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#104: Lincoln Needs a Victory

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Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.

By the summer of eighteen sixty-two, the American Civil War had been going on for more than a year. The Union had won some battles. The Confederacy had won others. But neither side was in a position to win the war.

到1862年夏天,美国南北战争已经打了一年多,交战双方各有胜负,但是任何一方都没有胜算。

President Abraham Lincoln needed a major victory. He was losing the support of both politicians and the public. A major victory would not only help him that way. It also would make it easier for him to make an important announcement.

美国总统亚伯拉罕·林肯需要一场重大胜利,因为他正在失去政界和民众的支持。一场重大胜利不仅能让林肯重新赢得支持,而且也能为他准备发布的一项重要宣言创造条件。

For a number of months, he had been planning an announcement about the black people held as slaves in the South. It would come to be known as the Emancipation Proclamation.

林肯总统几个月来一直在考虑一项关于南方黑奴的宣言,这就是后来著名的解放奴隶宣言。

Today, Kay Gallant and Harry Monroe tell about Abraham Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation.

VOICE ONE:

General Robert E. Lee
General Robert E. Lee

At the end of August, eighteen sixty-two, Confederate troops under the command of Robert E. Lee defeated the main Union army at Manassas, Virginia. The battlefield was less than fifty kilometers from Washington.

1862年8月底,南军指挥官罗伯特·李在维吉尼亚州的马纳萨斯击败了北军主力部队,战场距离华盛顿只有不到五十公里。

The year before, Confederate troops had sent the Union army fleeing from that same battlefield. Now they had done it again.

一年前,南军就曾在那里打败过北军,一年后再传捷报。

With this latest victory, General Lee decided on a major move. He would carry the war into the northern states.

在胜利的鼓舞下,李将军决定大胆行动,把战火烧到北方去。

Lee took his army of sixty thousand men across the Potomac River into Maryland. He ordered some of his men to capture the Union position at Harpers Ferry. He moved the others to Sharpsburg, a town on the Potomac River.

他率领六万部队跨过波托马克河进入马里兰,下令部下夺取哈珀斯费里的北军据点,其余人直奔波托马克沿岸小镇夏普斯伯格。

He put his men into position along Antietam Creek, just outside of town. His lines extended almost three kilometers. There, at Antietam, he would make his stand. He was still close enough to Virginia to withdraw, if the Union force following him proved too strong.

罗伯特·李将军让部下在镇子外面的安蒂特姆河边安营扎寨,战线全长近三公里,他选择这里做为阵地,也是因为这儿离维吉尼亚不远,如果北军部队过于强大的话,可以迅速撤退。

VOICE TWO:

The Battle of Antietam
The Battle of Antietam

The Union force arrived in the middle of September. It did not attack immediately. It spent one full day getting into position along Antietam Creek across from the Confederate army. It attacked the following day at sunrise.

北军部队9月中旬到达后,没有立刻行动,用了整整一天的时间,在安蒂特姆河对岸安顿下来。第二天清晨向南军发起攻击。

The Union general, George McClellan, planned to attack all along the Confederate line at the same time. But this did not happen.

北军将领麦克莱伦将军本打算全线进攻,但是没能做到。

First, Union troops attacked one end of the line, which extended into a field full of tall corn plants. Then they attacked the center of the line, which was in an old, deeply sunken road that gave it good protection. Finally, they attacked at the other end of the line.

北军部队首先对南军防线一端发起进攻,这部分南军一直延伸到高高的玉米地里;北军部队随后又向南军中段发起攻击,这部分南军驻守在一条破旧低洼的道路上,易守难攻;北军部队最后对南军防线的另外一端发起进攻。

For each northern attack, General Lee was able to move men to where they were needed. The northern troops got within twenty-five meters of the Confederate line. But they could not break through anywhere.

南军将领罗伯特·李将军每次都能调兵遣将,有效抵挡住北军的攻击。北军部队最远推进到离南军阵线25米远的地方,但是没能冲破南军防线。

VOICE ONE:

On the first day of battle at Antietam, Lee lost twenty-five percent of his men. On the second day, the two armies faced each other without firing. They were too tired to fight.

安蒂特姆战役第一天,南军损失了四分之一的兵力;第二天双方都疲惫不堪,因此偃旗息鼓。

As they rested, however, fresh Union soldiers moved into position. Lee knew they would attack with full force the next day. He knew he could not win. Sadly, he ordered his men back to Virginia.

就在双方休战、养精蓄锐之际,北军援兵陆续赶到。南军指挥官李将军知道,北军次日一定会全面进攻,他绝没有胜利的希望,只好忍痛下令撤退。

It was now clear: Antietam was a northern victory.

