom.

尽管如此,解放奴隶宣言的发布,还是让美国南北战争从一场挽救联邦统一的战斗,转变成为了一场争取人类自由的斗争。

There was a change on the military side of the war, too. President Lincoln named a new commander for the Union's Army of the Potomac. This was the force that would try again to capture the Confederate capital at Richmond, Virginia.

与此同时,林肯任命约瑟夫·胡克出任波托马克军团指挥官。

This week in our series, Harry Monroe and Kay Gallant describe events during the spring of eighteen sixty-three.

VOICE ONE:

General Joe Hooker
General Joe Hooker

General Joe Hooker was the new commander of the Army of the Potomac. He replaced General Ambrose Burnside, when Burnside suffered a terrible defeat at Fredericksburg, Virginia, at the end of eighteen sixty-two. Burnside had replaced General George McClellan, when McClellan kept refusing to obey President Lincoln's orders.

波托马克军团最早由麦克莱伦率领,但是麦克莱伦三番五次违抗林肯的命令,因此被伯恩赛德取代。伯恩赛德又因为1862年年底在维吉尼亚的弗雷德里克斯堡打了个大败仗,因而被撤换,由约瑟夫·胡克将军接替。

Hooker had one hundred thirty thousand men. They were well-trained and well-supplied.

胡克率领十三万训练有素、装备精良的人马,再次准备夺取南方邦联首都里士满。

The Confederate force opposing Hooker's was under the command of General Robert E. Lee. Lee had only about sixty thousand men. They did not have good equipment. And their supplies were low. But their fighting spirit was high. They had defeated the Union army before. They were sure they could do it again.

胡克的对手是南方指挥官罗伯特·李将军。李将军手下只有大约六万兵力,装备短缺、供给不足,但士气高昂,对再次打败自己的手下败将信心十足。

VOICE TWO:

Lee's army still held strong defensive positions along high ground south of Fredericksburg. This was almost halfway between the capitals of the opposing sides: Washington and Richmond.

南方军把弗雷德里克斯堡以南高地做为防线,此处正好位于双方首都华盛顿和里士满之间。

General Hooker did not plan to make the same mistake which General Burnside made at Fredericksburg. Burnside had thrown his army against Lee's defensive positions six times. Each time, the Confederates pushed them back easily. In one day of fighting, more than twelve thousand Union soldiers were killed or wounded.

胡克的前任伯恩赛德上次在弗雷德里克斯堡攻打南军防线时,先后六次全线进攻,每次都被南军轻而易举地击退,一天下来,伤亡一万两千多人。

General Hooker had rebuilt the Army of the Potomac. Now he was ready to carry out his plan against General Lee.

胡克将军不想重蹈覆辙。

Hooker left half his men at Fredericksburg, in front of Lee's army. He would move the other half into position behind Lee's army. If Lee turned to meet him, the troops at Fredericksburg would attack. The Confederate army would be caught between two powerful forces. Lee would have to withdraw, or lose his army.

他准备让一半人马留在弗雷德里克斯堡,跟南方军对阵,率领另外一半人马绕到南方军的背后去,对罗伯特·李的部队两面夹击,迫使罗伯特·李撤军。

VOICE ONE:

Hooker moved around past the end of Lee's line. Then he turned and started marching back behind it.

胡克按计划率领部分人马绕到南方军背后,从后面展开包抄。

It was a hard march through thick woods, and across rough hills and valleys. The country was so wild that it was called the wilderness.

他们必须翻山越岭,穿过茂密的丛林,行军经过杳无人烟的荒野地带。

On the last day of April, eighteen sixty-three, the Union force reached Chancellorsville. Chancellorsville was a crossroads near the edge of the wilderness. The next day, the soldiers would be in open country. There, General Hooker could make the best use of his men.

1863年4月30号,胡克率兵抵达钱瑟勒斯维尔。钱瑟勒斯维尔位于丛林地带边上的交叉路口。胡克的部队第二天就要进入开阔地段了。

Hooker was extremely pleased. Everything was going as he had planned. He told his officers: "I have Lee in one hand and Richmond in the other."

胡克对局势发展很满意,并告诉手下指挥官说,“现在,李将军和里士满分别掌握在我的两个手心里。”

The next day, Union soldiers began moving out of Chancellorsville and the wilderness. They did not get far. They ran into several thousand Confederate soldiers. Lee had sent them to slow the Union force.

