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#102: South Defends Its Capital

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Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.

In any war, the enemy's capital city is an important target. To capture the enemy's capital usually means victory.

在任何战争中,敌方首都必是重要目标,占领了敌人的首都,往往就意味着战争的胜利。

In the American Civil War, the North hoped for a quick victory by capturing the southern capital at Richmond, Virginia. Northern forces were strong enough. There were about one hundred fifty thousand Union soldiers in and around Washington. General George McClellan led this Army of the Potomac. It was the biggest, best-trained and best-equipped of the Union armies.

在美国南北战争中,北军希望夺取南军首都里士满,速战速决。当时,华盛顿附近的波托马克兵团有大约十五万人,由乔治·麦克莱伦将军率领,是北军中最强大、最训练有素、装备最精良的队伍。

This week in our series, Larry West and Tony Riggs report on McClellan's move against Richmond.

VOICE ONE:

General George McClellan
General George McClellan

For the first year of the Civil War, the Army of the Potomac did not fight. General McClellan kept making excuses for his failure to act. He had a plan, he said. And he would not move until he was sure his men were ready.

南北战争爆发的第一年里,波托马克兵团没有参加任何战役,麦克莱伦将军为自己按兵不动制造了各种借口,说他自有安排,在能够肯定兵团人马已经做好准备充分前,不会采取行动。

McClellan's plan was to put his army on boats in the Potomac River. They would sail down the river to where it emptied into the Chesapeake Bay. Then he would land the boats on the coast of Virginia, east of Richmond.

麦克莱伦的计划是,让自己的兵团乘船沿波托马克河南下,穿过切萨皮克湾,在里士满以东靠岸。

President Abraham Lincoln wanted to capture the Confederate capital. But he did not like the idea of moving all of McClellan's men. That would leave the city of Washington without protection.

林肯总统希望攻打南军首都,但又不愿意让麦克莱伦带走所有人马,因为这样一来,首都华盛顿就失去了保护。

McClellan tried to calm Lincoln's fears. He said that as soon as he marched toward Richmond, any Confederate soldiers near Washington would withdraw. They would be needed to defend their own capital.

麦克莱伦安慰林肯说,一旦他率部南下,华盛顿附近的所有南军都会撤退,赶回里士满,保卫自己的首都。

VOICE TWO:

The Army of the Potomac began to move on March seventeenth, eighteen sixty-two. Within two weeks, more than fifty thousand had reached Fort Monroe, southeast of Richmond. They were equipped with one hundred big guns and tons of supplies. Day by day, the Union force at Fort Monroe grew larger.

1862年3月17号,波托马克兵团开始行动。两周不到,就有五万多人到达里士满东南的门罗要塞。他们还带来了一百门重炮和不计其数的枪支弹药。接下来的日子里,北军人马陆续抵达。

McClellan had planned to move quickly to Yorktown, then push on to Richmond. He would move along the finger of land between the York River and the James River.

麦克莱伦原计划迅速进驻约克敦,然后穿过约克河跟詹姆斯河之间的地带,直逼里士满。

He soon learned, however, that he could not move as quickly as planned. Heavy spring rains had turned the dirt roads into rivers of mud. McClellan's men could push through. But there was no way they could bring their big guns. McClellan decided to wait. He did not want to attack Yorktown without artillery.

然而,他后来发现,行动无法像他预计地那么迅速,因为春天的大雨把土路变成了泥塘,虽然部队可以行军,但是大炮却拉不过去。麦克莱伦不想在没有火炮支持的情况下发动进攻,所以决定等待。

VOICE ONE:

The Battle of Williamsburg
The Battle of Williamsburg

President Lincoln was not pleased. He sent a message to McClellan. "You must strike a blow," Lincoln said. "You must act." But still McClellan delayed. By the time his artillery had arrived and was in place, Confederate troops had withdrawn. They moved to the woods outside Williamsburg. McClellan chased them. For the first time, his army went into battle.

林肯很生气,传信给麦克莱伦,告诉他必须行动,但麦克莱伦还是一拖再拖,等大炮运到的时候,南军已经撤退,躲进了威廉斯堡郊外的树林里。麦克莱伦率兵追击,这是波托马克兵团参加的第一场战斗。

The fighting was strange. The woods were so thick that the two sides could not often see each other. Soldiers fired at the flash of gunpowder, at noises, anything that moved. Their aim was good enough. About four thousand soldiers were killed.