安蒂特姆一战,显然是北方取得了胜利。

It was not a complete victory. The Union army could have chased the Confederate army and destroyed it. But General McClellan did not do this. He was satisfied that he had stopped the invasion.

尽管如此,北方并没有大获全胜,北军原本可以乘胜追击,把南军消灭掉,但是麦克莱伦没有这样做,他对有效阻止南军进犯已经很满意了。

VOICE TWO:

In Washington, President Lincoln welcomed the news. He had waited a long time for a northern victory.

消息传到华盛顿,林肯非常高兴。他等这场胜利已经等了很久了。

Detail from a painting of President Lincoln first reading the Emancipation Proclamation to his cabinet
Detail from a painting of President Lincoln first reading the Emancipation Proclamation to his cabinet

A few days after the battle, Lincoln held a special meeting with his cabinet. He talked about the declaration on slavery which he had prepared. It would free Negro slaves in the rebel states of the South.

战役结束几天后,林肯召开内阁特别会议,讨论解放南方叛州黑奴的问题。

"As you remember," he said, "I put the declaration aside several weeks ago, until I could issue it supported by a military victory. The action of the army against the rebels has not been exactly what I should have liked. But the rebels have been driven out of Maryland. And Pennsylvania is no longer in danger of invasion."

林肯说:“大家应该还记得,几个星期前,我暂时搁置了这份宣言,希望打了胜仗以后再宣布。联邦部队对叛军采取的行动并不完全如我所愿,但是叛军已经被赶出了马里兰,宾夕法尼亚也不再受到叛军入侵的威胁。”

President Lincoln said he thought the time was right to announce the Emancipation Proclamation. The cabinet made some minor changes in the document, and Lincoln signed it.

林肯总统说,他觉得宣布解放奴隶宣言的时机已经成熟,内阁成员对宣言进行了些许修改后,林肯在宣言上签字。这份宣言在各大报纸上刊登。

VOICE ONE:

Newspapers printed the proclamation. This is what it said:

VOICE TWO:

"I, Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States and Commander-in-Chief of the army and navy, do hereby declare that on the first day of January, eighteen-sixty-three, all persons held as slaves within any state then in rebellion against the United States, shall then become and be forever free. The government of the United States, including the military and naval forces, will recognize and protect the freedom of such persons, and will interfere in no way with any efforts they may make for their actual freedom."

宣言说,“我,亚伯拉罕·林肯,美国总统和陆海军总司令,在此宣布,1863年1月1日起,所有背叛美国联邦的各州境内的奴隶,一律成为,并永远成为自由人。美国政府,包括陆军和海军,都将承认并保护这些人的自由,不会对他们为取得真正自由做出的努力进行任何形式的干涉”。

VOICE ONE:

Signing the proclamation
Signing the proclamation

President Lincoln had tried to keep the question of slavery out of the Civil War. To him, there was just one reason for fighting: to save the Union. Nothing meant more to him than preventing the nation from splitting up.

林肯总统本想将奴隶制度的问题置于内战之外。在他看来,这场战争只有一个原因,那就是要捍卫联邦的完整统一。对他来说,没有任何事情比阻止联邦的分裂更为重要。

Lincoln feared that the issue of slavery would weaken the northern war effort. Many men throughout the north would fight to save the Union. They would not fight to free the slaves.

林肯担心奴隶制度的问题会削弱北方的士气,因为很多北方人愿意为保卫联邦而战,但不会为解放奴隶而战。

Lincoln also needed the support of the four slave states that did not leave the Union: Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, and Missouri. He could not be sure of their support if he declared that the purpose of the war was to free the slaves.

除此以外,林肯还需要四个仍然保留在联邦里的奴隶州的支持。这四个州分别是:德拉瓦州、肯塔基州、马里兰州和密苏里州。林肯不敢肯定,如果宣布这场战争的目的是解放奴隶的话,这些州是否还会继续支持他。

As Lincoln waited for a Union victory to announce his Emancipation Proclamation, he wrote a letter to the "New York Tribune" newspaper. The letter was to prepare the public for what was to come. This is what Lincoln said:

林肯等待北方打胜仗的同时,在《纽约论坛报》上发表公开信,为宣布解放奴隶宣言奠定公众舆论的基础。林肯在信中写道:

VOICE TWO:

"My chief object in this struggle is to save the Union. It is not either to save or destroy slavery. If I could save the Union without freeing any slave, I would do it. And if I could save it by freeing all the slaves, I would do it. And if I could save it by freeing some and leaving others alone, I would also do that.

