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#105: Lincoln Declares Slaves Free in Rebel States

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Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.

The Civil War began in eighteen sixty-one as a struggle over the right of states to leave the Union. President Abraham Lincoln firmly believed that a state did not have that right. And he declared war on the southern states that tried to leave.

1861年爆发的美国南北战争是一场关于各州是否有权退出联邦的斗争。当时的美国总统亚伯拉罕·林肯坚信,各州没有这样的权利,并因此向试图退出联邦的南方各州宣战。

Lincoln had only one reason to fight: to save the Union. In time, however, there was another reason to fight: to free the black people held as slaves in the South.

林肯对南方宣战时的唯一原因是要捍卫联邦的统一。然而,随着时间的推移,解放南方黑奴也成了南北战争的一个重要内容。

Today, Kay Gallant and Harry Monroe continue the story of how President Lincoln dealt with this issue.

VOICE ONE:

Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln

Lincoln had tried to keep the issue of slavery out of the war. He feared it would weaken the northern war effort. Many men throughout the North would fight to save the Union. They would not fight to free the slaves.

林肯本想将奴隶问题置于战争之外。他担心,奴隶问题的介入会削弱北方斗志,因为很多北方人愿意为联邦统一而战,但不愿为解放奴隶而战。

Lincoln also needed the support of the four slave states that had not left the Union: Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland and Missouri. He could not be sure of their support if he declared that the purpose of the war was to free the slaves.

此外,林肯还需要保住尚未退出联邦的四个奴隶州的支持,它们是:德拉瓦、肯塔基、马里兰和密苏里。林肯不敢担保,如果宣布战争的目的是要解放奴隶,是否会失去这四个州的支持。

Lincoln was able to follow this policy, at first. But the war to save the Union was going badly. The North had not won a decisive victory in Virginia, the heart of the Confederacy.

起初,林肯尚能执行这一政策。但是,为捍卫联邦统一而进行的战斗很不顺利,在南方邦联腹地维吉尼亚,北方没打赢过任何一场重大战役。

To guarantee continued support for the war, Lincoln was forced to recognize that the issue of slavery was, in fact, a major issue. And on September twenty-second, eighteen sixty-two, he announced a new policy on slavery in the rebel southern states. His announcement became known as the Emancipation Proclamation.

为保证战争能继续得到支持,林肯被迫承认,奴隶问题确实是一个重大问题。1862年9月22日,林肯宣布了有关南方反叛州奴隶命运的著名的解放奴隶宣言,并在各大报纸上刊登。宣言说,

VOICE TWO:

A printed version of the Emancipation Proclamation
A printed version of the Emancipation Proclamation

American newspapers printed the proclamation. This is what it said:

I, Abraham Lincoln, president of the United States and commander in chief of the Army and Navy, do hereby declare that on the first day of January, eighteen sixty-three, all persons held as slaves within any state then in rebellion against the United States, shall then become and be forever free.

The government of the United States, including the military and naval forces, will recognize and protect the freedom of such persons, and will interfere in no way with any efforts they may make for their actual freedom.

“我,亚伯拉罕·林肯,美国总统和陆海军总司令,在此宣布,1863年1月1日起,所有背叛美国联邦的各州境内的奴隶,一律成为、并永远成为自由人。美国政府,包括陆军和海军,都将承认并保护这些人的自由,不会对他们为取得真正自由做出的努力进行任何形式的干涉”。

For political reasons, the proclamation did not free slaves in the states that supported the Union. Nor did it free slaves in the areas around Norfolk, Virginia, and New Orleans, Louisiana.

基于政治原因,宣言不适用于依旧忠实于联邦的各州的奴隶,也不适用于维吉尼亚的诺福克和路易斯安那的新奥尔良附近地区的奴隶。

VOICE ONE:

Most anti-slavery leaders praised the Emancipation Proclamation. They had waited a long time for such a document.

大多数反对蓄奴的领袖都对这份宣言拍手称快,他们等待这份文件已经很长时间了。

But some did not like it. They said it did not go far enough. It did not free all of the slaves in the United States, only those held by the rebels.

不过,也有一些人感到不满,觉得宣言不够彻底,只解放了叛州的奴隶,没有解放所有奴隶。

Lincoln answered that the Emancipation Proclamation was a military measure. He said he made it under his wartime powers as commander in chief. As such, it was legal only in enemy territory.

林肯解释说,解放奴隶宣言是战争之举,他行使的是战时统帅的权力,因此只对敌方领地有效。

Lincoln agreed that all slaves should be freed. It was his personal opinion. But he did not believe that the Constitution gave him the power to free all the slaves. He hoped that could be done slowly, during peacetime.