这场仗打得很奇怪。由于树林茂密,交战双方往往看不到对方,只要敌军方向有开枪的亮光,听到或是看到任何动静,就开枪射击,结果命中率居然很高,一共有大约四千人被打死。

VOICE TWO:

In his reports to Washington, McClellan claimed great victories at Yorktown and Williamsburg. Yet he was worried. He believed the Confederate force around Richmond was much larger than his. He demanded more men.

麦克莱伦战报华盛顿,说自己在约克敦和威廉斯堡取得了重大胜利,但是他也很担心,因为他觉得,南军在里士满附近的实力比他雄厚,所以请求增援。

The Confederate force was, in fact, much smaller than the Union force. But it was deployed in a way to make it seem much larger.

事实上,南军人马比北军少得多,但是由于部署有方,所以显得很多。

The trick fooled McClellan. By the middle of May, eighteen sixty-two, his army was only fifteen kilometers from Richmond. Still, he did not attack. He continued to wait for more men and equipment.

麦克莱伦被假象蒙蔽。1862年5月中旬,他的部队已经前进到距离里士满只有15公里的地方,但他还是迟迟不肯进攻,等待增援的部队和军备。

Confederate President Jefferson Davis was worried. He knew the Confederate army was smaller than the Union army. Davis' military adviser, General Robert E. Lee, offered a plan. Lee proposed that General Stonewall Jackson lead his army up Virginia's Shenandoah Valley. The North would see the move as a threat to Washington. Union troops would be kept near Washington, instead of being sent to Richmond. President Davis agreed. Orders were sent to Jackson.

南方邦联总统杰斐逊·戴维斯忧心忡忡,因为他知道,南军实力远不如北军。军事顾问罗伯特·李将军提议,让人称“石墙”的杰克逊将军率部沿雪兰多山谷北上。北军会觉得这是对华盛顿的威胁,因此让部队留守华盛顿,不增援里士满。戴维斯欣然接受,立即下令杰克逊采取行动。

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

General Stonewall Jackson
General Stonewall Jackson

Stonewall Jackson was one of the South's best generals. He was a forceful leader. And he could make his men march until they dropped.

人称“石墙”的杰克逊是南军最优秀的将领之一,雷厉风行,能让部下日夜兼程,直到倒下为止。

He got the name "Stonewall" at the Battle of Bull Run in the summer of eighteen sixty-one. Southern soldiers were withdrawing. A Confederate officer tried to stop them. He urged them to follow Jackson's example, to stand and fight. He shouted, "There stands Jackson -- like a stone wall."

杰克逊将军是在1861年夏天布尔溪一役中获得“石墙”这一称号的。当时,南军士兵纷纷撤退,一位南方邦联指挥官试图阻止败兵,让他们学习杰克逊的榜样,誓死坚守阵地。他大声喊道,“看,杰克逊就站在那里,好像一堵石墙。”

General Jackson faced three large Union forces in and around the Shenandoah Valley. Yet he struck hard and fast, and soon had control of the valley's main towns.

杰克逊将军在雪兰多山谷附近面对三支强大的北军部队,但是他采取了迅速猛烈的攻击,很快就控制了山谷主要城镇。

His campaign is still studied at military schools around the world. It is considered an excellent example of how to move troops quickly to where they are most needed.

他的这场战役至今仍然是世界各地军事院校学习的案例,是以最快速度调兵遣将的典范。

VOICE TWO:

Jackson's raids produced the exact effect Robert E. Lee had wanted.

杰克逊的行动达到了罗伯特·李想要的效果。

Everyone in Washington feared an immediate attack on the city. Soldiers were hurried to the capital from Baltimore and other nearby cities. And President Lincoln sent thousands of troops to chase Jackson in the Shenandoah Valley, instead of helping McClellan at Richmond.

首都华盛顿人心惶惶,担心南军对华盛顿发动攻击。驻扎在巴尔的摩等附近城市的北军部队迅速赶往首都,林肯总统也派遣数千部队追击杰克逊的部队,而不是到里士满去增援麦克莱伦。

The Union army outside Richmond was deployed on either side of the Chickahominy River. The Chickahominy was not a big river. It could be crossed easily at several places.

里士满城外的北军驻守在奇克哈默尼河两岸。奇克哈默尼是一条小河,好几处地方都很容易过河。

While McClellan waited to attack the Confederate capital, heavy rains began to fall. The little river began to rise. The commander of Confederate forces in Richmond saw this as a chance to smash a large part of McClellan's army.