"What I do about slavery, and the colored race, I do because I believe it helps to save the Union. This is how I see my official duty. It does not change my wish -- as a person -- that all men everywhere could be free."

“这场战争我要达到的主要目的是捍卫联邦,不是为了挽救、或是摧毁奴隶制度。如果不解放奴隶就能挽救联邦的话,我会义无反顾;如果解放所有奴隶,就能挽救联邦的话,我会义无反顾;如果解放一部分奴隶,保留另一部分奴隶,就能挽救联邦的话,我也会义无反顾。我对奴隶制度和有色种族所做的一切,都是因为我相信,这样做能够挽救联邦。我认为这是我的职责。当然了,这也不会改变我只代表我个人的愿望,那就是,看到世界上所有人都能拥有自由。”

VOICE ONE:

President Lincoln failed to keep the question of slavery out of the Civil War. As the war went on, month after long month, people in the North began to see it as more than a struggle for national unity. They began to see it as a struggle for human freedom.

林肯没能将奴隶的问题置于内战之外。随着战争月复一月地推进,北方人开始觉得,这场战争绝不只是为了维护国家统一,而是为了争取人类自由。

Abolitionists were active. In speeches and writings, they said over and over again that slavery was evil.

废奴主义者活跃起来,他们发表大量演说和文章,反复批判奴隶制度的邪恶。

As public opinion began to change, anti-slavery members of Congress gained more power.

随着民意的转变,反对奴隶制度的国会议员开始占据优势。

By the summer of eighteen sixty-two, they had enough support to pass laws ending slavery in Washington, D.C. and United States territories. They also pushed through Congress a bill that would do much to end slavery in the states.

到1862年夏天,他们已经赢得了足够的支持,可以通过法律,在华盛顿特区和美国领地内废止奴隶制度,并在国会通过了一项法案,大力推动在各州内结束奴隶制度。

VOICE TWO:

The bill was called the Confiscation Act. It gave the federal government the power to confiscate, or seize, the property of all persons who supported the southern rebellion. Slaves were considered property. So any slaves seized under the act would become free immediately. Slaves who escaped from rebel slave owners also would be free. The bill would not affect slaves owned by persons who supported the Union.

这项法案名为《没收法案》,授权联邦政府没收或是查封支持南方反叛的所有人的财产。在当时,奴隶也是私人财产,因此,凡是《没收法案》中提到的奴隶都可以立即得到自由。从支持反叛的奴隶主那里逃跑的奴隶也可以获得自由。法案不影响那些忠实于联邦的奴隶主的奴隶。

President Lincoln did not like the Confiscation Act. He thought it interfered with his wartime powers as Commander-in-Chief.

林肯总统对《没收法案》并不满意,觉得法案影响了他作为战时军队最高司令的权力。

VOICE ONE:

However, Lincoln was under great pressure from Abolitionists. So he signed the new law. But he did not plan to enforce it. He still hoped for a plan that would free the slaves slowly, over time.

林肯迫于废奴主义者的强大压力,只好在没收法案上签字,但是并不准备真正执行,他还是希望能有一项计划,逐步地、按部就班地解放奴隶。

He proposed such a plan, but only for the border states between north and south. Under his plan, the federal government would buy slaves in the border states and free them.

林肯提议,联邦政府可以在南、北方交界地带的各州里收购奴隶,然后给他们自由。

Lawmakers from the border states rejected Lincoln's plan. And that is when he decided to issue the Emancipation Proclamation.

相关各州的议会议员驳回了林肯的提案。林肯因此决定,发表解放奴隶宣言。

We will tell about the effects of that decision next week.

(MUSIC)

ANNOUNCER:

Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Kay Gallant and Harry Monroe.

THE MAKING OF A NATION is a radio series written with English learners in mind. Each weekly program is fifteen minutes long. The series began in May of nineteen sixty-nine. People who grew up listening to it are now old enough to listen with their own children, or even their grandchildren.

These days, with the Internet, people can download the transcripts and MP3s of our series at www.unsv.com. They can also follow us on Twitter at VOA Learning English.

There are more than two hundred programs in the complete series, which starts over again every five years. New programs with recent history are added at the end of each cycle.

Most of the shows were produced a long time ago. This explains why a few words here and there may sound a little dated. In fact, some of the announcers are not even alive anymore. But we know from our audience that THE MAKING OF A NATION is the most popular of the feature programs in VOA Special English.

Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

___

This is program #104 of THE MAKING OF A NATION.

网友的学习评论(1条):
作者:Alumni
the Union army had a win against the Confederate army. Abraham Lincoln announced Emancipation Proclamation, which proposed to free all the slaves in the territories in the United States. Lincoln's speech was short but counts.
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