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#103: At Bull Run, a Terrible Defeat for the North

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Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.

Two summers had gone by since the start of the American Civil War, and the North had not yet won a major battle in Virginia. The Army of the Potomac -- the strongest of the Union armies -- had tried to seize Richmond, the Confederate capital.

美国南北战争爆发后的第二个夏天过去了,北军在维吉尼亚没有打过一场大胜仗。北军最强大的军团--由麦克莱伦将军率领的波托马克军团,曾试图夺取南方邦联首都里士满。

General George McClellan moved the army up to the very gates of the city. But then, General Robert E. Lee led his southern forces in a fierce attack. It smashed McClellan's army and drove them away from Richmond.

麦克莱伦率兵兵临城下,但就在此时,南军将领罗伯特·李将军率领南军发动猛烈攻击,重挫麦克莱伦的部队,赶走了里士满城外的北军。

This week in our series, Maurice Joyce and Jack Moyles continue the story of the Civil War.

VOICE ONE:

General Henry Halleck
General Henry Halleck

President Abraham Lincoln and his new chief general, Henry Halleck, put together a new northern force. They called it the Army of Virginia. They gave command of it to General John Pope, a successful fighter in the West.

林肯总统和新上任的最高指挥官亨利·哈勒克组建了一支新的北方军团,取名维吉尼亚军团,由在西部地区战功卓著的约翰·波普将军指挥。

Pope began to move south toward Richmond. Halleck ordered McClellan to bring his army up to join Pope. Together, they could smash through the Confederate defenses around Richmond.

波普率兵南下,直奔里士满。哈勒克下令麦克莱伦跟波普会合,两股部队协手突破里士满周围南军的防线。

Lee decided to hit Pope before McClellan could join him. He left a few thousand troops to guard Richmond, then took the rest north. Lee moved up to the Rappahannock River, across from Pope's army.

南军将领罗伯特·李将军决定,抢在麦克莱伦部队赶到前,对波普军团发动进攻。罗伯特·李将军留下几千人保卫里士满,率领其余兵力北上,直到拉帕汉诺克河,与波普率领的军团对阵。

VOICE TWO:

Lee sent Stonewall Jackson, with twenty-four thousand men, on a quick march around the western end of Pope's lines. Jackson and his men marched more than eighty kilometers in two days. They got behind Pope and seized a huge northern supply center at Manassas.

李将军派人称“石墙”的杰克逊率领两万四千人急行军,绕过波普西部阵线。杰克逊率兵,两天行军八十多公里,绕到波普军团背后,夺取了马纳萨斯一个北方重要的供给中心。

Pope moved to smash them. They burned the captured supplies. Then they moved a few kilometers away to a long, low hill just northwest of the Bull Run battleground, where southern forces defeated a northern army a year before.

波普出兵进攻。南军防火烧毁了供给中心的物资,后撤几公里,来到一年前南军打败北军的布尔溪战场西北面一个狭长低矮的山岗。

Jackson hid his troops in woods along the hill and waited for General Lee to arrive with the rest of the southern army.

杰克逊下令部队在沿着山岗的树林里埋伏下来,等待罗伯特·李将军前来接应。

VOICE ONE:

But before Lee could get there, Union troops -- thousands of them --marched down the road below Jackson. Jackson decided to attack, to hold them there until Lee arrived with help.

结果,数以千计的北军部队却先到了,从杰克逊部队藏身之处俯视可见。杰克逊决定出击,把他们牵制住,等待李将军的增援部队。

The fighting was furious. Neither side broke. The fighting died down at the end of the day, and Jackson's men moved back to their positions on higher ground. They made their lines along a partly-built railroad on the side of the hill.

这次战役十分激烈,双方都不肯撤退,直到天黑才偃旗息鼓,杰克逊率领部下返回山岗高地,以山岗一侧只修了一半的铁路为阵地。

VOICE TWO:

General John Pope
General John Pope

From his headquarters on the hill, Jackson watched the northern forces prepare for battle. Many thousands of the enemy were marching into position. Pope brought up all his soldiers, and others were on the way from bases near Washington. Several thousand of McClellan's troops, commanded by General Porter, were arriving from the South.

杰克逊从山上的指挥所可以看到北军为打仗做准备。数以千计的北军人马纷纷赶到。波普军团全部出动,其它部队从华盛顿附近的营地先后赶到。此外,波特将军也率领麦克莱伦军团的几千名士兵从南方前来增援。

It was a mighty force, much larger than Jackson's army. Jackson was worried. He sent an officer back to find General Lee. He sent a message: Lee must hurry. Jackson faced a big army.

北军人马远远超过了杰克逊的力量,让他深感不安。他派一名军官回去报告罗伯特·李将军,带去口信说,李将军必须立即增援,杰克逊面临一支庞大的军队。

VOICE ONE:

Pope's army was large. But it was poorly organized. The men had been rushed into position. The order to attack was given before all the troops were ready.