第二天,北方军走出钱瑟勒斯维尔的荒芜地带,马上就遭遇了南方军一支几千人的部队。这支部队奉罗伯特·李将军的命令,拖住北方军前进的脚步。

VOICE TWO:

The Confederate force was weak. General Hooker's officers believed they could smash through it without difficulty. They did not get a chance to try. Hooker sent new orders: break off the fight. Return to Chancellorsville. Put up defensive positions.

这支南方军人数少,胡克手下的指挥官觉得可以不费吹灰之力,将他们一举歼灭。然而,胡克却下令,停止战斗,返回钱瑟勒斯维尔,构筑防线。

Hooker's officers were shocked. They protested. Hooker stood firm. He said, "Lee must fight me on my own ground."

胡克手下将领深感不解,提出抗议。但是胡克坚定不移地表示,“罗伯特·李要跟我交手,就要到我的战场上来。”

Robert E. Lee could not understand why the Union force had returned to Chancellorsville. But he was happy it did. Now he had time to prepare his men for battle.

罗伯特·李将军不明白北方军为什么要返回钱瑟勒斯维尔,但他同时又感到高兴,因为这样一来,他就有时间调集人马,为打仗做准备了。

VOICE ONE:

The last meeting of Robert E. Lee and Stonewall Jackson
The last meeting of Robert E. Lee and Stonewall Jackson

Lee met that night with his top general, Stonewall Jackson. They discussed the best way to attack the Union force.

罗伯特·李将军当天晚上跟他最得力的将领,人称“石墙”的杰克逊将军,一起讨论进攻战术。

The center of the Union line was strong. The right side was not. Jackson was sure he could get around behind it. Lee asked Jackson how many men he would take. "All of them," Jackson answered. "Twenty-eight thousand."

北军阵线中部强大,但右翼相对薄弱。杰克逊肯定,自己一定能从右翼绕到胡克防线的后面去。罗伯特·李问杰克逊需要多少人。杰克逊回答说,“两万八千人全要。”

This meant Lee would have only fourteen thousand men to face General Hooker. If the Union force attacked before Stonewall Jackson got into position, Lee could not possibly hold it back.

这就意味着,罗伯特·李将军只剩下一万四千人面对胡克的部队。如果北军抢在杰克逊进入预定位置前发动进攻的话,罗伯特·李将军完全无法守住防线。

Lee was taking a huge chance. He thought about it for a moment. Then he told Jackson to get started.

罗伯特·李这样做要冒很大的风险。他沉思片刻后告诉杰克逊说,就这样,行动吧。

VOICE TWO:

Jackson's men began to leave the next morning. Union soldiers watched as they marched away. General Hooker thought Lee was withdrawing.

杰克逊第二天一早率兵出发,北军看见南军部队离去,以为他们撤退了。

It took Jackson only half a day to get behind the Union force. He spent a few more hours putting his troops into position. Then he attacked. It was six o'clock in the evening.

杰克逊只用了半天的时间,就绕到了北军身后。他用了几个小时的时间,让手下各就各位,傍晚六点左右发起进攻。

The right end of the Union force was not prepared for an attack. The soldiers could not believe their eyes when they saw Confederate troops running out of the woods behind them. Many Union soldiers were killed or wounded. Thousands fled.

这次进攻打了北军右翼阵线一个措手不及,看见南军士兵从身后的树林子里冲出来,他们简直不敢相信自己的眼睛,北军很多将士伤亡,还有几千人逃跑。

The sun went down. The fighting continued under a bright moon. The Confederate troops kept moving forward. The Union troops kept falling back. One northern soldier wrote later: "Darkness was upon us. Jackson was upon us. And fear was upon us."

太阳下山了,但是战斗在明亮的月光下继续进行。南军不断前进,北军不断后退。一个北军士兵后来写道:“黑暗降临,杰克逊紧追不舍,我们充满恐惧。”

VOICE ONE:

Jackson seemed to be everywhere. He rode his horse among his men, urging them forward. He would not let the Union force escape.

杰克逊无处不在。他骑着战马,在战场上驰骋,鼓励部下向前冲,绝不让北军逃走。

The Battle of Chancellorsville
The Battle of Chancellorsville

As Jackson and some of his officers rode into a cleared area of the woods, shots rang out. The bullets came from Confederate guns. The Confederate soldiers thought they were firing on Union officers.