麦克莱伦等待进攻时机时,突然下起了大雨,河水上涨。里士满的南军指挥官觉得,这是挫败麦克莱伦兵团的一次大好时机。

VOICE ONE:

The flooding river would soon cut the Union force completely in two. When that happened, the Confederates would attack. They expected to destroy at least half of McClellan's army.

上涨的河水眼看就要将北军部队拦腰切断。南军等待着在这千钧一发之际发动进攻,打算至少将麦克莱伦的部队消灭一半。

The plan seemed good. And after the first few hours of battle, the Confederates were close to victory. But one bridge remained over the Chickahominy River. Union soldiers were able to cross it. The Confederates were forced to withdraw to their earlier positions. No ground was gained. And more than eleven thousand men were killed or wounded. Among the wounded was the commander of all Confederate forces, General Joe Johnston. General Robert E. Lee would take his place.

这个计划听起来天衣无缝,战斗打响几小时后,南军眼看就要胜利。然而,奇克哈默尼河上还剩下一座桥梁,北军士兵仍旧可以过河。南军被迫撤回原来的位置,没能抢占任何地盘。双方共有一万五千人在这次战斗中伤亡,伤员中还包括南军部队总指挥乔·约翰斯顿将军。罗伯特·李接替了他的职务。

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

Confederate officer Jeb Stuart
Confederate officer Jeb Stuart

Lee wasted no time. He wanted to push the Union army far away from Richmond. First, however, he wanted more information about his enemy. He sent a young officer -- Jeb Stuart -- to get it.

李将军没有耽误任何时间,他希望尽快把北军从里士满赶走。不过首先,他希望进一步了解敌情,并把这项任务交给一个叫杰布·斯图尔特的年轻军官。

Stuart set off with more than a thousand men on horseback. Theirs was a wild ride around the edge of the Union army. When they reported back three days later, General Lee knew exactly where he would attack.

斯图尔特率领一千多名骑兵出发。他们克服重重危险,沿着北军营地四周巡查,三天后回来汇报,让罗伯特·李将军选中了进攻目标。

It would be the first in a series of battles known as the Seven Days Campaign.

这将是美国南北战争中著名的“七天战役”中的第一仗。

VOICE ONE:

Lee took a big chance. He moved most of his men into position to attack what he now knew was the weak, right side of the Union line. He left only a few thousand men to defend Richmond. He hoped the Union commander, McClellan, would be fooled by this plan. For if McClellan discovered how few men were left behind, he could smash through easily and capture the city.

罗伯特·李将军采取大胆行动,让手下大部分人马进攻北军右翼的薄弱阵线,只留下几千人保卫里士满,希望北军指挥官麦克莱伦不要看穿他的计划。因为如果麦克莱伦发现没有多少人留守的话,他轻而易举地就能占领里士满。

With the help of Stonewall Jackson's army, Lee's plan worked. McClellan was fooled. And after a day of fierce fighting, he was forced to withdraw from the area.

在人称“石墙”的杰克逊将军的帮助下,罗伯特·李的计划成功了,没有被麦克莱伦识破。经过一天的激战,麦克莱伦被迫撤退。

VOICE TWO:

The Battle of Malvern Hill in Virginia
The Battle of Malvern Hill in Virginia

Lee chased McClellan for a while. They clashed at such places as Mechanicsville, White Oak Swamp, and finally Malvern Hill. The South won the Seven Days Campaign. The threat to Richmond was ended. The Confederacy was saved.

罗伯特·李率兵追击,双方先后在梅卡尼克斯维、怀特奥克沼泽,以及莫尔文山等地交战。最终,南军赢得了“七天战役”的胜利,里士满受到的威胁被解除,南方邦联也得到了挽救。

But victory came at a terrible price. Twenty thousand Confederate soldiers were killed or wounded. As both the North and South were learning quickly, the Civil War was becoming more costly than anyone had imagined.

不过,南军也为胜利付出了惨痛代价,伤亡总计两万人。交战的南北双方都开始意识到,这场内战的代价超过了所有人的想象。

(MUSIC)

ANNOUNCER:

Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Larry West and Tony Riggs. Our series can be found online with transcripts, podcasts and historical images at www.unsv.com. You can also follow our weekly programs on Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

___

This is program #102 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

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