北军将领波普手下人数虽多,但是组织松散,部队贸然进入战场,还没做好准备,战争的号角就吹响了。

So, the attack began slowly. And Jackson was able to fight it off. But then, more and more northern soldiers joined the fight. The two sides struggled for hours in the hot summer sun. Jackson's men almost broke. Men prayed for the long day to end. The sun seemed to stand still.

北军进攻速度缓慢,杰克逊尚有招架之力。随着北军部队逐步到位,双方战斗越发激烈,在炎炎烈日下激战好几个小时。杰克逊的部队眼看就要垮了,大家盼着漫长的一天赶快结束,但是太阳却好像纹丝不动。

VOICE TWO:

General Fitz John Porter
General Fitz John Porter

Finally, the sun went down, and the battlefield became dark. Jackson's men had held, but they paid a terrible price. Thousands were killed or wounded. Northern losses were even greater.

最后,太阳终于落山了,战场上漆黑一片。杰克逊的部队总算顶住了,但也付出了惨重代价,伤亡数千。北军损失更大。

Most of the Union troops had fought bravely. They had hit the Confederate lines time after time. But one large group of soldiers did not get into the battle at all that day. This was the group from McClellan's Army of the Potomac, led by Fitz John Porter.

大多数北军官兵都英勇作战,对南方阵线发起一次又一次的攻击。然而,北军里也有一支部队那天根本没有投入战斗,这支部队属于麦克莱伦的波托马克军团,由波特将军率领。

Pope had ordered Porter to strike at the right end of Jackson's lines. Porter took his troops several kilometers past Jackson's right and stopped them. His soldiers remained there all day, out of the battle. Porter said later he believed the Confederate forces were too strong for his men.

波普下令波特率兵打击杰克逊右翼防线,但是波特却让手下在距离杰克逊右翼几公里处停下,在那里待了一整天,按兵不动。波特后来说,他觉得南军力量过于强大。

VOICE ONE:

Other groups of McClellan's men were arriving in Alexandria, thirty kilometers to the east. Pope asked that they be sent to help him. McClellan was ordered to send them immediately. But he refused to do so. He said they were not in condition to fight, and he would not send them.

此外,麦克莱伦领导的波托马克军团的其它部队也陆续赶至战场以东三十公里处的亚历山德里亚。波普请求增援。麦克莱伦得到命令,立即出兵增援,但是他拒绝执行,理由是部队没有进入战斗状态,他不会贸然派兵。

General Pope still thought he was facing only Jackson's army. He refused to believe reports that Lee had arrived on the battlefield with thirty thousand more southern soldiers. Pope thought Lee was still far to the west of Manassas.

VOICE TWO:

Pope knew that Jackson's army had taken a terrible beating in the two days of bloody fighting. And he was sure that Jackson would try to withdraw the next day, to retreat to the west.

波普知道,杰克逊的部队在过去两天的激烈战斗中损失惨重,以为杰克逊第二天一定会向西撤退。

Pope divided his forces that night. He left thousands in place in front of Jackson's lines. The others were moved back. They were ordered to get ready for a march west to block Jackson's retreat.

波普当天晚上将部队一分为二,让几千人留守阵线,其它人向西移动,拦住杰克逊的退路。

Pope made a terrible mistake. Jackson was not planning to retreat. He was waiting with Lee to smash the northern army. And that is what happened the next day.

然而,波普犯了一个天大的错误。杰克逊没打算撤军。他在等待罗伯特·李的援兵,共同挫败北军,而这恰恰是次日所发生的一切。

VOICE ONE:

The Second Battle of Bull Run
The Second Battle of Bull Run

Northern troops attacked Jackson's lines. The fighting was bitter. Pope's forces almost smashed through. But then Lee ordered his men to move forward to help Jackson. Confederate artillery broke up the northern attack. When the northern troops began to retreat, Lee and Jackson attacked with all their might.

第二天,北军冲击杰克逊的防线,双方激烈战斗,波普的部队几乎已经冲破了防线,可就在这时,罗伯特·李将军出兵增援杰克逊。南军大炮击退了北军的袭击,北军部队开始撤退,杰克逊和罗伯特·李下令南军发起猛攻。

Many of Pope's men were not prepared for battle. They were standing together in groups, ready for marching. They could not stop the southern attack. The Confederates pushed Pope's army back across the Old Bull Run battlefield.

波普手下的很多士兵并没有做好打仗的准备,他们站在自己的小分队里,还在准备行军,这些人根本挡不住南军的攻势,在南军压力下,波普的部队被迫在老布尔溪战场上一路后退。

VOICE TWO:

Near the end of the day, northern forces succeeded in organizing a stronger defensive line. The southern attack slowed down, then stopped. Lee sent Jackson around the north end of Pope's line to try to stop the northern retreat. Lee did not want the defeated Union army to escape. He wanted to destroy it.