林肯承认,他个人相信,奴隶应该一律得到自由,但他认为,宪法没有赋予他解放所有奴隶的权力,他希望能在和平时期逐步加以解决。

VOICE TWO:

Lincoln's new policy on slavery was welcomed warmly by the people of Europe. It won special praise in Britain.

林肯解放奴隶的政策受到了欧洲、特别是英国的赞赏。

The British people were deeply concerned about the Civil War in America. The United States navy had blocked southern exports of cotton. The British textile industry -- which depended on this cotton -- was almost dead. Factories were closed. Hundreds of thousands of people were out of work.

英国对美国的南北战争格外关注,因为北方海军封锁港口,切断了南方的棉花出口。英国纺织业从而失去了原材料,很多工厂被迫关门,数以万计的工人失去了工作。

The British government watched and worried as the war continued month after month. Finally, late in the summer of eighteen sixty-two, British leaders said the time had come for them to intervene. They would try to help settle the American dispute.

对美国内战一直采取观望态度的英国政府对这场战争越来越感到担心。最后,1862年夏天快要过去的时候,英国领导人表示,出面干预的时机已到,他们打算帮助调解美国的这场内部争端。

Britain would propose a peace agreement based on northern recognition of southern rights. If the North rejected the agreement, Britain would recognize the Confederacy.

英国打算提出一份和平协议,让北方承认南方的权利,如果北方拒绝的话,英国就准备承认南方邦联的独立性。

VOICE ONE:

Then came the news that President Lincoln was freeing the slaves of the South. Suddenly, the Civil War was a different war.

然而,就在这个时候,有消息传来,说林肯要宣布解放南方的奴隶。突然之间,美国内战的性质就发生了翻天覆地的变化。

No longer was it a struggle over southern rights. Now it was a struggle for human freedom.

这场战争不再是一场关于南方权利的斗争,而变成了一场涉及人类自由的斗争。

The British people strongly opposed slavery. When they heard that the slaves would be freed, they gave their support immediately to President Lincoln and the North. Britain's peace proposals were never offered.

英国人坚决反对奴隶制度。一听说林肯宣布解放奴隶,他们立即转而支持林肯和北方联邦。原本打算提出的和平协议也胎死腹中。

The Emancipation Proclamation had cost the South the recognition of Britain and France.

林肯的解放奴隶宣言让南方失去了英、法两国的承认。

VOICE TWO:

The South was furious over the proclamation. Southern newspapers attacked Lincoln. They accused him of trying to create a slave rebellion in states he could not occupy with troops. They also said the proclamation was an invitation for Negroes to murder whites.

南方各大报纸纷纷对林肯发起攻击,指责他企图在无法武力占领的各州掀起一场奴隶起义,还说解放奴隶宣言是鼓动奴隶去谋杀白人。

The Confederate Congress debated several resolutions to fight Lincoln's proclamation.

针对林肯发表的解放奴隶宣言,南方邦联议会提出了好几项决议案。

One resolution would make slaves of all Negro soldiers captured from the Union army. Another called for the execution of white officers who led black troops. Some southern lawmakers even proposed the death sentence for anyone who spoke against slavery.

其中一项决议提出,把所有从北军抓获的黑人士兵都变成奴隶;另外一项决议提出,把率领黑人士兵的白人指挥官一律处决。甚至有些南方议员提议,凡是发表反对奴隶制度言论者,一律判处死刑。

VOICE ONE:

In the North, most people cheered the new policy on slaves. Some, however, opposed it. They said the policy would cause the slave states of the Union to secede. Those states would join the Confederacy. Or, they said, it would cause freed slaves to move north and take away jobs from whites.

北方大多数人都对解放奴隶的新政策拍手称快,但是也有人反对。他们认为,这样做会导致更多的奴隶州退出联邦。这些州会转而加入南方邦联,另外,那些获得自由的奴隶迁往北方,会抢走白人的工作。

There also was another reason. Eighteen sixty-two was a congressional election year. The Democratic Party was the opposition party at that time. Party leaders believed their candidates would have a better chance of winning if they opposed the policy.

此外还有一个原因。1862年是国会选举年。当时,民主党是反对党,民主党领袖认为,反对解放奴隶的新政策,可以增加民主党候选人胜选的机会。

Democrats said the policy was proof that anti-slavery extremists were in control of the government.

民主党人说,这一政策恰恰证明,政府掌握在反对奴隶制度的极端分子的手中。

VOICE TWO:

As we said, Abraham Lincoln announced the Emancipation Proclamation on September twenty-second, eighteen sixty-two. But Lincoln said he would not sign the proclamation until the first day of eighteen-sixty-three.