然而,杰克逊率领部下进入树林里的一片空地后,突然受到枪弹的袭击。枪是南军士兵开的,他们把杰克逊的部队误认成了北军。

Jackson fell from his horse. Two bullets had smashed his left arm. Another bullet had hit his right hand. He was hurried to the back of the line. A doctor quickly cut off his left arm and stopped the heavy bleeding.

杰克逊左臂连中两枪,从马上摔了下来,右手也中了一枪。部下立即将杰克逊护送回后方,军医迅速进行左臂截肢,并成功止血。

Jackson seemed to get better. Then he developed pneumonia. He was unconscious most of the time. He seemed to dream of battle, and shouted commands to his officers. Then he grew quiet. He opened his eyes and said, "Let us pass over the river and rest in the shade of the trees."

杰克逊的情况短暂好转后,转为肺炎。杰克逊大部分时间昏迷不醒,他好象做梦梦见打仗,不断向部下发号施令,然后突然安静下来,睁开眼睛说,“大家过河,在树荫下休息”。

The great Confederate General, Stonewall Jackson, was dead.

说完这句话,南军的伟大将领、人称“石墙”的杰克逊将军就与世长辞了。

VOICE TWO:

While Jackson lay dying, the battle of Chancellorsville continued.

与此同时,钱瑟勒斯维尔战役继续进行。

Robert E. Lee's Confederate army was much smaller than Joe Hooker's Union army. But for five days, Lee kept part of his army moving between Chancellorsville and Fredericksburg. Wherever the Union army attacked, Lee quickly added more men to his lines. The Union army could not break through.

罗伯特·李率领的南军兵力比胡克的北军少得多。但罗伯特·李有效地在钱瑟勒斯维尔和弗雷德里克斯堡两条战线之间调兵遣将,北军部队五天都没能突破南军的防线。

The fighting was taking place on the south side of the Rappahannock River. The Union army's supply lines were on the north side.

战斗是在拉帕汉诺克河以南进行的,而北军部队的供给线却在河的北面。

Spring rains were beginning to make the Rappahannock rise. General Hooker did not want to get trapped without food and ammunition. So he ordered his men back across the river.

春天的雨水让拉帕汉诺克河水上涨,胡克不想看到自己的部队被困住,没有食物和弹药,所以下令撤回河对岸。

VOICE ONE:

The South had won the battle of Chancellorsville. Robert E. Lee was sure of that. Once again, he had forced back the Army of the Potomac. But the Union army was not hurt seriously. New soldiers would soon take the place of those lost in battle.

钱瑟勒斯维尔一役,南军又打了胜仗。罗伯特·李将军再次成功挡住了波托马克军团的攻势,但是北军没有受到重创,很快就可以补充兵力。

Lee, however, would find it more difficult to replace his soldiers. The South was running out of manpower. Every Confederate army needed men -- more and more men. Yet fewer and fewer southern boys were willing to become soldiers.

与此同时,南军却面临兵力短缺的困境。南军的所有兵团都需要补充人力,但是南方年轻人里愿意参军打仗的却越来越少。

Anti-war movements were, in fact, active in both the North and South. There were a number of protests against the military draft. Some turned violent.

同时,反战情绪在南方和北方高涨,发生了好几次反对征兵的抗议示威活动,有些示威甚至出现暴力冲突。

In the North, a political party was created to oppose the Civil War. Leaders of this peace party were called Copperheads. They got the name because they wore a copper penny showing the head of an Indian.

北方还诞生了一个反对内战的政党,政党领袖身上都佩戴着一分钱的铜制硬币,上面是印第安人头像,因此被称为铜头。

That will be our story in our next program on the Civil War.

(MUSIC)

ANNOUNCER:

Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Harry Monroe and Kay Gallant. Our series can be found online with transcripts, podcasts and historical images at www.unsv.com. You can also follow our weekly programs on Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

___

This is program #106 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

网友的学习评论(1条):
作者:Alumni
New soldiers would soon take the pace of those lost in battle. it is something like in the stock market-- many earlier inverstors who lost in market left the market and new ones would take the place of those lost in market. how resemblant it is!!
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