天色将晚时,北军终于形成了强大防线。南军攻势逐渐减弱,最后停了下来。罗伯特·李将军让杰克逊率兵绕过波普的左翼防线,拦住北军退路,他不想让北军逃走,希望能一举歼灭他们。

But heavy rain held up Jackson's troops. They were discovered and attacked by a strong northern force. Jackson could move no farther. He could not stop Pope's retreat to Centreville and Washington. The northern army escaped.

然而,杰克逊的部队受到暴雨阻碍,目标暴露后,遭到一股强大北军的袭击,杰克逊无法前进,没能拦住波普的退兵。波普率兵退到森特维尔和华盛顿。

VOICE ONE:

But it left behind thousands and thousands of dead and wounded. Confederate doctors treated their own men, then tried to help the wounded soldiers of the other side. General Lee permitted northern medical wagons to return to the battlefield. And they began to carry the wounded back to Centreville.

北军跑了,但留下了成千上万的尸体和伤兵。南军医生给自己人疗伤后,也来救助北军伤员。罗伯特·李将军允许北方医务车辆回来,把伤员运回森特维尔。

Groups of McClellan's army, arriving from Alexandria, met Pope's men in Centreville. They laughed and shouted at the tired, beaten soldiers. Many said they were glad that Pope had lost.

从亚历山德里亚来的麦克莱伦的部分队伍在森特维尔跟波普的部队会合,对这些疲惫不堪的败兵大呼小叫,百般嘲弄。很多人还说,波普打了败仗,他们十分高兴。

One of McClellan's Generals, Samuel Sturgis, greeted Pope at Centreville: "I always told you, Pope, that if they gave you enough rope, you would hang yourself."

麦克莱伦手下的一名将领在森特维尔迎接波普时说,“波普,我早就告诉过你,如果他们给你足够长的绳子,你就会把自己吊死。”

VOICE TWO:

What happened at Bull Run created bitter anger among the people of the North -- anger against their military leaders. People felt that a year had been wasted, that thousands had died for no real purpose. The year before, southern troops sent a northern army fleeing from Bull Run. Now, it was happening again. The Army of the Potomac was back where it started.

布尔溪一战,让北方人怨气十足,目标直指军事将领。北方人觉得这一年是白白浪费了,数千名士兵也死得毫无意义。一年前,南军就在布尔溪把北军打得落荒而逃,一年后又是一样的结果。波托马克军团跟一开始比,没有任何起色。

As the facts of the battle became known, cries of anger became even louder. The people demanded answers. Why did McClellan and his men move so slowly? Why did they refuse to go to Pope's aid? Why did Pope let Jackson get behind him? Why were fourteen thousand soldiers lost?

战斗细节逐渐清晰后,愤怒的呼声越发高涨。人们要求得到答案:麦克莱伦部队的行动为什么如此缓慢?为什么拒绝增援波普?杰克逊为什么能绕到波普部队的背后?为什么会有一万四千人命丧黄泉?

VOICE ONE:

Most members of Lincoln's cabinet believed McClellan was responsible.

Secretary of War Edwin Stanton
Secretary of War Edwin Stanton

Treasury Secretary Salmon Chase said McClellan should be shot. War Secretary Edwin Stanton said he should be dismissed immediately. He and three other cabinet members signed a note demanding that Lincoln remove McClellan as Commander of the Army of the Potomac.

林肯内阁大部分人都认为,错在麦克莱伦。财政部长蔡斯提出,应该枪毙麦克莱伦。战争部长斯坦顿认为,应该立即解除麦克莱伦的职务。他跟另外三名内阁成员共同上书,要求林肯解除麦克莱伦波托马克军团总指挥的职务。

Lincoln agreed that what McClellan had done was shocking. He said it was clear that McClellan wanted Pope to fail. But Lincoln said he would not remove McClellan. He said he knew that McClellan was not an aggressive general. But he said McClellan was a good organizer who could build the defeated army into a strong force.

林肯承认,他也对麦克莱伦的所作所为感到震惊,麦克莱伦显然是希望波普打败仗。但林肯表示,他不会解除麦克莱伦的职务,因为他知道,麦克莱伦虽然不是一位进攻型指挥官,但有很强的组织能力,能把一支败军改造成一支劲旅。

VOICE TWO:

General Robert E. Lee, however, would not wait while McClellan rebuilt the army. He decided to carry the war to the North.

与此同时,南军部队总指挥罗伯特·李将军不会等待麦克莱伦重整旗鼓,他决定,打到北方去。

(MUSIC)

ANNOUNCER:

Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Maurice Joyce and Jack Moyles. Our series can be found online with transcripts, podcasts and historical images at www.unsv.com. You can also follow our weekly programs on Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

___

This is program #103 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

网友的学习评论(2条):
作者:Alumni
Pope fought Jackson and Lee who were southerners. Pope needed McClellan's aid but McClellan refuesed to do so due to his jealous to Pope.
作者:郑烈波
life and blood paind the war
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