林肯虽然1862年9月22号就发表了解放奴隶宣言,但他说,要等到1863年元旦才会签署生效。

That gave the southern states one hundred days to end their rebellion, or face the destruction of slavery.

这就给了南方各州100天的时间,要么结束反叛,要么面对奴隶制度的废除。

VOICE ONE:

Some people thought Lincoln would withdraw the proclamation at the last minute. They did not believe he would sign a measure that was so extreme. They said the new policy would only make the South fight harder. And, as a result, the Civil War would last longer.

有些人以为林肯会在最后一刻撤回解放奴隶宣言,他们不相信林肯会在如此极端的法案上签字。他们指出,新政策只会增加南方的斗志,让内战持续更长时间。

Others charged that the proclamation was illegal. They said the Constitution did not give the president the power to violate the property rights of citizens.

另外一些人指责说,解放奴隶宣言根本不合法。他们提出,美国宪法没有赋予总统侵犯公民私有财产的权力。

VOICE TWO:

Lincoln answered the charges. He said:

I think the Constitution gives the commander in chief special powers under the laws of war. The most that can be said -- if so much -- is that slaves are property. Is there any question that, by the laws of war, property -- both of enemies and friends -- may be taken when needed.

林肯就此做出回答。他说:“我认为,宪法赋予了战时统帅特殊的权力。你最多只能说奴隶是财产。根据战时法令,任何财产--不论是敌方还是友方,在需要时都可以拿走。”

VOICE ONE:

Just before the first of the year, a congressman asked the president if he still planned to sign the Emancipation Proclamation.

1863年元旦前夕,一位国会议员问林肯,是否仍计划签署解放奴隶宣言。

VOICE TWO:

"My mind is made up," Lincoln answered. "It must be done. I am driven to it. There is no other way out of our troubles. But although my duty is clear, it is in some way painful. I hope that the people will understand that I act not in anger, but in expectation of a greater good."

林肯回答说,“我已经拿定主意。一定要签,我决心已定。我们要摆脱困境,别无选择。不过,虽然我职责明确,但我还是感到有些难过。我希望人们能理解,我这样做不是出于愤怒,而是为了更高的利益。”

VOICE ONE:

The morning of New Year's Day was a busy time for Lincoln. It was a tradition to open the White House on that day so the president could wish visitors a happy new year.

元旦早上,林肯十分繁忙。根据传统,总统在元旦这一天要开放白宫,祝参观者新年快乐。

After the last visitor had gone, Lincoln went to his office. He started to sign the Emancipation Proclamation. Then he stopped. He said:

最后一个来访者离开后,林肯回到办公室。他提笔签署解放奴隶宣言前停顿了一下,说,

VOICE TWO:

Lincoln signing the Emancipation Proclamation
Lincoln signing the Emancipation Proclamation

"I never, in all my life, felt more sure that I was doing right than I do in signing this paper. But I have been shaking hands all day, until my arm is tired. When people examine this document, they will say, 'He was not sure about that.' But anyway, it is going to be done."

“我这辈子都没有象签署这份文件时如此肯定自己是正确的。我一整天都在跟人握手,胳膊都酸了。别人看到这份文件的时候一定会说,‘他肯定很犹豫。’但不管怎样,这个字还是要签。”

VOICE ONE:

With those words, he wrote his name at the bottom of the paper. He had issued one of the greatest documents in American history. We will continue our story of the Civil War next week.

说完这番话,林肯挥笔在文件下端签上了自己的名字,发布了美国历史上最伟大的文件之一。

(MUSIC)

ANNOUNCER:

Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Kay Gallant and Harry Monroe.

THE MAKING OF A NATION is a radio series written with English learners in mind. Each weekly program is fifteen minutes long. The series was first broadcast in nineteen sixty-nine. People who grew up listening to it are now old enough to listen with their own children, or even their grandchildren.

These days, people can download MAKING OF A NATION transcripts, MP3s and podcasts at www.unsv.com. They can also follow the weekly series on Twitter at VOA Learning English.

There are more than two hundred programs in the complete series, which starts over again every five years. New programs with recent history are added at the end of each cycle.

Most of the shows, however, were originally produced years ago. In fact, some of the narrators are not even alive anymore. But we know from our audience that THE MAKING OF A NATION is the most popular of the feature programs in VOA Special English.

Special English is a radio, TV and Internet service of the Voice of America. Programs are written with a limited vocabulary and are read at a slower speed. The purpose is to help people improve their American English as they learn about news and other subjects.

Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

___

This is program #105 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

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作者:Alumni
Abraham Lincoln's story continues. the war was continuing when Lincoln announced the famous Emancipation Proclamation. this Proclamation was supported by Europe especially by the Britain.the southern Confederacy lost the support of the Britain and France. the desission of Lincoln would put the war into victory.
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